3b0d530257c66a5562ced91cc506e49d4ff484d3
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(7)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]]
13 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager]
14 [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--work-tree=GIT_WORK_TREE]
15 [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
16
17 DESCRIPTION
18 -----------
19 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
20 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
21 and full access to internals.
22
23 See this link:tutorial.html[tutorial] to get started, then see
24 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
25 "man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
26 also want to read link:cvs-migration.html[CVS migration]. See
27 link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
28 introduction.
29
30 The COMMAND is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
31 as defined in the configuration file (see gitlink:git-config[1]).
32
33 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
34 documentation can be viewed at
35 `http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
50 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
51 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
52 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
53 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
54 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
55
56 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
57
58 * release notes for
59 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
60 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
61 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
62 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
63 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
64 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
65 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
66
67 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
68
69 * release notes for
70 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
71 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
72 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
73 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
74 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
75 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
76 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
77
78 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
79 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
80 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
81 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
82
83 ============
84
85 endif::stalenotes[]
86
87 OPTIONS
88 -------
89 --version::
90 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
91
92 --help::
93 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
94 commands. If a git command is named this option will bring up
95 the man-page for that command. If the option '--all' or '-a' is
96 given then all available commands are printed.
97
98 --exec-path::
99 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
100 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
101 environment variable. If no path is given 'git' will print
102 the current setting and then exit.
103
104 -p|--paginate::
105 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER).
106
107 --no-pager::
108 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
109
110 --git-dir=<path>::
111 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
112 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable.
113
114 --work-tree=<path>::
115 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
116 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
117 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
118 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
119 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
120 variable.
121
122 --bare::
123 Same as --git-dir=`pwd`.
124
125 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
126 ---------------------
127
128 See the references above to get started using git. The following is
129 probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
130
131 The <<Discussion,Discussion>> section below and the
132 link:core-tutorial.html[Core tutorial] both provide introductions to the
133 underlying git architecture.
134
135 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
136 examples.
137
138 GIT COMMANDS
139 ------------
140
141 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
142 ("plumbing") commands.
143
144 High-level commands (porcelain)
145 -------------------------------
146
147 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
148 ancillary user utilities.
149
150 Main porcelain commands
151 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
152
153 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
154
155 Ancillary Commands
156 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
157 Manipulators:
158
159 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
160
161 Interrogators:
162
163 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
164
165
166 Interacting with Others
167 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
168
169 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
170 people via patch over e-mail.
171
172 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
173
174
175 Low-level commands (plumbing)
176 -----------------------------
177
178 Although git includes its
179 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
180 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
181 might start by reading about gitlink:git-update-index[1] and
182 gitlink:git-read-tree[1].
183
184 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
185 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
186 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
187 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
188 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
189 end user experience.
190
191 The following description divides
192 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
193 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
194 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
195 repositories.
196
197
198 Manipulation commands
199 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
200
201 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
202
203
204 Interrogation commands
205 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
206
207 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
208
209 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
210 the working tree.
211
212
213 Synching repositories
214 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
215
216 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
217
218 The following are helper programs used by the above; end users
219 typically do not use them directly.
220
221 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
222
223
224 Internal helper commands
225 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
226
227 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
228 users typically do not use them directly.
229
230 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
231
232
233 Configuration Mechanism
234 -----------------------
235
236 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
237 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
238 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
239 people. Here is an example:
240
241 ------------
242 #
243 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
244 #
245
246 ; core variables
247 [core]
248 ; Don't trust file modes
249 filemode = false
250
251 ; user identity
252 [user]
253 name = "Junio C Hamano"
254 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
255
256 ------------
257
258 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
259 their operation accordingly.
260
261
262 Identifier Terminology
263 ----------------------
264 <object>::
265 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
266
267 <blob>::
268 Indicates a blob object name.
269
270 <tree>::
271 Indicates a tree object name.
272
273 <commit>::
274 Indicates a commit object name.
275
276 <tree-ish>::
277 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
278 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
279 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
280 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
281
282 <commit-ish>::
283 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
284 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
285 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
286 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
287
288 <type>::
289 Indicates that an object type is required.
290 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
291
292 <file>::
293 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
294 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
295
296 Symbolic Identifiers
297 --------------------
298 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
299 symbolic notation:
300
301 HEAD::
302 indicates the head of the current branch (i.e. the
303 contents of `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`).
304
305 <tag>::
306 a valid tag 'name'
307 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`).
308
309 <head>::
310 a valid head 'name'
311 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`).
312
313 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
314 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitlink:git-rev-parse[1].
315
316
317 File/Directory Structure
318 ------------------------
319
320 Please see link:repository-layout.html[repository layout] document.
321
322 Read link:hooks.html[hooks] for more details about each hook.
323
324 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
325 `$GIT_DIR`.
326
327
328 Terminology
329 -----------
330 Please see link:glossary.html[glossary] document.
331
332
333 Environment Variables
334 ---------------------
335 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
336
337 The git Repository
338 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
339 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
340 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
341 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
342
343 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
344 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
345 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
346 is used.
347
348 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
349 If the object storage directory is specified via this
350 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
351 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
352 directory is used.
353
354 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
355 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
356 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
357 specifies a ":" separated list of git object directories which
358 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
359 written to these directories.
360
361 'GIT_DIR'::
362 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
363 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
364 for the base of the repository.
365
366 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
367 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
368 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
369 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
370 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
371 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
372
373 git Commits
374 ~~~~~~~~~~~
375 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
376 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
377 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
378 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
379 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
380 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
381 'EMAIL'::
382 see gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]
383
384 git Diffs
385 ~~~~~~~~~
386 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
387 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
388 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
389 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
390 value passed on the git diff command line.
391
392 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
393 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
394 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
395 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
396 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
397
398 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
399 +
400 where:
401
402 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
403 contents of <old|new>,
404 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
405 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
406
407 +
408 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
409 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
410 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
411 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
412 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
413 +
414 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
415 parameter, <path>.
416
417 other
418 ~~~~~
419 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
420 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
421 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
422 See gitlink:git-merge[1]
423
424 'GIT_PAGER'::
425 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
426 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
427 a pager.
428
429 'GIT_SSH'::
430 If this environment variable is set then gitlink:git-fetch[1]
431 and gitlink:git-push[1] will use this command instead
432 of `ssh` when they need to connect to a remote system.
433 The 'GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
434 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
435 shell command to execute on that remote system.
436 +
437 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
438 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
439 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
440 +
441 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
442 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
443 for further details.
444
445 'GIT_FLUSH'::
446 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
447 as git-blame (in incremental mode), git-rev-list, git-log,
448 git-whatchanged, etc., will force a flush of the output stream
449 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
450 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
451 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
452 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
453 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
454
455 'GIT_TRACE'::
456 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
457 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
458 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
459 execution and external command execution.
460 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
461 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
462 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
463 trace messages into this file descriptor.
464 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
465 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
466 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
467 into it.
468
469 Discussion[[Discussion]]
470 ------------------------
471 include::core-intro.txt[]
472
473 Authors
474 -------
475 * git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
476 * The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>.
477 * The git potty was written by Andres Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
478 * General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
479
480 Documentation
481 --------------
482 The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
483 <david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
484 contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
485
486 GIT
487 ---
488 Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite