[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-cvsserver.txt
1 git-cvsserver(1)
2 ================
5 ----
6 git-cvsserver - A CVS server emulator for Git
9 --------
11 SSH:
13 [verse]
14 export CVS_SERVER="git cvsserver"
15 'cvs' -d :ext:user@server/path/repo.git co <HEAD_name>
17 pserver (/etc/inetd.conf):
19 [verse]
20 cvspserver stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/bin/git-cvsserver git-cvsserver pserver
22 Usage:
24 [verse]
25 'git-cvsserver' [options] [pserver|server] [<directory> ...]
28 -------
30 All these options obviously only make sense if enforced by the server side.
31 They have been implemented to resemble the linkgit:git-daemon[1] options as
32 closely as possible.
34 --base-path <path>::
35 Prepend 'path' to requested CVSROOT
37 --strict-paths::
38 Don't allow recursing into subdirectories
40 --export-all::
41 Don't check for `gitcvs.enabled` in config. You also have to specify a list
42 of allowed directories (see below) if you want to use this option.
44 -V::
45 --version::
46 Print version information and exit
48 -h::
49 -H::
50 --help::
51 Print usage information and exit
53 <directory>::
54 You can specify a list of allowed directories. If no directories
55 are given, all are allowed. This is an additional restriction, gitcvs
56 access still needs to be enabled by the `gitcvs.enabled` config option
57 unless `--export-all` was given, too.
61 -----------
63 This application is a CVS emulation layer for Git.
65 It is highly functional. However, not all methods are implemented,
66 and for those methods that are implemented,
67 not all switches are implemented.
69 Testing has been done using both the CLI CVS client, and the Eclipse CVS
70 plugin. Most functionality works fine with both of these clients.
73 -----------
75 CVS clients cannot tag, branch or perform Git merges.
77 'git-cvsserver' maps Git branches to CVS modules. This is very different
78 from what most CVS users would expect since in CVS modules usually represent
79 one or more directories.
82 ------------
84 1. If you are going to offer CVS access via pserver, add a line in
85 /etc/inetd.conf like
86 +
87 --
88 ------
89 cvspserver stream tcp nowait nobody git-cvsserver pserver
91 ------
92 Note: Some inetd servers let you specify the name of the executable
93 independently of the value of argv[0] (i.e. the name the program assumes
94 it was executed with). In this case the correct line in /etc/inetd.conf
95 looks like
97 ------
98 cvspserver stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/bin/git-cvsserver git-cvsserver pserver
100 ------
102 Only anonymous access is provided by pserve by default. To commit you
103 will have to create pserver accounts, simply add a gitcvs.authdb
104 setting in the config file of the repositories you want the cvsserver
105 to allow writes to, for example:
107 ------
109 [gitcvs]
110 authdb = /etc/cvsserver/passwd
112 ------
113 The format of these files is username followed by the encrypted password,
114 for example:
116 ------
117 myuser:$1Oyx5r9mdGZ2
118 myuser:$1$BA)@$vbnMJMDym7tA32AamXrm./
119 ------
120 You can use the 'htpasswd' facility that comes with Apache to make these
121 files, but Apache's MD5 crypt method differs from the one used by most C
122 library's crypt() function, so don't use the -m option.
124 Alternatively you can produce the password with perl's crypt() operator:
125 -----
126 perl -e 'my ($user, $pass) = @ARGV; printf "%s:%s\n", $user, crypt($user, $pass)' $USER password
127 -----
129 Then provide your password via the pserver method, for example:
130 ------
131 cvs -d:pserver:someuser:somepassword <at> server/path/repo.git co <HEAD_name>
132 ------
133 No special setup is needed for SSH access, other than having Git tools
134 in the PATH. If you have clients that do not accept the CVS_SERVER
135 environment variable, you can rename 'git-cvsserver' to `cvs`.
137 Note: Newer CVS versions (>= 1.12.11) also support specifying
138 CVS_SERVER directly in CVSROOT like
140 ------
141 cvs -d ":ext;CVS_SERVER=git cvsserver:user@server/path/repo.git" co <HEAD_name>
142 ------
143 This has the advantage that it will be saved in your 'CVS/Root' files and
144 you don't need to worry about always setting the correct environment
145 variable. SSH users restricted to 'git-shell' don't need to override the default
146 with CVS_SERVER (and shouldn't) as 'git-shell' understands `cvs` to mean
147 'git-cvsserver' and pretends that the other end runs the real 'cvs' better.
148 --
149 2. For each repo that you want accessible from CVS you need to edit config in
150 the repo and add the following section.
151 +
152 --
153 ------
154 [gitcvs]
155 enabled=1
156 # optional for debugging
157 logFile=/path/to/logfile
159 ------
160 Note: you need to ensure each user that is going to invoke 'git-cvsserver' has
161 write access to the log file and to the database (see
162 <<dbbackend,Database Backend>>. If you want to offer write access over
163 SSH, the users of course also need write access to the Git repository itself.
165 You also need to ensure that each repository is "bare" (without a Git index
166 file) for `cvs commit` to work. See linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
168 [[configaccessmethod]]
169 All configuration variables can also be overridden for a specific method of
170 access. Valid method names are "ext" (for SSH access) and "pserver". The
171 following example configuration would disable pserver access while still
172 allowing access over SSH.
173 ------
174 [gitcvs]
175 enabled=0
177 [gitcvs "ext"]
178 enabled=1
179 ------
180 --
181 3. If you didn't specify the CVSROOT/CVS_SERVER directly in the checkout command,
182 automatically saving it in your 'CVS/Root' files, then you need to set them
183 explicitly in your environment. CVSROOT should be set as per normal, but the
184 directory should point at the appropriate Git repo. As above, for SSH clients
185 _not_ restricted to 'git-shell', CVS_SERVER should be set to 'git-cvsserver'.
186 +
187 --
188 ------
189 export CVSROOT=:ext:user@server:/var/git/project.git
190 export CVS_SERVER="git cvsserver"
191 ------
192 --
193 4. For SSH clients that will make commits, make sure their server-side
194 .ssh/environment files (or .bashrc, etc., according to their specific shell)
195 export appropriate values for GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL,
196 GIT_COMMITTER_NAME, and GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL. For SSH clients whose login
197 shell is bash, .bashrc may be a reasonable alternative.
199 5. Clients should now be able to check out the project. Use the CVS 'module'
200 name to indicate what Git 'head' you want to check out. This also sets the
201 name of your newly checked-out directory, unless you tell it otherwise with
202 `-d <dir_name>`. For example, this checks out 'master' branch to the
203 `project-master` directory:
204 +
205 ------
206 cvs co -d project-master master
207 ------
209 [[dbbackend]]
211 ----------------
213 'git-cvsserver' uses one database per Git head (i.e. CVS module) to
214 store information about the repository to maintain consistent
215 CVS revision numbers. The database needs to be
216 updated (i.e. written to) after every commit.
218 If the commit is done directly by using `git` (as opposed to
219 using 'git-cvsserver') the update will need to happen on the
220 next repository access by 'git-cvsserver', independent of
221 access method and requested operation.
223 That means that even if you offer only read access (e.g. by using
224 the pserver method), 'git-cvsserver' should have write access to
225 the database to work reliably (otherwise you need to make sure
226 that the database is up to date any time 'git-cvsserver' is executed).
228 By default it uses SQLite databases in the Git directory, named
229 `gitcvs.<module_name>.sqlite`. Note that the SQLite backend creates
230 temporary files in the same directory as the database file on
231 write so it might not be enough to grant the users using
232 'git-cvsserver' write access to the database file without granting
233 them write access to the directory, too.
235 The database can not be reliably regenerated in a
236 consistent form after the branch it is tracking has changed.
237 Example: For merged branches, 'git-cvsserver' only tracks
238 one branch of development, and after a 'git merge' an
239 incrementally updated database may track a different branch
240 than a database regenerated from scratch, causing inconsistent
241 CVS revision numbers. `git-cvsserver` has no way of knowing which
242 branch it would have picked if it had been run incrementally
243 pre-merge. So if you have to fully or partially (from old
244 backup) regenerate the database, you should be suspicious
245 of pre-existing CVS sandboxes.
247 You can configure the database backend with the following
248 configuration variables:
250 Configuring database backend
251 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
253 'git-cvsserver' uses the Perl DBI module. Please also read
254 its documentation if changing these variables, especially
255 about `DBI->connect()`.
257 gitcvs.dbName::
258 Database name. The exact meaning depends on the
259 selected database driver, for SQLite this is a filename.
260 Supports variable substitution (see below). May
261 not contain semicolons (`;`).
262 Default: '%Ggitcvs.%m.sqlite'
264 gitcvs.dbDriver::
265 Used DBI driver. You can specify any available driver
266 for this here, but it might not work. cvsserver is tested
267 with 'DBD::SQLite', reported to work with
268 'DBD::Pg', and reported *not* to work with 'DBD::mysql'.
269 Please regard this as an experimental feature. May not
270 contain colons (`:`).
271 Default: 'SQLite'
273 gitcvs.dbuser::
274 Database user. Only useful if setting `dbDriver`, since
275 SQLite has no concept of database users. Supports variable
276 substitution (see below).
278 gitcvs.dbPass::
279 Database password. Only useful if setting `dbDriver`, since
280 SQLite has no concept of database passwords.
282 gitcvs.dbTableNamePrefix::
283 Database table name prefix. Supports variable substitution
284 (see below). Any non-alphabetic characters will be replaced
285 with underscores.
287 All variables can also be set per access method, see <<configaccessmethod,above>>.
289 Variable substitution
290 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
291 In `dbDriver` and `dbUser` you can use the following variables:
293 %G::
294 Git directory name
295 %g::
296 Git directory name, where all characters except for
297 alpha-numeric ones, `.`, and `-` are replaced with
298 `_` (this should make it easier to use the directory
299 name in a filename if wanted)
300 %m::
301 CVS module/Git head name
302 %a::
303 access method (one of "ext" or "pserver")
304 %u::
305 Name of the user running 'git-cvsserver'.
306 If no name can be determined, the
307 numeric uid is used.
310 -----------
312 These variables obviate the need for command-line options in some
313 circumstances, allowing easier restricted usage through git-shell.
315 GIT_CVSSERVER_BASE_PATH takes the place of the argument to --base-path.
317 GIT_CVSSERVER_ROOT specifies a single-directory whitelist. The
318 repository must still be configured to allow access through
319 git-cvsserver, as described above.
321 When these environment variables are set, the corresponding
322 command-line arguments may not be used.
325 ------------------------
327 To get a checkout with the Eclipse CVS client:
329 1. Select "Create a new project -> From CVS checkout"
330 2. Create a new location. See the notes below for details on how to choose the
331 right protocol.
332 3. Browse the 'modules' available. It will give you a list of the heads in
333 the repository. You will not be able to browse the tree from there. Only
334 the heads.
335 4. Pick `HEAD` when it asks what branch/tag to check out. Untick the
336 "launch commit wizard" to avoid committing the .project file.
338 Protocol notes: If you are using anonymous access via pserver, just select that.
339 Those using SSH access should choose the 'ext' protocol, and configure 'ext'
340 access on the Preferences->Team->CVS->ExtConnection pane. Set CVS_SERVER to
341 "`git cvsserver`". Note that password support is not good when using 'ext',
342 you will definitely want to have SSH keys setup.
344 Alternatively, you can just use the non-standard extssh protocol that Eclipse
345 offer. In that case CVS_SERVER is ignored, and you will have to replace
346 the cvs utility on the server with 'git-cvsserver' or manipulate your `.bashrc`
347 so that calling 'cvs' effectively calls 'git-cvsserver'.
350 ---------------------
352 - CVS 1.12.9 on Debian
353 - CVS 1.11.17 on MacOSX (from Fink package)
354 - Eclipse 3.0, 3.1.2 on MacOSX (see Eclipse CVS Client Notes)
355 - TortoiseCVS
358 --------------------
360 All the operations required for normal use are supported, including
361 checkout, diff, status, update, log, add, remove, commit.
363 Most CVS command arguments that read CVS tags or revision numbers
364 (typically -r) work, and also support any git refspec
365 (tag, branch, commit ID, etc).
366 However, CVS revision numbers for non-default branches are not well
367 emulated, and cvs log does not show tags or branches at
368 all. (Non-main-branch CVS revision numbers superficially resemble CVS
369 revision numbers, but they actually encode a git commit ID directly,
370 rather than represent the number of revisions since the branch point.)
372 Note that there are two ways to checkout a particular branch.
373 As described elsewhere on this page, the "module" parameter
374 of cvs checkout is interpreted as a branch name, and it becomes
375 the main branch. It remains the main branch for a given sandbox
376 even if you temporarily make another branch sticky with
377 cvs update -r. Alternatively, the -r argument can indicate
378 some other branch to actually checkout, even though the module
379 is still the "main" branch. Tradeoffs (as currently
380 implemented): Each new "module" creates a new database on disk with
381 a history for the given module, and after the database is created,
382 operations against that main branch are fast. Or alternatively,
383 -r doesn't take any extra disk space, but may be significantly slower for
384 many operations, like cvs update.
386 If you want to refer to a git refspec that has characters that are
387 not allowed by CVS, you have two options. First, it may just work
388 to supply the git refspec directly to the appropriate CVS -r argument;
389 some CVS clients don't seem to do much sanity checking of the argument.
390 Second, if that fails, you can use a special character escape mechanism
391 that only uses characters that are valid in CVS tags. A sequence
392 of 4 or 5 characters of the form (underscore (`"_"`), dash (`"-"`),
393 one or two characters, and dash (`"-"`)) can encode various characters based
394 on the one or two letters: `"s"` for slash (`"/"`), `"p"` for
395 period (`"."`), `"u"` for underscore (`"_"`), or two hexadecimal digits
396 for any byte value at all (typically an ASCII number, or perhaps a part
397 of a UTF-8 encoded character).
399 Legacy monitoring operations are not supported (edit, watch and related).
400 Exports and tagging (tags and branches) are not supported at this stage.
402 CRLF Line Ending Conversions
403 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
405 By default the server leaves the `-k` mode blank for all files,
406 which causes the CVS client to treat them as a text files, subject
407 to end-of-line conversion on some platforms.
409 You can make the server use the end-of-line conversion attributes to
410 set the `-k` modes for files by setting the `gitcvs.usecrlfattr`
411 config variable. See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for more information
412 about end-of-line conversion.
414 Alternatively, if `gitcvs.usecrlfattr` config is not enabled
415 or the attributes do not allow automatic detection for a filename, then
416 the server uses the `gitcvs.allBinary` config for the default setting.
417 If `gitcvs.allBinary` is set, then file not otherwise
418 specified will default to '-kb' mode. Otherwise the `-k` mode
419 is left blank. But if `gitcvs.allBinary` is set to "guess", then
420 the correct `-k` mode will be guessed based on the contents of
421 the file.
423 For best consistency with 'cvs', it is probably best to override the
424 defaults by setting `gitcvs.usecrlfattr` to true,
425 and `gitcvs.allBinary` to "guess".
428 ------------
429 'git-cvsserver' depends on DBD::SQLite.
431 GIT
432 ---
433 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite