Merge branch 'ik/userdiff-html-h-element-fix'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-for-each-ref.txt
1 git-for-each-ref(1)
2 ===================
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-for-each-ref - Output information on each ref
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git for-each-ref' [--count=<count>] [--shell|--perl|--python|--tcl]
12 [(--sort=<key>)...] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
13 [--points-at=<object>]
14 (--merged[=<object>] | --no-merged[=<object>])
15 [--contains[=<object>]] [--no-contains[=<object>]]
16
17 DESCRIPTION
18 -----------
19
20 Iterate over all refs that match `<pattern>` and show them
21 according to the given `<format>`, after sorting them according
22 to the given set of `<key>`. If `<count>` is given, stop after
23 showing that many refs. The interpolated values in `<format>`
24 can optionally be quoted as string literals in the specified
25 host language allowing their direct evaluation in that language.
26
27 OPTIONS
28 -------
29 <pattern>...::
30 If one or more patterns are given, only refs are shown that
31 match against at least one pattern, either using fnmatch(3) or
32 literally, in the latter case matching completely or from the
33 beginning up to a slash.
34
35 --count=<count>::
36 By default the command shows all refs that match
37 `<pattern>`. This option makes it stop after showing
38 that many refs.
39
40 --sort=<key>::
41 A field name to sort on. Prefix `-` to sort in
42 descending order of the value. When unspecified,
43 `refname` is used. You may use the --sort=<key> option
44 multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
45 key.
46
47 --format=<format>::
48 A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from a ref being shown
49 and the object it points at. If `fieldname`
50 is prefixed with an asterisk (`*`) and the ref points
51 at a tag object, use the value for the field in the object
52 which the tag object refers to (instead of the field in the tag object).
53 When unspecified, `<format>` defaults to
54 `%(objectname) SPC %(objecttype) TAB %(refname)`.
55 It also interpolates `%%` to `%`, and `%xx` where `xx`
56 are hex digits interpolates to character with hex code
57 `xx`; for example `%00` interpolates to `\0` (NUL),
58 `%09` to `\t` (TAB) and `%0a` to `\n` (LF).
59
60 --shell::
61 --perl::
62 --python::
63 --tcl::
64 If given, strings that substitute `%(fieldname)`
65 placeholders are quoted as string literals suitable for
66 the specified host language. This is meant to produce
67 a scriptlet that can directly be `eval`ed.
68
69 --points-at=<object>::
70 Only list refs which points at the given object.
71
72 --merged[=<object>]::
73 Only list refs whose tips are reachable from the
74 specified commit (HEAD if not specified),
75 incompatible with `--no-merged`.
76
77 --no-merged[=<object>]::
78 Only list refs whose tips are not reachable from the
79 specified commit (HEAD if not specified),
80 incompatible with `--merged`.
81
82 --contains[=<object>]::
83 Only list refs which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
84 specified).
85
86 --no-contains[=<object>]::
87 Only list refs which don't contain the specified commit (HEAD
88 if not specified).
89
90 --ignore-case::
91 Sorting and filtering refs are case insensitive.
92
93 FIELD NAMES
94 -----------
95
96 Various values from structured fields in referenced objects can
97 be used to interpolate into the resulting output, or as sort
98 keys.
99
100 For all objects, the following names can be used:
101
102 refname::
103 The name of the ref (the part after $GIT_DIR/).
104 For a non-ambiguous short name of the ref append `:short`.
105 The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
106 abbreviation mode. If `lstrip=<N>` (`rstrip=<N>`) is appended, strips `<N>`
107 slash-separated path components from the front (back) of the refname
108 (e.g. `%(refname:lstrip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `foo` and
109 `%(refname:rstrip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `refs`).
110 If `<N>` is a negative number, strip as many path components as
111 necessary from the specified end to leave `-<N>` path components
112 (e.g. `%(refname:lstrip=-2)` turns
113 `refs/tags/foo` into `tags/foo` and `%(refname:rstrip=-1)`
114 turns `refs/tags/foo` into `refs`). When the ref does not have
115 enough components, the result becomes an empty string if
116 stripping with positive <N>, or it becomes the full refname if
117 stripping with negative <N>. Neither is an error.
118 +
119 `strip` can be used as a synomym to `lstrip`.
120
121 objecttype::
122 The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
123
124 objectsize::
125 The size of the object (the same as 'git cat-file -s' reports).
126
127 objectname::
128 The object name (aka SHA-1).
129 For a non-ambiguous abbreviation of the object name append `:short`.
130 For an abbreviation of the object name with desired length append
131 `:short=<length>`, where the minimum length is MINIMUM_ABBREV. The
132 length may be exceeded to ensure unique object names.
133
134 upstream::
135 The name of a local ref which can be considered ``upstream''
136 from the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:lstrip` and
137 `:rstrip` in the same way as `refname` above. Additionally
138 respects `:track` to show "[ahead N, behind M]" and
139 `:trackshort` to show the terse version: ">" (ahead), "<"
140 (behind), "<>" (ahead and behind), or "=" (in sync). `:track`
141 also prints "[gone]" whenever unknown upstream ref is
142 encountered. Append `:track,nobracket` to show tracking
143 information without brackets (i.e "ahead N, behind M"). Has
144 no effect if the ref does not have tracking information
145 associated with it. All the options apart from `nobracket`
146 are mutually exclusive, but if used together the last option
147 is selected.
148
149 push::
150 The name of a local ref which represents the `@{push}`
151 location for the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:lstrip`,
152 `:rstrip`, `:track`, and `:trackshort` options as `upstream`
153 does. Produces an empty string if no `@{push}` ref is
154 configured.
155
156 HEAD::
157 '*' if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ' '
158 otherwise.
159
160 color::
161 Change output color. Followed by `:<colorname>`, where color
162 names are described under Values in the "CONFIGURATION FILE"
163 section of linkgit:git-config[1]. For example,
164 `%(color:bold red)`.
165
166 align::
167 Left-, middle-, or right-align the content between
168 %(align:...) and %(end). The "align:" is followed by
169 `width=<width>` and `position=<position>` in any order
170 separated by a comma, where the `<position>` is either left,
171 right or middle, default being left and `<width>` is the total
172 length of the content with alignment. For brevity, the
173 "width=" and/or "position=" prefixes may be omitted, and bare
174 <width> and <position> used instead. For instance,
175 `%(align:<width>,<position>)`. If the contents length is more
176 than the width then no alignment is performed. If used with
177 `--quote` everything in between %(align:...) and %(end) is
178 quoted, but if nested then only the topmost level performs
179 quoting.
180
181 if::
182 Used as %(if)...%(then)...%(end) or
183 %(if)...%(then)...%(else)...%(end). If there is an atom with
184 value or string literal after the %(if) then everything after
185 the %(then) is printed, else if the %(else) atom is used, then
186 everything after %(else) is printed. We ignore space when
187 evaluating the string before %(then), this is useful when we
188 use the %(HEAD) atom which prints either "*" or " " and we
189 want to apply the 'if' condition only on the 'HEAD' ref.
190 Append ":equals=<string>" or ":notequals=<string>" to compare
191 the value between the %(if:...) and %(then) atoms with the
192 given string.
193
194 symref::
195 The ref which the given symbolic ref refers to. If not a
196 symbolic ref, nothing is printed. Respects the `:short`,
197 `:lstrip` and `:rstrip` options in the same way as `refname`
198 above.
199
200 In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
201 field names (`tree`, `parent`, `object`, `type`, and `tag`) can
202 be used to specify the value in the header field.
203
204 For commit and tag objects, the special `creatordate` and `creator`
205 fields will correspond to the appropriate date or name-email-date tuple
206 from the `committer` or `tagger` fields depending on the object type.
207 These are intended for working on a mix of annotated and lightweight tags.
208
209 Fields that have name-email-date tuple as its value (`author`,
210 `committer`, and `tagger`) can be suffixed with `name`, `email`,
211 and `date` to extract the named component.
212
213 The complete message in a commit and tag object is `contents`.
214 Its first line is `contents:subject`, where subject is the concatenation
215 of all lines of the commit message up to the first blank line. The next
216 line is 'contents:body', where body is all of the lines after the first
217 blank line. The optional GPG signature is `contents:signature`. The
218 first `N` lines of the message is obtained using `contents:lines=N`.
219 Additionally, the trailers as interpreted by linkgit:git-interpret-trailers[1]
220 are obtained as 'contents:trailers'.
221
222 For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric order
223 (`objectsize`, `authordate`, `committerdate`, `creatordate`, `taggerdate`).
224 All other fields are used to sort in their byte-value order.
225
226 There is also an option to sort by versions, this can be done by using
227 the fieldname `version:refname` or its alias `v:refname`.
228
229 In any case, a field name that refers to a field inapplicable to
230 the object referred by the ref does not cause an error. It
231 returns an empty string instead.
232
233 As a special case for the date-type fields, you may specify a format for
234 the date by adding `:` followed by date format name (see the
235 values the `--date` option to linkgit:git-rev-list[1] takes).
236
237 Some atoms like %(align) and %(if) always require a matching %(end).
238 We call them "opening atoms" and sometimes denote them as %($open).
239
240 When a scripting language specific quoting is in effect, everything
241 between a top-level opening atom and its matching %(end) is evaluated
242 according to the semantics of the opening atom and only its result
243 from the top-level is quoted.
244
245
246 EXAMPLES
247 --------
248
249 An example directly producing formatted text. Show the most recent
250 3 tagged commits:
251
252 ------------
253 #!/bin/sh
254
255 git for-each-ref --count=3 --sort='-*authordate' \
256 --format='From: %(*authorname) %(*authoremail)
257 Subject: %(*subject)
258 Date: %(*authordate)
259 Ref: %(*refname)
260
261 %(*body)
262 ' 'refs/tags'
263 ------------
264
265
266 A simple example showing the use of shell eval on the output,
267 demonstrating the use of --shell. List the prefixes of all heads:
268 ------------
269 #!/bin/sh
270
271 git for-each-ref --shell --format="ref=%(refname)" refs/heads | \
272 while read entry
273 do
274 eval "$entry"
275 echo `dirname $ref`
276 done
277 ------------
278
279
280 A bit more elaborate report on tags, demonstrating that the format
281 may be an entire script:
282 ------------
283 #!/bin/sh
284
285 fmt='
286 r=%(refname)
287 t=%(*objecttype)
288 T=${r#refs/tags/}
289
290 o=%(*objectname)
291 n=%(*authorname)
292 e=%(*authoremail)
293 s=%(*subject)
294 d=%(*authordate)
295 b=%(*body)
296
297 kind=Tag
298 if test "z$t" = z
299 then
300 # could be a lightweight tag
301 t=%(objecttype)
302 kind="Lightweight tag"
303 o=%(objectname)
304 n=%(authorname)
305 e=%(authoremail)
306 s=%(subject)
307 d=%(authordate)
308 b=%(body)
309 fi
310 echo "$kind $T points at a $t object $o"
311 if test "z$t" = zcommit
312 then
313 echo "The commit was authored by $n $e
314 at $d, and titled
315
316 $s
317
318 Its message reads as:
319 "
320 echo "$b" | sed -e "s/^/ /"
321 echo
322 fi
323 '
324
325 eval=`git for-each-ref --shell --format="$fmt" \
326 --sort='*objecttype' \
327 --sort=-taggerdate \
328 refs/tags`
329 eval "$eval"
330 ------------
331
332
333 An example to show the usage of %(if)...%(then)...%(else)...%(end).
334 This prefixes the current branch with a star.
335
336 ------------
337 git for-each-ref --format="%(if)%(HEAD)%(then)* %(else) %(end)%(refname:short)" refs/heads/
338 ------------
339
340
341 An example to show the usage of %(if)...%(then)...%(end).
342 This prints the authorname, if present.
343
344 ------------
345 git for-each-ref --format="%(refname)%(if)%(authorname)%(then) Authored by: %(authorname)%(end)"
346 ------------
347
348 SEE ALSO
349 --------
350 linkgit:git-show-ref[1]
351
352 GIT
353 ---
354 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite