Git 1.9.4
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v1.9.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.4]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
50 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
51 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
52 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
53 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
54
55 * link:v1.8.5.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.5]
56
57 * release notes for
58 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
59 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
60 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
61 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
62 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
63 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
64
65 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
66
67 * release notes for
68 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
69 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
70 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
71 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
72 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
73 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
74
75 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
76
77 * release notes for
78 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
79 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
80 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
81 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
82 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
83
84 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
85
86 * release notes for
87 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
88 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
89 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
90 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
91
92 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
93
94 * release notes for
95 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
96 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
97 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
98 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
99 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
100 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
101 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
102
103 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
104
105 * release notes for
106 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
107 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
108 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
109 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
110
111 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
112
113 * release notes for
114 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
115 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
116 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
117 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
118 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
119
120 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
121
122 * release notes for
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
124 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
125 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
126 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
127 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
129 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
131
132 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
133
134 * release notes for
135 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
136 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
138 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
141
142 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
143
144 * release notes for
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
147 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
148 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
149 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
153
154 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
155
156 * release notes for
157 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
158 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
159 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
160 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
164
165 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
166
167 * release notes for
168 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
169 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
170 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
171 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
176
177 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
178
179 * release notes for
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
181 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
183 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
187
188 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
189
190 * release notes for
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
194 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
195 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
196
197 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
198
199 * release notes for
200 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
201 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
202 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
204 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
205 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
206
207 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
208
209 * release notes for
210 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
211 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
212 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
214 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
216
217 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
218
219 * release notes for
220 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
221 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
222 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
223 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
224 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
225 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
226
227 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
228
229 * release notes for
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
231 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
232 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
233 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
234 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
235
236 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
237
238 * release notes for
239 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
240 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
241 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
242 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
243 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
244 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
245 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
246 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
249
250 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
251
252 * release notes for
253 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
254 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
255 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
256 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
257
258 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
259
260 * release notes for
261 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
262 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
263 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
264 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
265 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
266 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
267 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
268 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
269 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
270 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
271
272 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
273
274 * release notes for
275 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
276 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
277 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
278 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
279 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
280 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
281
282 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
283
284 * release notes for
285 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
286 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
287 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
288 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
289 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
290
291 * release notes for
292 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
293 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
294 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
295 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
296 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
297 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
298
299 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
300
301 * release notes for
302 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
303 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
304 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
305 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
306
307 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
308
309 * release notes for
310 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
311 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
312 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
313 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
314 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
315 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
316 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
317
318 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
319
320 * release notes for
321 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
322 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
323 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
324 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
325 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
326 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
327 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
328
329 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
330
331 * release notes for
332 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
333 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
334 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
335 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
336 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
337 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
338 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
339
340 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
341
342 * release notes for
343 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
344 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
345 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
346 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
347 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
348 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
349 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
350 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
351
352 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
353
354 * release notes for
355 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
356 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
357 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
358 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
359 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
360 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
361 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
362 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
363 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
364
365 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
366
367 * release notes for
368 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
369 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
370 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
371 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
374
375 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
376
377 * release notes for
378 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
379 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
380 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
381 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
382 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
385
386 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
387
388 * release notes for
389 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
390 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
391 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
392 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
393 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
394 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
396
397 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
398 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
399 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
400 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
401
402 ============
403
404 endif::stalenotes[]
405
406 OPTIONS
407 -------
408 --version::
409 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
410
411 --help::
412 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
413 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
414 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
415 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
416 +
417 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
418 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
419 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
420 help ...`.
421
422 -C <path>::
423 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
424 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
425 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
426 <path>`.
427 +
428 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
429 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
430 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
431 example the following invocations are equivalent:
432
433 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
434 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
435
436 -c <name>=<value>::
437 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
438 given will override values from configuration files.
439 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
440 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
441
442 --exec-path[=<path>]::
443 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
444 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
445 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
446 the current setting and then exit.
447
448 --html-path::
449 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
450 documentation is installed and exit.
451
452 --man-path::
453 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
454 this version of Git and exit.
455
456 --info-path::
457 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
458 version of Git are installed and exit.
459
460 -p::
461 --paginate::
462 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
463 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
464 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
465 below).
466
467 --no-pager::
468 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
469
470 --git-dir=<path>::
471 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
472 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
473 path or relative path to current working directory.
474
475 --work-tree=<path>::
476 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
477 or a path relative to the current working directory.
478 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
479 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
480 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
481 more detailed discussion).
482
483 --namespace=<path>::
484 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
485 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
486 variable.
487
488 --bare::
489 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
490 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
491 directory.
492
493 --no-replace-objects::
494 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
495 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
496
497 --literal-pathspecs::
498 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
499 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
500 variable to `1`.
501
502 --glob-pathspecs::
503 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
504 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
505 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
506 magic ":(literal)"
507
508 --noglob-pathspecs::
509 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
510 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
511 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
512 magic ":(glob)"
513
514 --icase-pathspecs::
515 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
516 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
517
518 GIT COMMANDS
519 ------------
520
521 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
522 ("plumbing") commands.
523
524 High-level commands (porcelain)
525 -------------------------------
526
527 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
528 ancillary user utilities.
529
530 Main porcelain commands
531 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
532
533 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
534
535 Ancillary Commands
536 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
537 Manipulators:
538
539 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
540
541 Interrogators:
542
543 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
544
545
546 Interacting with Others
547 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
548
549 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
550 people via patch over e-mail.
551
552 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
553
554
555 Low-level commands (plumbing)
556 -----------------------------
557
558 Although Git includes its
559 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
560 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
561 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
562 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
563
564 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
565 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
566 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
567 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
568 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
569 end user experience.
570
571 The following description divides
572 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
573 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
574 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
575 repositories.
576
577
578 Manipulation commands
579 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
580
581 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
582
583
584 Interrogation commands
585 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
586
587 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
588
589 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
590 the working tree.
591
592
593 Synching repositories
594 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
595
596 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
597
598 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
599 typically do not use them directly.
600
601 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
602
603
604 Internal helper commands
605 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
606
607 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
608 users typically do not use them directly.
609
610 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
611
612
613 Configuration Mechanism
614 -----------------------
615
616 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
617 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
618 like this:
619
620 ------------
621 #
622 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
623 #
624
625 ; core variables
626 [core]
627 ; Don't trust file modes
628 filemode = false
629
630 ; user identity
631 [user]
632 name = "Junio C Hamano"
633 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
634
635 ------------
636
637 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
638 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
639 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
640
641
642 Identifier Terminology
643 ----------------------
644 <object>::
645 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
646
647 <blob>::
648 Indicates a blob object name.
649
650 <tree>::
651 Indicates a tree object name.
652
653 <commit>::
654 Indicates a commit object name.
655
656 <tree-ish>::
657 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
658 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
659 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
660 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
661
662 <commit-ish>::
663 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
664 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
665 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
666 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
667
668 <type>::
669 Indicates that an object type is required.
670 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
671
672 <file>::
673 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
674 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
675
676 Symbolic Identifiers
677 --------------------
678 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
679 symbolic notation:
680
681 HEAD::
682 indicates the head of the current branch.
683
684 <tag>::
685 a valid tag 'name'
686 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
687
688 <head>::
689 a valid head 'name'
690 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
691
692 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
693 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
694
695
696 File/Directory Structure
697 ------------------------
698
699 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
700
701 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
702
703 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
704 `$GIT_DIR`.
705
706
707 Terminology
708 -----------
709 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
710
711
712 Environment Variables
713 ---------------------
714 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
715
716 The Git Repository
717 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
718 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
719 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
720 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
721
722 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
723 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
724 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
725 is used.
726
727 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
728 If the object storage directory is specified via this
729 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
730 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
731 directory is used.
732
733 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
734 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
735 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
736 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
737 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
738 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
739
740 'GIT_DIR'::
741 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
742 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
743 for the base of the repository.
744 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
745
746 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
747 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
748 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
749 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
750
751 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
752 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
753 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
754
755 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
756 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
757 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
758 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
759 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
760 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
761 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
762 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
763 might be present in order to compare them with the current
764 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
765 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
766 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
767 e.g.,
768 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
769
770 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
771 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
772 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
773 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
774 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
775 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
776 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
777 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
778 command line.
779
780 Git Commits
781 ~~~~~~~~~~~
782 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
783 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
784 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
785 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
786 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
787 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
788 'EMAIL'::
789 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
790
791 Git Diffs
792 ~~~~~~~~~
793 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
794 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
795 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
796 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
797 value passed on the Git diff command line.
798
799 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
800 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
801 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
802 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
803 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
804
805 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
806 +
807 where:
808
809 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
810 contents of <old|new>,
811 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
812 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
813 +
814 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
815 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
816 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
817 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
818 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
819 +
820 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
821 parameter, <path>.
822 +
823 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
824 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
825
826 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
827 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
828
829 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
830 The total number of paths.
831
832 other
833 ~~~~~
834 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
835 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
836 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
837 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
838
839 'GIT_PAGER'::
840 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
841 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
842 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
843 linkgit:git-config[1].
844
845 'GIT_EDITOR'::
846 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
847 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
848 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
849 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
850
851 'GIT_SSH'::
852 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
853 and 'git push' will use this command instead
854 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
855 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
856 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
857 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
858 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
859 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
860 than the default SSH port.
861 +
862 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
863 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
864 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
865 +
866 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
867 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
868 for further details.
869
870 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
871 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
872 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
873 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
874 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
875 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
876
877 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
878 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
879 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
880 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
881 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
882 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
883 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
884
885 'GIT_FLUSH'::
886 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
887 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
888 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
889 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
890 flushed. If this
891 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
892 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
893 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
894 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
895
896 'GIT_TRACE'::
897 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
898 is case insensitive), Git will print `trace:` messages on
899 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
900 execution and external command execution.
901 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
902 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
903 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
904 trace messages into this file descriptor.
905 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
906 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
907 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
908 into it.
909
910 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
911 If this variable is set to a path, a file will be created at
912 the given path logging all accesses to any packs. For each
913 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
914 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
915 pack-related performance problems.
916
917 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
918 If this variable is set, it shows a trace of all packets
919 coming in or out of a given program. This can help with
920 debugging object negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing
921 is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK".
922
923 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
924 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
925 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
926 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
927 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
928 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
929 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
930 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
931
932 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
933 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
934 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
935
936 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
937 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
938 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
939
940 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
941 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
942 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
943
944 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
945 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
946 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
947 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
948 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
949 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
950 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
951 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
952 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
953
954
955 Discussion[[Discussion]]
956 ------------------------
957
958 More detail on the following is available from the
959 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
960 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
961
962 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
963 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
964 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
965 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
966 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
967 as tags and branch heads.
968
969 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
970 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
971 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
972 and some number of parent commits.
973
974 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
975 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
976 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
977 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
978
979 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
980 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
981 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
982 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
983 purpose.
984
985 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
986 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
987
988 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
989 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
990 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
991 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
992 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
993 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
994
995 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
996 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
997 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
998 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
999 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1000 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1001 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1002 content stored in the index.
1003
1004 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1005 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1006 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1007
1008 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1009 ---------------------
1010
1011 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1012 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1013 for a first-time user.
1014
1015 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1016 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1017 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1018
1019 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1020
1021 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1022 examples.
1023
1024 The internals are documented in the
1025 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1026
1027 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1028 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1029
1030
1031 Authors
1032 -------
1033 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1034 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1035 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1036 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1037
1038 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1039 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1040 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1041
1042 Reporting Bugs
1043 --------------
1044
1045 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1046 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1047 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1048
1049 SEE ALSO
1050 --------
1051 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1052 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1053 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1054 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1055 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1056
1057 GIT
1058 ---
1059 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite