Merge branch 'maint'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-svn.txt
1 git-svn(1)
2 ==========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-svn - bidirectional operation between a single Subversion branch and git
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 'git-svn' <command> [options] [arguments]
11
12 DESCRIPTION
13 -----------
14 git-svn is a simple conduit for changesets between a single Subversion
15 branch and git. It is not to be confused with gitlink:git-svnimport[1].
16 They were designed with very different goals in mind.
17
18 git-svn is designed for an individual developer who wants a
19 bidirectional flow of changesets between a single branch in Subversion
20 and an arbitrary number of branches in git. git-svnimport is designed
21 for read-only operation on repositories that match a particular layout
22 (albeit the recommended one by SVN developers).
23
24 For importing svn, git-svnimport is potentially more powerful when
25 operating on repositories organized under the recommended
26 trunk/branch/tags structure, and should be faster, too.
27
28 git-svn mostly ignores the very limited view of branching that
29 Subversion has. This allows git-svn to be much easier to use,
30 especially on repositories that are not organized in a manner that
31 git-svnimport is designed for.
32
33 COMMANDS
34 --------
35 --
36
37 'init'::
38 Creates an empty git repository with additional metadata
39 directories for git-svn. The Subversion URL must be specified
40 as a command-line argument. Optionally, the target directory
41 to operate on can be specified as a second argument. Normally
42 this command initializes the current directory.
43
44 'fetch'::
45
46 Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion URL we are
47 tracking. refs/remotes/git-svn will be updated to the
48 latest revision.
49
50 Note: You should never attempt to modify the remotes/git-svn
51 branch outside of git-svn. Instead, create a branch from
52 remotes/git-svn and work on that branch. Use the 'commit'
53 command (see below) to write git commits back to
54 remotes/git-svn.
55
56 See '<<fetch-args,Additional Fetch Arguments>>' if you are interested in
57 manually joining branches on commit.
58
59 'dcommit'::
60 Commit all diffs from the current HEAD directly to the SVN
61 repository, and then rebase or reset (depending on whether or
62 not there is a diff between SVN and HEAD). It is recommended
63 that you run git-svn fetch and rebase (not pull) your commits
64 against the latest changes in the SVN repository.
65 This is advantageous over 'commit' (below) because it produces
66 cleaner, more linear history.
67
68 'log'::
69 This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn
70 users refer to -r/--revision numbers.
71
72 The following features from `svn log' are supported:
73
74 --revision=<n>[:<n>] - is supported, non-numeric args are not:
75 HEAD, NEXT, BASE, PREV, etc ...
76 -v/--verbose - it's not completely compatible with
77 the --verbose output in svn log, but
78 reasonably close.
79 --limit=<n> - is NOT the same as --max-count,
80 doesn't count merged/excluded commits
81 --incremental - supported
82
83 New features:
84
85 --show-commit - shows the git commit sha1, as well
86 --oneline - our version of --pretty=oneline
87
88 Any other arguments are passed directly to `git log'
89
90 'commit'::
91 You should consider using 'dcommit' instead of this command.
92 Commit specified commit or tree objects to SVN. This relies on
93 your imported fetch data being up-to-date. This makes
94 absolutely no attempts to do patching when committing to SVN, it
95 simply overwrites files with those specified in the tree or
96 commit. All merging is assumed to have taken place
97 independently of git-svn functions.
98
99 'rebuild'::
100 Not a part of daily usage, but this is a useful command if
101 you've just cloned a repository (using gitlink:git-clone[1]) that was
102 tracked with git-svn. Unfortunately, git-clone does not clone
103 git-svn metadata and the svn working tree that git-svn uses for
104 its operations. This rebuilds the metadata so git-svn can
105 resume fetch operations. A Subversion URL may be optionally
106 specified at the command-line if the directory/repository you're
107 tracking has moved or changed protocols.
108
109 'show-ignore'::
110 Recursively finds and lists the svn:ignore property on
111 directories. The output is suitable for appending to
112 the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.
113
114 'commit-diff'::
115 Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the
116 command-line. This command is intended for interopability with
117 git-svnimport and does not rely on being inside an git-svn
118 init-ed repository. This command takes three arguments, (a) the
119 original tree to diff against, (b) the new tree result, (c) the
120 URL of the target Subversion repository. The final argument
121 (URL) may be omitted if you are working from a git-svn-aware
122 repository (that has been init-ed with git-svn).
123
124 'graft-branches'::
125 This command attempts to detect merges/branches from already
126 imported history. Techniques used currently include regexes,
127 file copies, and tree-matches). This command generates (or
128 modifies) the $GIT_DIR/info/grafts file. This command is
129 considered experimental, and inherently flawed because
130 merge-tracking in SVN is inherently flawed and inconsistent
131 across different repositories.
132
133 'multi-init'::
134 This command supports git-svnimport-like command-line syntax for
135 importing repositories that are layed out as recommended by the
136 SVN folks. This is a bit more tolerant than the git-svnimport
137 command-line syntax and doesn't require the user to figure out
138 where the repository URL ends and where the repository path
139 begins.
140
141 'multi-fetch'::
142 This runs fetch on all known SVN branches we're tracking. This
143 will NOT discover new branches (unlike git-svnimport), so
144 multi-init will need to be re-run (it's idempotent).
145
146 --
147
148 OPTIONS
149 -------
150 --
151
152 --shared::
153 --template=<template_directory>::
154 Only used with the 'init' command.
155 These are passed directly to gitlink:git-init-db[1].
156
157 -r <ARG>::
158 --revision <ARG>::
159
160 Only used with the 'fetch' command.
161
162 Takes any valid -r<argument> svn would accept and passes it
163 directly to svn. -r<ARG1>:<ARG2> ranges and "{" DATE "}" syntax
164 is also supported. This is passed directly to svn, see svn
165 documentation for more details.
166
167 This can allow you to make partial mirrors when running fetch.
168
169 -::
170 --stdin::
171
172 Only used with the 'commit' command.
173
174 Read a list of commits from stdin and commit them in reverse
175 order. Only the leading sha1 is read from each line, so
176 git-rev-list --pretty=oneline output can be used.
177
178 --rmdir::
179
180 Only used with the 'dcommit', 'commit' and 'commit-diff' commands.
181
182 Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left
183 behind. SVN can version empty directories, and they are not
184 removed by default if there are no files left in them. git
185 cannot version empty directories. Enabling this flag will make
186 the commit to SVN act like git.
187
188 repo-config key: svn.rmdir
189
190 -e::
191 --edit::
192
193 Only used with the 'dcommit', 'commit' and 'commit-diff' commands.
194
195 Edit the commit message before committing to SVN. This is off by
196 default for objects that are commits, and forced on when committing
197 tree objects.
198
199 repo-config key: svn.edit
200
201 -l<num>::
202 --find-copies-harder::
203
204 Only used with the 'dcommit', 'commit' and 'commit-diff' commands.
205
206 They are both passed directly to git-diff-tree see
207 gitlink:git-diff-tree[1] for more information.
208
209 [verse]
210 repo-config key: svn.l
211 repo-config key: svn.findcopiesharder
212
213 -A<filename>::
214 --authors-file=<filename>::
215
216 Syntax is compatible with the files used by git-svnimport and
217 git-cvsimport:
218
219 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
220 loginname = Joe User <user@example.com>
221 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
222
223 If this option is specified and git-svn encounters an SVN
224 committer name that does not exist in the authors-file, git-svn
225 will abort operation. The user will then have to add the
226 appropriate entry. Re-running the previous git-svn command
227 after the authors-file is modified should continue operation.
228
229 repo-config key: svn.authorsfile
230
231 -q::
232 --quiet::
233 Make git-svn less verbose. This only affects git-svn if you
234 have the SVN::* libraries installed and are using them.
235
236 --repack[=<n>]::
237 --repack-flags=<flags>
238 These should help keep disk usage sane for large fetches
239 with many revisions.
240
241 --repack takes an optional argument for the number of revisions
242 to fetch before repacking. This defaults to repacking every
243 1000 commits fetched if no argument is specified.
244
245 --repack-flags are passed directly to gitlink:git-repack[1].
246
247 repo-config key: svn.repack
248 repo-config key: svn.repackflags
249
250 -m::
251 --merge::
252 -s<strategy>::
253 --strategy=<strategy>::
254
255 These are only used with the 'dcommit' command.
256
257 Passed directly to git-rebase when using 'dcommit' if a
258 'git-reset' cannot be used (see dcommit).
259
260 -n::
261 --dry-run::
262
263 This is only used with the 'dcommit' command.
264
265 Print out the series of git arguments that would show
266 which diffs would be committed to SVN.
267
268 --
269
270 ADVANCED OPTIONS
271 ----------------
272 --
273
274 -b<refname>::
275 --branch <refname>::
276 Used with 'fetch' or 'commit'.
277
278 This can be used to join arbitrary git branches to remotes/git-svn
279 on new commits where the tree object is equivalent.
280
281 When used with different GIT_SVN_ID values, tags and branches in
282 SVN can be tracked this way, as can some merges where the heads
283 end up having completely equivalent content. This can even be
284 used to track branches across multiple SVN _repositories_.
285
286 This option may be specified multiple times, once for each
287 branch.
288
289 repo-config key: svn.branch
290
291 -i<GIT_SVN_ID>::
292 --id <GIT_SVN_ID>::
293
294 This sets GIT_SVN_ID (instead of using the environment). See the
295 section on
296 '<<tracking-multiple-repos,Tracking Multiple Repositories or Branches>>'
297 for more information on using GIT_SVN_ID.
298
299 --follow-parent::
300 This is especially helpful when we're tracking a directory
301 that has been moved around within the repository, or if we
302 started tracking a branch and never tracked the trunk it was
303 descended from.
304
305 This relies on the SVN::* libraries to work.
306
307 repo-config key: svn.followparent
308
309 --no-metadata::
310 This gets rid of the git-svn-id: lines at the end of every commit.
311
312 With this, you lose the ability to use the rebuild command. If
313 you ever lose your .git/svn/git-svn/.rev_db file, you won't be
314 able to fetch again, either. This is fine for one-shot imports.
315
316 The 'git-svn log' command will not work on repositories using this,
317 either.
318
319 repo-config key: svn.nometadata
320
321 --
322
323 COMPATIBILITY OPTIONS
324 ---------------------
325 --
326
327 --upgrade::
328 Only used with the 'rebuild' command.
329
330 Run this if you used an old version of git-svn that used
331 "git-svn-HEAD" instead of "remotes/git-svn" as the branch
332 for tracking the remote.
333
334 --no-ignore-externals::
335 Only used with the 'fetch' and 'rebuild' command.
336
337 This command has no effect when you are using the SVN::*
338 libraries with git, svn:externals are always avoided.
339
340 By default, git-svn passes --ignore-externals to svn to avoid
341 fetching svn:external trees into git. Pass this flag to enable
342 externals tracking directly via git.
343
344 Versions of svn that do not support --ignore-externals are
345 automatically detected and this flag will be automatically
346 enabled for them.
347
348 Otherwise, do not enable this flag unless you know what you're
349 doing.
350
351 repo-config key: svn.noignoreexternals
352
353 --ignore-nodate::
354 Only used with the 'fetch' command.
355
356 By default git-svn will crash if it tries to import a revision
357 from SVN which has '(no date)' listed as the date of the revision.
358 This is repository corruption on SVN's part, plain and simple.
359 But sometimes you really need those revisions anyway.
360
361 If supplied git-svn will convert '(no date)' entries to the UNIX
362 epoch (midnight on Jan. 1, 1970). Yes, that's probably very wrong.
363 SVN was very wrong.
364
365 --
366
367 Basic Examples
368 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
369
370 Tracking and contributing to an Subversion managed-project:
371
372 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
373 # Initialize a repo (like git init-db):
374 git-svn init http://svn.foo.org/project/trunk
375 # Fetch remote revisions:
376 git-svn fetch
377 # Create your own branch to hack on:
378 git checkout -b my-branch remotes/git-svn
379 # Commit only the git commits you want to SVN:
380 git-svn commit <tree-ish> [<tree-ish_2> ...]
381 # Commit all the git commits from my-branch that don't exist in SVN:
382 git-svn commit remotes/git-svn..my-branch
383 # Something is committed to SVN, rebase the latest into your branch:
384 git-svn fetch && git rebase remotes/git-svn
385 # Append svn:ignore settings to the default git exclude file:
386 git-svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude
387 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
388
389 REBASE VS. PULL
390 ---------------
391
392 Originally, git-svn recommended that the remotes/git-svn branch be
393 pulled from. This is because the author favored 'git-svn commit B'
394 to commit a single head rather than the 'git-svn commit A..B' notation
395 to commit multiple commits.
396
397 If you use 'git-svn commit A..B' to commit several diffs and you do not
398 have the latest remotes/git-svn merged into my-branch, you should use
399 'git rebase' to update your work branch instead of 'git pull'. 'pull'
400 can cause non-linear history to be flattened when committing into SVN,
401 which can lead to merge commits reversing previous commits in SVN.
402
403 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
404 -----------------
405 Merge tracking in Subversion is lacking and doing branched development
406 with Subversion is cumbersome as a result. git-svn completely forgoes
407 any automated merge/branch tracking on the Subversion side and leaves it
408 entirely up to the user on the git side. It's simply not worth it to do
409 a useful translation when the original signal is weak.
410
411 [[tracking-multiple-repos]]
412 TRACKING MULTIPLE REPOSITORIES OR BRANCHES
413 ------------------------------------------
414 This is for advanced users, most users should ignore this section.
415
416 Because git-svn does not care about relationships between different
417 branches or directories in a Subversion repository, git-svn has a simple
418 hack to allow it to track an arbitrary number of related _or_ unrelated
419 SVN repositories via one git repository. Simply set the GIT_SVN_ID
420 environment variable to a name other other than "git-svn" (the default)
421 and git-svn will ignore the contents of the $GIT_DIR/svn/git-svn directory
422 and instead do all of its work in $GIT_DIR/svn/$GIT_SVN_ID for that
423 invocation. The interface branch will be remotes/$GIT_SVN_ID, instead of
424 remotes/git-svn. Any remotes/$GIT_SVN_ID branch should never be modified
425 by the user outside of git-svn commands.
426
427 [[fetch-args]]
428 ADDITIONAL FETCH ARGUMENTS
429 --------------------------
430 This is for advanced users, most users should ignore this section.
431
432 Unfetched SVN revisions may be imported as children of existing commits
433 by specifying additional arguments to 'fetch'. Additional parents may
434 optionally be specified in the form of sha1 hex sums at the
435 command-line. Unfetched SVN revisions may also be tied to particular
436 git commits with the following syntax:
437
438 ------------------------------------------------
439 svn_revision_number=git_commit_sha1
440 ------------------------------------------------
441
442 This allows you to tie unfetched SVN revision 375 to your current HEAD:
443
444 ------------------------------------------------
445 git-svn fetch 375=$(git-rev-parse HEAD)
446 ------------------------------------------------
447
448 Advanced Example: Tracking a Reorganized Repository
449 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
450 Note: this example is now obsolete if you have SVN::* libraries
451 installed. Simply use --follow-parent when fetching.
452
453 If you're tracking a directory that has moved, or otherwise been
454 branched or tagged off of another directory in the repository and you
455 care about the full history of the project, then you can read this
456 section.
457
458 This is how Yann Dirson tracked the trunk of the ufoai directory when
459 the /trunk directory of his repository was moved to /ufoai/trunk and
460 he needed to continue tracking /ufoai/trunk where /trunk left off.
461
462 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
463 # This log message shows when the repository was reorganized:
464 r166 | ydirson | 2006-03-02 01:36:55 +0100 (Thu, 02 Mar 2006) | 1 line
465 Changed paths:
466 D /trunk
467 A /ufoai/trunk (from /trunk:165)
468
469 # First we start tracking the old revisions:
470 GIT_SVN_ID=git-oldsvn git-svn init \
471 https://svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/ufoai/trunk
472 GIT_SVN_ID=git-oldsvn git-svn fetch -r1:165
473
474 # And now, we continue tracking the new revisions:
475 GIT_SVN_ID=git-newsvn git-svn init \
476 https://svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/ufoai/ufoai/trunk
477 GIT_SVN_ID=git-newsvn git-svn fetch \
478 166=`git-rev-parse refs/remotes/git-oldsvn`
479 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
480
481 BUGS
482 ----
483
484 If you are not using the SVN::* Perl libraries and somebody commits a
485 conflicting changeset to SVN at a bad moment (right before you commit)
486 causing a conflict and your commit to fail, your svn working tree
487 ($GIT_DIR/git-svn/tree) may be dirtied. The easiest thing to do is
488 probably just to rm -rf $GIT_DIR/git-svn/tree and run 'rebuild'.
489
490 We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Too difficult to
491 map them since we rely heavily on git write-tree being _exactly_ the
492 same on both the SVN and git working trees and I prefer not to clutter
493 working trees with metadata files.
494
495 Renamed and copied directories are not detected by git and hence not
496 tracked when committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding support for
497 this as it's quite difficult and time-consuming to get working for all
498 the possible corner cases (git doesn't do it, either). Renamed and
499 copied files are fully supported if they're similar enough for git to
500 detect them.
501
502 SEE ALSO
503 --------
504 gitlink:git-rebase[1]
505
506 Author
507 ------
508 Written by Eric Wong <normalperson@yhbt.net>.
509
510 Documentation
511 -------------
512 Written by Eric Wong <normalperson@yhbt.net>.