Merge branch 'maint'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-rev-list.txt
1 git-rev-list(1)
2 ===============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git-rev-list' [ \--max-count=number ]
13 [ \--max-age=timestamp ]
14 [ \--min-age=timestamp ]
15 [ \--sparse ]
16 [ \--no-merges ]
17 [ \--remove-empty ]
18 [ \--not ]
19 [ \--all ]
20 [ \--stdin ]
21 [ \--topo-order ]
22 [ \--parents ]
23 [ \--(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
24 [ [\--objects | \--objects-edge] [ \--unpacked ] ]
25 [ \--pretty | \--header ]
26 [ \--bisect ]
27 [ \--merge ]
28 <commit>... [ \-- <paths>... ]
29
30 DESCRIPTION
31 -----------
32
33 Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order starting at the
34 given commit(s), taking ancestry relationship into account. This is
35 useful to produce human-readable log output.
36
37 Commits which are stated with a preceding '{caret}' cause listing to
38 stop at that point. Their parents are implied. Thus the following
39 command:
40
41 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
42 $ git-rev-list foo bar ^baz
43 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
44
45 means "list all the commits which are included in 'foo' and 'bar', but
46 not in 'baz'".
47
48 A special notation "'<commit1>'..'<commit2>'" can be used as a
49 short-hand for "{caret}'<commit1>' '<commit2>'". For example, either of
50 the following may be used interchangeably:
51
52 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
53 $ git-rev-list origin..HEAD
54 $ git-rev-list HEAD ^origin
55 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
56
57 Another special notation is "'<commit1>'...'<commit2>'" which is useful
58 for merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference
59 between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:
60
61 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
62 $ git-rev-list A B --not $(git-merge-base --all A B)
63 $ git-rev-list A...B
64 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
65
66 gitlink:git-rev-list[1] is a very essential git program, since it
67 provides the ability to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For
68 this reason, it has a lot of different options that enables it to be
69 used by commands as different as gitlink:git-bisect[1] and
70 gitlink:git-repack[1].
71
72 OPTIONS
73 -------
74
75 Commit Formatting
76 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
77
78 Using these options, gitlink:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
79 more specialized family of commit log tools: gitlink:git-log[1],
80 gitlink:git-show[1], and gitlink:git-whatchanged[1]
81
82 --pretty[='<format>']::
83
84 Pretty print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
85 where '<format>' can be one of 'raw', 'medium', 'short', 'full',
86 and 'oneline'. When left out the format default to 'medium'.
87
88 --relative-date::
89
90 Show dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2 hours ago".
91 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
92 as when using "--pretty".
93
94 --header::
95
96 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
97 separated with a NUL character.
98
99 --parents::
100
101 Print the parents of the commit.
102
103 Diff Formatting
104 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
105
106 Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
107 Some of them are specific to gitlink:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
108 options may be given. See gitlink:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
109
110 -c::
111
112 This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed. It shows
113 the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
114 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
115 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
116 which were modified from all parents.
117
118 --cc::
119
120 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
121 patch output by omitting hunks that show differences from only
122 one parent, or show the same change from all but one parent for
123 an Octopus merge.
124
125 -r::
126
127 Show recursive diffs.
128
129 -t::
130
131 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
132
133 Commit Limiting
134 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
135
136 Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
137 special notations explained in the description, additional commit
138 limiting may be applied.
139
140 --
141
142 -n 'number', --max-count='number'::
143
144 Limit the number of commits output.
145
146 --since='date', --after='date'::
147
148 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
149
150 --until='date', --before='date'::
151
152 Show commits older than a specific date.
153
154 --max-age='timestamp', --min-age='timestamp'::
155
156 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
157
158 --author='pattern', --committer='pattern'::
159
160 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
161 header lines that match the specified pattern.
162
163 --grep='pattern'::
164
165 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
166 matches the specified pattern.
167
168 --remove-empty::
169
170 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
171
172 --no-merges::
173
174 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
175
176 --not::
177
178 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
179 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
180
181 --all::
182
183 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/` are listed on the
184 command line as '<commit>'.
185
186 --stdin::
187
188 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
189 line, read them from the standard input.
190
191 --merge::
192
193 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
194 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
195
196 --boundary::
197
198 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
199 not shown.
200
201 --dense, --sparse::
202
203 When optional paths are given, the default behaviour ('--dense') is to
204 only output commits that changes at least one of them, and also ignore
205 merges that do not touch the given paths.
206
207 Use the '--sparse' flag to makes the command output all eligible commits
208 (still subject to count and age limitation), but apply merge
209 simplification nevertheless.
210
211 --bisect::
212
213 Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
214 the included and excluded commits. Thus, if
215
216 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
217 $ git-rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
218 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
219
220 outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
221
222 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
223 $ git-rev-list foo ^midpoint
224 $ git-rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
225 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
226
227 would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
228 introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
229 generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
230 one.
231
232 --
233
234 Commit Ordering
235 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
236
237 By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
238
239 --topo-order::
240
241 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
242 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
243
244 --date-order::
245
246 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
247 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
248 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
249
250 Object Traversal
251 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
252
253 These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
254
255 --objects::
256
257 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
258 commits. 'git-rev-list --objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
259 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
260 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
261
262 --objects-edge::
263
264 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
265 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
266 gitlink:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
267 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
268 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
269
270 --unpacked::
271
272 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
273 in packs.
274
275 Author
276 ------
277 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
278
279 Documentation
280 --------------
281 Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano, Jonas Fonseca
282 and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
283
284 GIT
285 ---
286 Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite