Git 2.7.2
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.7.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.7.2]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.7.2.txt[2.7.2],
50 link:RelNotes/2.7.1.txt[2.7.1],
51 link:RelNotes/2.7.0.txt[2.7].
52
53 * link:v2.6.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.6.5]
54
55 * release notes for
56 link:RelNotes/2.6.5.txt[2.6.5],
57 link:RelNotes/2.6.4.txt[2.6.4],
58 link:RelNotes/2.6.3.txt[2.6.3],
59 link:RelNotes/2.6.2.txt[2.6.2],
60 link:RelNotes/2.6.1.txt[2.6.1],
61 link:RelNotes/2.6.0.txt[2.6].
62
63 * link:v2.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.5.4]
64
65 * release notes for
66 link:RelNotes/2.5.4.txt[2.5.4],
67 link:RelNotes/2.5.3.txt[2.5.3],
68 link:RelNotes/2.5.2.txt[2.5.2],
69 link:RelNotes/2.5.1.txt[2.5.1],
70 link:RelNotes/2.5.0.txt[2.5].
71
72 * link:v2.4.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.10]
73
74 * release notes for
75 link:RelNotes/2.4.10.txt[2.4.10],
76 link:RelNotes/2.4.9.txt[2.4.9],
77 link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
78 link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
79 link:RelNotes/2.4.6.txt[2.4.6],
80 link:RelNotes/2.4.5.txt[2.4.5],
81 link:RelNotes/2.4.4.txt[2.4.4],
82 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
83 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
84 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
85 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
86
87 * link:v2.3.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.10]
88
89 * release notes for
90 link:RelNotes/2.3.10.txt[2.3.10],
91 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
92 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
93 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
94 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
95 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
96 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
97 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
98 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
99 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
100 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
101
102 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
103
104 * release notes for
105 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
106 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
107 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
108 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
109
110 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
111
112 * release notes for
113 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
114 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
115 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
116 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
117 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
118
119 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
120
121 * release notes for
122 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
123 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
124 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
125 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
126 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
127 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
128
129 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
130
131 * release notes for
132 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
133 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
134 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
135 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
136 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
137 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
138
139 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
140
141 * release notes for
142 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
143 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
144 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
145 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
146 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
147 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
148 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
149
150 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
151
152 * release notes for
153 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
154 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
155 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
156 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
157 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
158 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
159
160 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
161
162 * release notes for
163 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
164 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
165 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
166 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
167 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
168
169 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
170
171 * release notes for
172 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
173 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
174 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
175 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
176
177 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
178
179 * release notes for
180 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
181 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
182 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
183 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
184 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
185 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
186 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
187
188 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
189
190 * release notes for
191 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
192 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
193 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
194 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
195
196 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
197
198 * release notes for
199 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
200 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
201 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
202 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
204
205 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
206
207 * release notes for
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
210 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
211 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
212 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
214 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
216
217 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
218
219 * release notes for
220 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
221 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
222 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
223 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
224 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
225 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
226
227 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
228
229 * release notes for
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
231 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
232 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
233 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
234 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
235 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
236 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
237 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
238
239 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
240
241 * release notes for
242 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
243 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
244 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
245 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
246 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
249
250 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
251
252 * release notes for
253 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
254 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
255 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
256 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
257 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
258 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
259 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
260 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
261
262 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
263
264 * release notes for
265 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
266 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
267 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
268 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
269 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
270 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
271 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
272
273 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
274
275 * release notes for
276 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
277 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
278 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
279 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
280 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
281
282 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
283
284 * release notes for
285 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
286 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
287 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
288 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
289 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
290 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
291
292 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
293
294 * release notes for
295 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
296 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
297 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
298 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
299 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
300 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
301
302 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
303
304 * release notes for
305 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
306 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
307 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
308 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
309 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
310 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
311
312 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
313
314 * release notes for
315 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
316 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
317 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
318 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
319 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
320
321 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
322
323 * release notes for
324 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
325 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
326 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
327 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
328 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
329 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
330 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
331 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
332 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
333 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
334
335 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
336
337 * release notes for
338 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
339 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
340 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
341 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
342
343 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
344
345 * release notes for
346 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
347 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
348 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
349 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
350 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
351 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
352 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
353 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
354 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
355 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
356
357 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
358
359 * release notes for
360 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
361 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
362 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
363 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
364 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
365 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
366
367 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
368
369 * release notes for
370 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
371 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
372 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
373 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
374 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
375
376 * release notes for
377 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
378 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
379 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
380 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
381 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
382 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
383
384 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
385
386 * release notes for
387 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
388 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
389 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
390 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
391
392 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
393
394 * release notes for
395 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
396 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
397 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
398 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
399 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
400 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
401 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
402
403 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
404
405 * release notes for
406 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
407 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
410 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
411 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
412 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
413
414 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
415
416 * release notes for
417 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
418 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
421 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
422 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
423 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
424
425 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
426
427 * release notes for
428 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
429 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
431 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
432 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
433 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
434 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
435 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
436
437 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
438
439 * release notes for
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
443 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
444 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
445 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
446 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
449
450 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
451
452 * release notes for
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
454 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
455 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
456 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
457 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
458 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
459
460 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
461
462 * release notes for
463 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
464 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
465 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
466 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
467 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
468 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
469 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
470
471 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
472
473 * release notes for
474 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
475 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
476 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
477 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
478 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
479 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
480 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
481
482 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
483 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
484 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
485 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
486
487 ============
488
489 endif::stalenotes[]
490
491 OPTIONS
492 -------
493 --version::
494 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
495
496 --help::
497 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
498 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
499 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
500 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
501 +
502 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
503 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
504 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
505 help ...`.
506
507 -C <path>::
508 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
509 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
510 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
511 <path>`.
512 +
513 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
514 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
515 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
516 example the following invocations are equivalent:
517
518 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
519 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
520
521 -c <name>=<value>::
522 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
523 given will override values from configuration files.
524 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
525 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
526 +
527 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
528 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
529 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
530 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
531
532 --exec-path[=<path>]::
533 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
534 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
535 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
536 the current setting and then exit.
537
538 --html-path::
539 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
540 documentation is installed and exit.
541
542 --man-path::
543 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
544 this version of Git and exit.
545
546 --info-path::
547 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
548 version of Git are installed and exit.
549
550 -p::
551 --paginate::
552 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
553 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
554 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
555 below).
556
557 --no-pager::
558 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
559
560 --git-dir=<path>::
561 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
562 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
563 path or relative path to current working directory.
564
565 --work-tree=<path>::
566 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
567 or a path relative to the current working directory.
568 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
569 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
570 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
571 more detailed discussion).
572
573 --namespace=<path>::
574 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
575 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
576 variable.
577
578 --bare::
579 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
580 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
581 directory.
582
583 --no-replace-objects::
584 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
585 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
586
587 --literal-pathspecs::
588 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
589 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
590 variable to `1`.
591
592 --glob-pathspecs::
593 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
594 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
595 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
596 magic ":(literal)"
597
598 --noglob-pathspecs::
599 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
600 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
601 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
602 magic ":(glob)"
603
604 --icase-pathspecs::
605 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
606 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
607
608 GIT COMMANDS
609 ------------
610
611 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
612 ("plumbing") commands.
613
614 High-level commands (porcelain)
615 -------------------------------
616
617 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
618 ancillary user utilities.
619
620 Main porcelain commands
621 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
622
623 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
624
625 Ancillary Commands
626 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
627 Manipulators:
628
629 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
630
631 Interrogators:
632
633 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
634
635
636 Interacting with Others
637 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
638
639 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
640 people via patch over e-mail.
641
642 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
643
644
645 Low-level commands (plumbing)
646 -----------------------------
647
648 Although Git includes its
649 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
650 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
651 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
652 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
653
654 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
655 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
656 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
657 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
658 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
659 end user experience.
660
661 The following description divides
662 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
663 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
664 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
665 repositories.
666
667
668 Manipulation commands
669 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
670
671 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
672
673
674 Interrogation commands
675 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
676
677 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
678
679 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
680 the working tree.
681
682
683 Synching repositories
684 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
685
686 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
687
688 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
689 typically do not use them directly.
690
691 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
692
693
694 Internal helper commands
695 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
696
697 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
698 users typically do not use them directly.
699
700 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
701
702
703 Configuration Mechanism
704 -----------------------
705
706 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
707 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
708 like this:
709
710 ------------
711 #
712 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
713 #
714
715 ; core variables
716 [core]
717 ; Don't trust file modes
718 filemode = false
719
720 ; user identity
721 [user]
722 name = "Junio C Hamano"
723 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
724
725 ------------
726
727 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
728 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
729 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
730
731
732 Identifier Terminology
733 ----------------------
734 <object>::
735 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
736
737 <blob>::
738 Indicates a blob object name.
739
740 <tree>::
741 Indicates a tree object name.
742
743 <commit>::
744 Indicates a commit object name.
745
746 <tree-ish>::
747 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
748 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
749 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
750 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
751
752 <commit-ish>::
753 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
754 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
755 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
756 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
757
758 <type>::
759 Indicates that an object type is required.
760 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
761
762 <file>::
763 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
764 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
765
766 Symbolic Identifiers
767 --------------------
768 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
769 symbolic notation:
770
771 HEAD::
772 indicates the head of the current branch.
773
774 <tag>::
775 a valid tag 'name'
776 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
777
778 <head>::
779 a valid head 'name'
780 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
781
782 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
783 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
784
785
786 File/Directory Structure
787 ------------------------
788
789 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
790
791 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
792
793 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
794 `$GIT_DIR`.
795
796
797 Terminology
798 -----------
799 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
800
801
802 Environment Variables
803 ---------------------
804 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
805
806 The Git Repository
807 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
808 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
809 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
810 Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
811
812 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
813 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
814 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
815 is used.
816
817 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
818 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
819 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
820 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
821 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
822
823 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
824 If the object storage directory is specified via this
825 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
826 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
827 directory is used.
828
829 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
830 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
831 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
832 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
833 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
834 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
835
836 'GIT_DIR'::
837 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
838 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
839 for the base of the repository.
840 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
841
842 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
843 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
844 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
845 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
846
847 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
848 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
849 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
850
851 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
852 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
853 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
854 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
855 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
856 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
857 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
858 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
859 might be present in order to compare them with the current
860 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
861 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
862 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
863 e.g.,
864 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
865
866 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
867 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
868 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
869 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
870 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
871 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
872 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
873 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
874 command line.
875
876 'GIT_COMMON_DIR'::
877 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
878 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
879 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
880 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
881 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
882 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
883 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
884
885 Git Commits
886 ~~~~~~~~~~~
887 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
888 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
889 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
890 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
891 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
892 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
893 'EMAIL'::
894 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
895
896 Git Diffs
897 ~~~~~~~~~
898 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
899 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
900 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
901 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
902 value passed on the Git diff command line.
903
904 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
905 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
906 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
907 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
908 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
909
910 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
911 +
912 where:
913
914 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
915 contents of <old|new>,
916 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
917 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
918 +
919 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
920 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
921 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
922 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
923 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
924 +
925 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
926 parameter, <path>.
927 +
928 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
929 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
930
931 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
932 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
933
934 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
935 The total number of paths.
936
937 other
938 ~~~~~
939 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
940 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
941 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
942 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
943
944 'GIT_PAGER'::
945 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
946 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
947 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
948 linkgit:git-config[1].
949
950 'GIT_EDITOR'::
951 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
952 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
953 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
954 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
955
956 'GIT_SSH'::
957 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
958 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
959 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
960 when they need to connect to a remote system.
961 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
962 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
963 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
964 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
965 something other than the default SSH port.
966 +
967 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
968 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
969 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
970 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
971 needed).
972 +
973 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
974 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
975 for further details.
976
977 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
978 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
979 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
980 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
981 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
982 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
983
984 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
985 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
986 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
987
988 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
989 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
990 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
991 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
992 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
993 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
994 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
995
996 'GIT_FLUSH'::
997 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
998 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
999 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
1000 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
1001 flushed. If this
1002 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
1003 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
1004 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
1005 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
1006
1007 'GIT_TRACE'::
1008 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
1009 command execution and external command execution.
1010 +
1011 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
1012 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
1013 stderr.
1014 +
1015 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
1016 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
1017 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
1018 trace messages into this file descriptor.
1019 +
1020 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
1021 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
1022 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
1023 into it.
1024 +
1025 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1026 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
1027
1028 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
1029 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
1030 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1031 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1032 pack-related performance problems.
1033 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1034
1035 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
1036 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1037 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1038 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1039 starting with "PACK" (but see 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE' below).
1040 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1041
1042 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE'::
1043 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1044 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1045 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1046 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1047 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1048 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1049 +
1050 Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1051 of clones and fetches.
1052
1053 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1054 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1055 time of each Git command.
1056 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1057
1058 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1059 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1060 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1061 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1062
1063 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1064 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1065 cloning of shallow repositories.
1066 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1067
1068 'GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS'::
1069 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1070 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1071 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1072 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1073 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1074 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1075 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1076
1077 'GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS'::
1078 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1079 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1080
1081 'GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS'::
1082 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1083 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1084
1085 'GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS'::
1086 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1087 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1088
1089 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1090 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1091 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1092 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1093 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1094 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1095 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1096 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1097 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1098
1099 'GIT_REF_PARANOIA'::
1100 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1101 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1102 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1103 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1104 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1105 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1106 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1107 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1108 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1109
1110 'GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL'::
1111 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1112 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1113 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1114 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1115 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1116 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1117 currently used by git are:
1118
1119 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1120 or local paths)
1121
1122 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1123 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1124
1125 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1126 `git+ssh://`, etc).
1127
1128 - `rsync`: git over rsync
1129
1130 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1131 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1132 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1133
1134 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1135 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
1136
1137
1138 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1139 ------------------------
1140
1141 More detail on the following is available from the
1142 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1143 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1144
1145 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1146 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1147 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1148 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1149 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1150 as tags and branch heads.
1151
1152 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1153 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1154 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1155 and some number of parent commits.
1156
1157 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1158 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1159 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1160 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1161
1162 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1163 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1164 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1165 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1166 purpose.
1167
1168 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1169 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1170
1171 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1172 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1173 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1174 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1175 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1176 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1177
1178 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1179 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1180 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1181 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1182 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1183 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1184 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1185 content stored in the index.
1186
1187 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1188 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1189 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1190
1191 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1192 ---------------------
1193
1194 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1195 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1196 for a first-time user.
1197
1198 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1199 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1200 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1201
1202 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1203
1204 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1205 examples.
1206
1207 The internals are documented in the
1208 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1209
1210 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1211 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1212
1213
1214 Authors
1215 -------
1216 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1217 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1218 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1219 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1220
1221 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1222 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1223 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1224
1225 Reporting Bugs
1226 --------------
1227
1228 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1229 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1230 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1231
1232 SEE ALSO
1233 --------
1234 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1235 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1236 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1237 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1238 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1239
1240 GIT
1241 ---
1242 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite