Update draft release notes to 1.8.3.4
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-stash.txt
1 git-stash(1)
2 ============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-stash - Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git stash' list [<options>]
12 'git stash' show [<stash>]
13 'git stash' drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
14 'git stash' ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
15 'git stash' branch <branchname> [<stash>]
16 'git stash' [save [--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
17 [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [<message>]]
18 'git stash' clear
19 'git stash' create
20
21 DESCRIPTION
22 -----------
23
24 Use `git stash` when you want to record the current state of the
25 working directory and the index, but want to go back to a clean
26 working directory. The command saves your local modifications away
27 and reverts the working directory to match the `HEAD` commit.
28
29 The modifications stashed away by this command can be listed with
30 `git stash list`, inspected with `git stash show`, and restored
31 (potentially on top of a different commit) with `git stash apply`.
32 Calling `git stash` without any arguments is equivalent to `git stash save`.
33 A stash is by default listed as "WIP on 'branchname' ...", but
34 you can give a more descriptive message on the command line when
35 you create one.
36
37 The latest stash you created is stored in `refs/stash`; older
38 stashes are found in the reflog of this reference and can be named using
39 the usual reflog syntax (e.g. `stash@{0}` is the most recently
40 created stash, `stash@{1}` is the one before it, `stash@{2.hours.ago}`
41 is also possible).
42
43 OPTIONS
44 -------
45
46 save [-p|--patch] [--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
47
48 Save your local modifications to a new 'stash', and run `git reset
49 --hard` to revert them. The <message> part is optional and gives
50 the description along with the stashed state. For quickly making
51 a snapshot, you can omit _both_ "save" and <message>, but giving
52 only <message> does not trigger this action to prevent a misspelled
53 subcommand from making an unwanted stash.
54 +
55 If the `--keep-index` option is used, all changes already added to the
56 index are left intact.
57 +
58 If the `--include-untracked` option is used, all untracked files are also
59 stashed and then cleaned up with `git clean`, leaving the working directory
60 in a very clean state. If the `--all` option is used instead then the
61 ignored files are stashed and cleaned in addition to the untracked files.
62 +
63 With `--patch`, you can interactively select hunks from the diff
64 between HEAD and the working tree to be stashed. The stash entry is
65 constructed such that its index state is the same as the index state
66 of your repository, and its worktree contains only the changes you
67 selected interactively. The selected changes are then rolled back
68 from your worktree. See the ``Interactive Mode'' section of
69 linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
70 +
71 The `--patch` option implies `--keep-index`. You can use
72 `--no-keep-index` to override this.
73
74 list [<options>]::
75
76 List the stashes that you currently have. Each 'stash' is listed
77 with its name (e.g. `stash@{0}` is the latest stash, `stash@{1}` is
78 the one before, etc.), the name of the branch that was current when the
79 stash was made, and a short description of the commit the stash was
80 based on.
81 +
82 ----------------------------------------------------------------
83 stash@{0}: WIP on submit: 6ebd0e2... Update git-stash documentation
84 stash@{1}: On master: 9cc0589... Add git-stash
85 ----------------------------------------------------------------
86 +
87 The command takes options applicable to the 'git log'
88 command to control what is shown and how. See linkgit:git-log[1].
89
90 show [<stash>]::
91
92 Show the changes recorded in the stash as a diff between the
93 stashed state and its original parent. When no `<stash>` is given,
94 shows the latest one. By default, the command shows the diffstat, but
95 it will accept any format known to 'git diff' (e.g., `git stash show
96 -p stash@{1}` to view the second most recent stash in patch form).
97
98 pop [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
99
100 Remove a single stashed state from the stash list and apply it
101 on top of the current working tree state, i.e., do the inverse
102 operation of `git stash save`. The working directory must
103 match the index.
104 +
105 Applying the state can fail with conflicts; in this case, it is not
106 removed from the stash list. You need to resolve the conflicts by hand
107 and call `git stash drop` manually afterwards.
108 +
109 If the `--index` option is used, then tries to reinstate not only the working
110 tree's changes, but also the index's ones. However, this can fail, when you
111 have conflicts (which are stored in the index, where you therefore can no
112 longer apply the changes as they were originally).
113 +
114 When no `<stash>` is given, `stash@{0}` is assumed, otherwise `<stash>` must
115 be a reference of the form `stash@{<revision>}`.
116
117 apply [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
118
119 Like `pop`, but do not remove the state from the stash list. Unlike `pop`,
120 `<stash>` may be any commit that looks like a commit created by
121 `stash save` or `stash create`.
122
123 branch <branchname> [<stash>]::
124
125 Creates and checks out a new branch named `<branchname>` starting from
126 the commit at which the `<stash>` was originally created, applies the
127 changes recorded in `<stash>` to the new working tree and index.
128 If that succeeds, and `<stash>` is a reference of the form
129 `stash@{<revision>}`, it then drops the `<stash>`. When no `<stash>`
130 is given, applies the latest one.
131 +
132 This is useful if the branch on which you ran `git stash save` has
133 changed enough that `git stash apply` fails due to conflicts. Since
134 the stash is applied on top of the commit that was HEAD at the time
135 `git stash` was run, it restores the originally stashed state with
136 no conflicts.
137
138 clear::
139 Remove all the stashed states. Note that those states will then
140 be subject to pruning, and may be impossible to recover (see
141 'Examples' below for a possible strategy).
142
143 drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
144
145 Remove a single stashed state from the stash list. When no `<stash>`
146 is given, it removes the latest one. i.e. `stash@{0}`, otherwise
147 `<stash>` must be a valid stash log reference of the form
148 `stash@{<revision>}`.
149
150 create::
151
152 Create a stash (which is a regular commit object) and return its
153 object name, without storing it anywhere in the ref namespace.
154
155
156 DISCUSSION
157 ----------
158
159 A stash is represented as a commit whose tree records the state of the
160 working directory, and its first parent is the commit at `HEAD` when
161 the stash was created. The tree of the second parent records the
162 state of the index when the stash is made, and it is made a child of
163 the `HEAD` commit. The ancestry graph looks like this:
164
165 .----W
166 / /
167 -----H----I
168
169 where `H` is the `HEAD` commit, `I` is a commit that records the state
170 of the index, and `W` is a commit that records the state of the working
171 tree.
172
173
174 EXAMPLES
175 --------
176
177 Pulling into a dirty tree::
178
179 When you are in the middle of something, you learn that there are
180 upstream changes that are possibly relevant to what you are
181 doing. When your local changes do not conflict with the changes in
182 the upstream, a simple `git pull` will let you move forward.
183 +
184 However, there are cases in which your local changes do conflict with
185 the upstream changes, and `git pull` refuses to overwrite your
186 changes. In such a case, you can stash your changes away,
187 perform a pull, and then unstash, like this:
188 +
189 ----------------------------------------------------------------
190 $ git pull
191 ...
192 file foobar not up to date, cannot merge.
193 $ git stash
194 $ git pull
195 $ git stash pop
196 ----------------------------------------------------------------
197
198 Interrupted workflow::
199
200 When you are in the middle of something, your boss comes in and
201 demands that you fix something immediately. Traditionally, you would
202 make a commit to a temporary branch to store your changes away, and
203 return to your original branch to make the emergency fix, like this:
204 +
205 ----------------------------------------------------------------
206 # ... hack hack hack ...
207 $ git checkout -b my_wip
208 $ git commit -a -m "WIP"
209 $ git checkout master
210 $ edit emergency fix
211 $ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
212 $ git checkout my_wip
213 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
214 # ... continue hacking ...
215 ----------------------------------------------------------------
216 +
217 You can use 'git stash' to simplify the above, like this:
218 +
219 ----------------------------------------------------------------
220 # ... hack hack hack ...
221 $ git stash
222 $ edit emergency fix
223 $ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
224 $ git stash pop
225 # ... continue hacking ...
226 ----------------------------------------------------------------
227
228 Testing partial commits::
229
230 You can use `git stash save --keep-index` when you want to make two or
231 more commits out of the changes in the work tree, and you want to test
232 each change before committing:
233 +
234 ----------------------------------------------------------------
235 # ... hack hack hack ...
236 $ git add --patch foo # add just first part to the index
237 $ git stash save --keep-index # save all other changes to the stash
238 $ edit/build/test first part
239 $ git commit -m 'First part' # commit fully tested change
240 $ git stash pop # prepare to work on all other changes
241 # ... repeat above five steps until one commit remains ...
242 $ edit/build/test remaining parts
243 $ git commit foo -m 'Remaining parts'
244 ----------------------------------------------------------------
245
246 Recovering stashes that were cleared/dropped erroneously::
247
248 If you mistakenly drop or clear stashes, they cannot be recovered
249 through the normal safety mechanisms. However, you can try the
250 following incantation to get a list of stashes that are still in your
251 repository, but not reachable any more:
252 +
253 ----------------------------------------------------------------
254 git fsck --unreachable |
255 grep commit | cut -d\ -f3 |
256 xargs git log --merges --no-walk --grep=WIP
257 ----------------------------------------------------------------
258
259
260 SEE ALSO
261 --------
262 linkgit:git-checkout[1],
263 linkgit:git-commit[1],
264 linkgit:git-reflog[1],
265 linkgit:git-reset[1]
266
267 GIT
268 ---
269 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite