fix "git apply --index ..." not to deref NULL
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-branch.txt
1 git-branch(1)
2 =============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-branch - List, create, or delete branches
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git branch' [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [-r | -a]
12 [-v [--abbrev=<length> | --no-abbrev]]
13 [(--merged | --no-merged | --contains) [<commit>]]
14 'git branch' [--set-upstream | --track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
15 'git branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
16 'git branch' (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>...
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20
21 With no arguments, existing branches are listed and the current branch will
22 be highlighted with an asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking
23 branches to be listed, and option `-a` shows both.
24
25 With `--contains`, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
26 (in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
27 named commit). With `--merged`, only branches merged into the named
28 commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are reachable from the named
29 commit) will be listed. With `--no-merged` only branches not merged into
30 the named commit will be listed. If the <commit> argument is missing it
31 defaults to 'HEAD' (i.e. the tip of the current branch).
32
33 The command's second form creates a new branch head named <branchname>
34 which points to the current 'HEAD', or <start-point> if given.
35
36 Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
37 working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
38 new branch.
39
40 When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, git sets up the
41 branch so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
42 the remote-tracking branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
43 `branch.autosetupmerge` configuration flag. That setting can be
44 overridden by using the `--track` and `--no-track` options, and
45 changed later using `git branch --set-upstream`.
46
47 With a '-m' or '-M' option, <oldbranch> will be renamed to <newbranch>.
48 If <oldbranch> had a corresponding reflog, it is renamed to match
49 <newbranch>, and a reflog entry is created to remember the branch
50 renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename
51 to happen.
52
53 With a `-d` or `-D` option, `<branchname>` will be deleted. You may
54 specify more than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently
55 has a reflog then the reflog will also be deleted.
56
57 Use -r together with -d to delete remote-tracking branches. Note, that it
58 only makes sense to delete remote-tracking branches if they no longer exist
59 in the remote repository or if 'git fetch' was configured not to fetch
60 them again. See also the 'prune' subcommand of linkgit:git-remote[1] for a
61 way to clean up all obsolete remote-tracking branches.
62
63
64 OPTIONS
65 -------
66 -d::
67 Delete a branch. The branch must be fully merged in its
68 upstream branch, or in `HEAD` if no upstream was set with
69 `--track` or `--set-upstream`.
70
71 -D::
72 Delete a branch irrespective of its merged status.
73
74 -l::
75 Create the branch's reflog. This activates recording of
76 all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
77 based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
78 Note that in non-bare repositories, reflogs are usually
79 enabled by default by the `core.logallrefupdates` config option.
80
81 -f::
82 --force::
83 Reset <branchname> to <startpoint> if <branchname> exists
84 already. Without `-f` 'git branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
85
86 -m::
87 Move/rename a branch and the corresponding reflog.
88
89 -M::
90 Move/rename a branch even if the new branch name already exists.
91
92 --color[=<when>]::
93 Color branches to highlight current, local, and
94 remote-tracking branches.
95 The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.
96
97 --no-color::
98 Turn off branch colors, even when the configuration file gives the
99 default to color output.
100 Same as `--color=never`.
101
102 -r::
103 List or delete (if used with -d) the remote-tracking branches.
104
105 -a::
106 List both remote-tracking branches and local branches.
107
108 -v::
109 --verbose::
110 Show sha1 and commit subject line for each head, along with
111 relationship to upstream branch (if any). If given twice, print
112 the name of the upstream branch, as well.
113
114 --abbrev=<length>::
115 Alter the sha1's minimum display length in the output listing.
116 The default value is 7.
117
118 --no-abbrev::
119 Display the full sha1s in the output listing rather than abbreviating them.
120
121 -t::
122 --track::
123 When creating a new branch, set up configuration to mark the
124 start-point branch as "upstream" from the new branch. This
125 configuration will tell git to show the relationship between the
126 two branches in `git status` and `git branch -v`. Furthermore,
127 it directs `git pull` without arguments to pull from the
128 upstream when the new branch is checked out.
129 +
130 This behavior is the default when the start point is a remote-tracking branch.
131 Set the branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable to `false` if you
132 want `git checkout` and `git branch` to always behave as if '--no-track'
133 were given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
134 start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
135
136 --no-track::
137 Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
138 branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable is true.
139
140 --set-upstream::
141 If specified branch does not exist yet or if '--force' has been
142 given, acts exactly like '--track'. Otherwise sets up configuration
143 like '--track' would when creating the branch, except that where
144 branch points to is not changed.
145
146 --contains <commit>::
147 Only list branches which contain the specified commit.
148
149 --merged [<commit>]::
150 Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the
151 specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
152
153 --no-merged [<commit>]::
154 Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the
155 specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
156
157 <branchname>::
158 The name of the branch to create or delete.
159 The new branch name must pass all checks defined by
160 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
161 may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
162
163 <start-point>::
164 The new branch head will point to this commit. It may be
165 given as a branch name, a commit-id, or a tag. If this
166 option is omitted, the current HEAD will be used instead.
167
168 <oldbranch>::
169 The name of an existing branch to rename.
170
171 <newbranch>::
172 The new name for an existing branch. The same restrictions as for
173 <branchname> apply.
174
175
176 Examples
177 --------
178
179 Start development from a known tag::
180 +
181 ------------
182 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
183 $ cd my2.6
184 $ git branch my2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
185 $ git checkout my2.6.14
186 ------------
187 +
188 <1> This step and the next one could be combined into a single step with
189 "checkout -b my2.6.14 v2.6.14".
190
191 Delete an unneeded branch::
192 +
193 ------------
194 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/.../git.git my.git
195 $ cd my.git
196 $ git branch -d -r origin/todo origin/html origin/man <1>
197 $ git branch -D test <2>
198 ------------
199 +
200 <1> Delete the remote-tracking branches "todo", "html" and "man". The next
201 'fetch' or 'pull' will create them again unless you configure them not to.
202 See linkgit:git-fetch[1].
203 <2> Delete the "test" branch even if the "master" branch (or whichever branch
204 is currently checked out) does not have all commits from the test branch.
205
206
207 Notes
208 -----
209
210 If you are creating a branch that you want to checkout immediately, it is
211 easier to use the git checkout command with its `-b` option to create
212 a branch and check it out with a single command.
213
214 The options `--contains`, `--merged` and `--no-merged` serve three related
215 but different purposes:
216
217 - `--contains <commit>` is used to find all branches which will need
218 special attention if <commit> were to be rebased or amended, since those
219 branches contain the specified <commit>.
220
221 - `--merged` is used to find all branches which can be safely deleted,
222 since those branches are fully contained by HEAD.
223
224 - `--no-merged` is used to find branches which are candidates for merging
225 into HEAD, since those branches are not fully contained by HEAD.
226
227 SEE ALSO
228 --------
229 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1],
230 linkgit:git-fetch[1],
231 linkgit:git-remote[1],
232 link:user-manual.html#what-is-a-branch[``Understanding history: What is
233 a branch?''] in the Git User's Manual.
234
235 Author
236 ------
237 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
238
239 Documentation
240 --------------
241 Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
242
243 GIT
244 ---
245 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite