Merge branch 'master' into lj/refs
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(7)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]] [-p|--paginate]
13 [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
14
15 DESCRIPTION
16 -----------
17 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
18 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
19 and full access to internals.
20
21 See this link:tutorial.html[tutorial] to get started, then see
22 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
23 "man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
24 also want to read link:cvs-migration.html[CVS migration].
25
26 The COMMAND is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
27 as defined in the configuration file (see gitlink:git-repo-config[1]).
28
29 OPTIONS
30 -------
31 --version::
32 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
33
34 --help::
35 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
36 commands. If a git command is named this option will bring up
37 the man-page for that command. If the option '--all' or '-a' is
38 given then all available commands are printed.
39
40 --exec-path::
41 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
42 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
43 environment variable. If no path is given 'git' will print
44 the current setting and then exit.
45
46 -p|--paginate::
47 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER).
48
49 --git-dir=<path>::
50 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
51 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable.
52
53 --bare::
54 Same as --git-dir=`pwd`.
55
56 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
57 ---------------------
58
59 See the references above to get started using git. The following is
60 probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
61
62 The <<Discussion,Discussion>> section below and the
63 link:core-tutorial.html[Core tutorial] both provide introductions to the
64 underlying git architecture.
65
66 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
67 examples.
68
69 GIT COMMANDS
70 ------------
71
72 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
73 ("plumbing") commands.
74
75 Low-level commands (plumbing)
76 -----------------------------
77
78 Although git includes its
79 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
80 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
81 might start by reading about gitlink:git-update-index[1] and
82 gitlink:git-read-tree[1].
83
84 We divide the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
85 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
86 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
87 repositories.
88
89 Manipulation commands
90 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
91 gitlink:git-apply[1]::
92 Reads a "diff -up1" or git generated patch file and
93 applies it to the working tree.
94
95 gitlink:git-checkout-index[1]::
96 Copy files from the index to the working tree.
97
98 gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]::
99 Creates a new commit object.
100
101 gitlink:git-hash-object[1]::
102 Computes the object ID from a file.
103
104 gitlink:git-index-pack[1]::
105 Build pack idx file for an existing packed archive.
106
107 gitlink:git-init-db[1]::
108 Creates an empty git object database, or reinitialize an
109 existing one.
110
111 gitlink:git-merge-index[1]::
112 Runs a merge for files needing merging.
113
114 gitlink:git-mktag[1]::
115 Creates a tag object.
116
117 gitlink:git-mktree[1]::
118 Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
119
120 gitlink:git-pack-objects[1]::
121 Creates a packed archive of objects.
122
123 gitlink:git-prune-packed[1]::
124 Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
125
126 gitlink:git-read-tree[1]::
127 Reads tree information into the index.
128
129 gitlink:git-repo-config[1]::
130 Get and set options in .git/config.
131
132 gitlink:git-unpack-objects[1]::
133 Unpacks objects out of a packed archive.
134
135 gitlink:git-update-index[1]::
136 Registers files in the working tree to the index.
137
138 gitlink:git-write-tree[1]::
139 Creates a tree from the index.
140
141
142 Interrogation commands
143 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
144
145 gitlink:git-cat-file[1]::
146 Provide content or type/size information for repository objects.
147
148 gitlink:git-describe[1]::
149 Show the most recent tag that is reachable from a commit.
150
151 gitlink:git-diff-index[1]::
152 Compares content and mode of blobs between the index and repository.
153
154 gitlink:git-diff-files[1]::
155 Compares files in the working tree and the index.
156
157 gitlink:git-diff-stages[1]::
158 Compares two "merge stages" in the index.
159
160 gitlink:git-diff-tree[1]::
161 Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
162
163 gitlink:git-fsck-objects[1]::
164 Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database.
165
166 gitlink:git-ls-files[1]::
167 Information about files in the index and the working tree.
168
169 gitlink:git-ls-tree[1]::
170 Displays a tree object in human readable form.
171
172 gitlink:git-merge-base[1]::
173 Finds as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
174
175 gitlink:git-name-rev[1]::
176 Find symbolic names for given revs.
177
178 gitlink:git-pack-redundant[1]::
179 Find redundant pack files.
180
181 gitlink:git-rev-list[1]::
182 Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
183
184 gitlink:git-show-index[1]::
185 Displays contents of a pack idx file.
186
187 gitlink:git-tar-tree[1]::
188 Creates a tar archive of the files in the named tree object.
189
190 gitlink:git-unpack-file[1]::
191 Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
192
193 gitlink:git-var[1]::
194 Displays a git logical variable.
195
196 gitlink:git-verify-pack[1]::
197 Validates packed git archive files.
198
199 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
200 the working tree.
201
202
203 Synching repositories
204 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
205
206 gitlink:git-fetch-pack[1]::
207 Updates from a remote repository (engine for ssh and
208 local transport).
209
210 gitlink:git-http-fetch[1]::
211 Downloads a remote git repository via HTTP by walking
212 commit chain.
213
214 gitlink:git-local-fetch[1]::
215 Duplicates another git repository on a local system by
216 walking commit chain.
217
218 gitlink:git-peek-remote[1]::
219 Lists references on a remote repository using
220 upload-pack protocol (engine for ssh and local
221 transport).
222
223 gitlink:git-receive-pack[1]::
224 Invoked by 'git-send-pack' to receive what is pushed to it.
225
226 gitlink:git-send-pack[1]::
227 Pushes to a remote repository, intelligently.
228
229 gitlink:git-http-push[1]::
230 Push missing objects using HTTP/DAV.
231
232 gitlink:git-shell[1]::
233 Restricted shell for GIT-only SSH access.
234
235 gitlink:git-ssh-fetch[1]::
236 Pulls from a remote repository over ssh connection by
237 walking commit chain.
238
239 gitlink:git-ssh-upload[1]::
240 Helper "server-side" program used by git-ssh-fetch.
241
242 gitlink:git-update-server-info[1]::
243 Updates auxiliary information on a dumb server to help
244 clients discover references and packs on it.
245
246 gitlink:git-upload-pack[1]::
247 Invoked by 'git-fetch-pack' to push
248 what are asked for.
249
250
251 High-level commands (porcelain)
252 -------------------------------
253
254 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
255 ancillary user utilities.
256
257 Main porcelain commands
258 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
259
260 gitlink:git-add[1]::
261 Add paths to the index.
262
263 gitlink:git-am[1]::
264 Apply patches from a mailbox, but cooler.
265
266 gitlink:git-applymbox[1]::
267 Apply patches from a mailbox, original version by Linus.
268
269 gitlink:git-archive[1]::
270 Creates an archive of files from a named tree.
271
272 gitlink:git-bisect[1]::
273 Find the change that introduced a bug by binary search.
274
275 gitlink:git-branch[1]::
276 Create and Show branches.
277
278 gitlink:git-checkout[1]::
279 Checkout and switch to a branch.
280
281 gitlink:git-cherry-pick[1]::
282 Cherry-pick the effect of an existing commit.
283
284 gitlink:git-clean[1]::
285 Remove untracked files from the working tree.
286
287 gitlink:git-clone[1]::
288 Clones a repository into a new directory.
289
290 gitlink:git-commit[1]::
291 Record changes to the repository.
292
293 gitlink:git-diff[1]::
294 Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
295
296 gitlink:git-fetch[1]::
297 Download from a remote repository via various protocols.
298
299 gitlink:git-format-patch[1]::
300 Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
301
302 gitlink:git-grep[1]::
303 Print lines matching a pattern.
304
305 gitlink:gitk[1]::
306 The git repository browser.
307
308 gitlink:git-log[1]::
309 Shows commit logs.
310
311 gitlink:git-ls-remote[1]::
312 Shows references in a remote or local repository.
313
314 gitlink:git-merge[1]::
315 Grand unified merge driver.
316
317 gitlink:git-mv[1]::
318 Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
319
320 gitlink:git-pull[1]::
321 Fetch from and merge with a remote repository.
322
323 gitlink:git-push[1]::
324 Update remote refs along with associated objects.
325
326 gitlink:git-rebase[1]::
327 Rebase local commits to the updated upstream head.
328
329 gitlink:git-repack[1]::
330 Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
331
332 gitlink:git-rerere[1]::
333 Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
334
335 gitlink:git-reset[1]::
336 Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
337
338 gitlink:git-resolve[1]::
339 Merge two commits.
340
341 gitlink:git-revert[1]::
342 Revert an existing commit.
343
344 gitlink:git-rm[1]::
345 Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
346
347 gitlink:git-shortlog[1]::
348 Summarizes 'git log' output.
349
350 gitlink:git-show[1]::
351 Show one commit log and its diff.
352
353 gitlink:git-show-branch[1]::
354 Show branches and their commits.
355
356 gitlink:git-status[1]::
357 Shows the working tree status.
358
359 gitlink:git-verify-tag[1]::
360 Check the GPG signature of tag.
361
362 gitlink:git-whatchanged[1]::
363 Shows commit logs and differences they introduce.
364
365
366 Ancillary Commands
367 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
368 Manipulators:
369
370 gitlink:git-applypatch[1]::
371 Apply one patch extracted from an e-mail.
372
373 gitlink:git-archimport[1]::
374 Import an arch repository into git.
375
376 gitlink:git-convert-objects[1]::
377 Converts old-style git repository.
378
379 gitlink:git-cvsimport[1]::
380 Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
381
382 gitlink:git-cvsexportcommit[1]::
383 Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
384
385 gitlink:git-cvsserver[1]::
386 A CVS server emulator for git.
387
388 gitlink:git-lost-found[1]::
389 Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been pruned.
390
391 gitlink:git-merge-one-file[1]::
392 The standard helper program to use with `git-merge-index`.
393
394 gitlink:git-prune[1]::
395 Prunes all unreachable objects from the object database.
396
397 gitlink:git-quiltimport[1]::
398 Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
399
400 gitlink:git-relink[1]::
401 Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
402
403 gitlink:git-svn[1]::
404 Bidirectional operation between a single Subversion branch and git.
405
406 gitlink:git-svnimport[1]::
407 Import a SVN repository into git.
408
409 gitlink:git-sh-setup[1]::
410 Common git shell script setup code.
411
412 gitlink:git-symbolic-ref[1]::
413 Read and modify symbolic refs.
414
415 gitlink:git-tag[1]::
416 An example script to create a tag object signed with GPG.
417
418 gitlink:git-update-ref[1]::
419 Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
420
421
422 Interrogators:
423
424 gitlink:git-annotate[1]::
425 Annotate file lines with commit info.
426
427 gitlink:git-blame[1]::
428 Blame file lines on commits.
429
430 gitlink:git-check-ref-format[1]::
431 Make sure ref name is well formed.
432
433 gitlink:git-cherry[1]::
434 Find commits not merged upstream.
435
436 gitlink:git-count-objects[1]::
437 Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
438
439 gitlink:git-daemon[1]::
440 A really simple server for git repositories.
441
442 gitlink:git-fmt-merge-msg[1]::
443 Produce a merge commit message.
444
445 gitlink:git-get-tar-commit-id[1]::
446 Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-tar-tree.
447
448 gitlink:git-imap-send[1]::
449 Dump a mailbox from stdin into an imap folder.
450
451 gitlink:git-instaweb[1]::
452 Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.
453
454 gitlink:git-mailinfo[1]::
455 Extracts patch and authorship information from a single
456 e-mail message, optionally transliterating the commit
457 message into utf-8.
458
459 gitlink:git-mailsplit[1]::
460 A stupid program to split UNIX mbox format mailbox into
461 individual pieces of e-mail.
462
463 gitlink:git-merge-tree[1]::
464 Show three-way merge without touching index.
465
466 gitlink:git-patch-id[1]::
467 Compute unique ID for a patch.
468
469 gitlink:git-parse-remote[1]::
470 Routines to help parsing `$GIT_DIR/remotes/` files.
471
472 gitlink:git-request-pull[1]::
473 git-request-pull.
474
475 gitlink:git-rev-parse[1]::
476 Pick out and massage parameters.
477
478 gitlink:git-send-email[1]::
479 Send patch e-mails out of "format-patch --mbox" output.
480
481 gitlink:git-symbolic-ref[1]::
482 Read and modify symbolic refs.
483
484 gitlink:git-stripspace[1]::
485 Filter out empty lines.
486
487
488 Configuration Mechanism
489 -----------------------
490
491 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
492 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
493 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
494 people. Here is an example:
495
496 ------------
497 #
498 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
499 #
500
501 ; core variables
502 [core]
503 ; Don't trust file modes
504 filemode = false
505
506 ; user identity
507 [user]
508 name = "Junio C Hamano"
509 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
510
511 ------------
512
513 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
514 their operation accordingly.
515
516
517 Identifier Terminology
518 ----------------------
519 <object>::
520 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
521
522 <blob>::
523 Indicates a blob object name.
524
525 <tree>::
526 Indicates a tree object name.
527
528 <commit>::
529 Indicates a commit object name.
530
531 <tree-ish>::
532 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
533 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
534 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
535 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
536
537 <type>::
538 Indicates that an object type is required.
539 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
540
541 <file>::
542 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
543 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
544
545 Symbolic Identifiers
546 --------------------
547 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
548 symbolic notation:
549
550 HEAD::
551 indicates the head of the current branch (i.e. the
552 contents of `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`).
553
554 <tag>::
555 a valid tag 'name'
556 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`).
557
558 <head>::
559 a valid head 'name'
560 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`).
561
562
563 File/Directory Structure
564 ------------------------
565
566 Please see link:repository-layout.html[repository layout] document.
567
568 Read link:hooks.html[hooks] for more details about each hook.
569
570 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
571 `$GIT_DIR`.
572
573
574 Terminology
575 -----------
576 Please see link:glossary.html[glossary] document.
577
578
579 Environment Variables
580 ---------------------
581 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
582
583 The git Repository
584 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
585 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
586 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
587 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
588
589 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
590 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
591 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
592 is used.
593
594 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
595 If the object storage directory is specified via this
596 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
597 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
598 directory is used.
599
600 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
601 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
602 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
603 specifies a ":" separated list of git object directories which
604 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
605 written to these directories.
606
607 'GIT_DIR'::
608 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
609 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
610 for the base of the repository.
611
612 git Commits
613 ~~~~~~~~~~~
614 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
615 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
616 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
617 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
618 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
619 see gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]
620
621 git Diffs
622 ~~~~~~~~~
623 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
624 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
625 see the "generating patches" section in :
626 gitlink:git-diff-index[1];
627 gitlink:git-diff-files[1];
628 gitlink:git-diff-tree[1]
629
630 other
631 ~~~~~
632 'GIT_PAGER'::
633 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`.
634
635 'GIT_TRACE'::
636 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
637 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
638 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
639 execution and external command execution.
640 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
641 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
642 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
643 trace messages into this file descriptor.
644 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
645 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
646 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
647 into it.
648
649 Discussion[[Discussion]]
650 ------------------------
651 include::README[]
652
653 Authors
654 -------
655 * git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
656 * The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>.
657 * The git potty was written by Andres Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
658 * General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
659
660 Documentation
661 --------------
662 The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
663 <david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
664 contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
665
666 GIT
667 ---
668 Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
669