Merge branch 'kn/tag-doc-fix' into maint
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-tag.txt
1 git-tag(1)
2 ==========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-tag - Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git tag' [-a | -s | -u <key-id>] [-f] [-m <msg> | -F <file>]
13 <tagname> [<commit> | <object>]
14 'git tag' -d <tagname>...
15 'git tag' [-n[<num>]] -l [--contains <commit>] [--points-at <object>]
16 [--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [<pattern>...]
17 'git tag' -v <tagname>...
18
19 DESCRIPTION
20 -----------
21
22 Add a tag reference in `refs/tags/`, unless `-d/-l/-v` is given
23 to delete, list or verify tags.
24
25 Unless `-f` is given, the named tag must not yet exist.
26
27 If one of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>` is passed, the command
28 creates a 'tag' object, and requires a tag message. Unless
29 `-m <msg>` or `-F <file>` is given, an editor is started for the user to type
30 in the tag message.
31
32 If `-m <msg>` or `-F <file>` is given and `-a`, `-s`, and `-u <key-id>`
33 are absent, `-a` is implied.
34
35 Otherwise just a tag reference for the SHA-1 object name of the commit object is
36 created (i.e. a lightweight tag).
37
38 A GnuPG signed tag object will be created when `-s` or `-u
39 <key-id>` is used. When `-u <key-id>` is not used, the
40 committer identity for the current user is used to find the
41 GnuPG key for signing. The configuration variable `gpg.program`
42 is used to specify custom GnuPG binary.
43
44 Tag objects (created with `-a`, `-s`, or `-u`) are called "annotated"
45 tags; they contain a creation date, the tagger name and e-mail, a
46 tagging message, and an optional GnuPG signature. Whereas a
47 "lightweight" tag is simply a name for an object (usually a commit
48 object).
49
50 Annotated tags are meant for release while lightweight tags are meant
51 for private or temporary object labels. For this reason, some git
52 commands for naming objects (like `git describe`) will ignore
53 lightweight tags by default.
54
55
56 OPTIONS
57 -------
58 -a::
59 --annotate::
60 Make an unsigned, annotated tag object
61
62 -s::
63 --sign::
64 Make a GPG-signed tag, using the default e-mail address's key.
65
66 -u <key-id>::
67 --local-user=<key-id>::
68 Make a GPG-signed tag, using the given key.
69
70 -f::
71 --force::
72 Replace an existing tag with the given name (instead of failing)
73
74 -d::
75 --delete::
76 Delete existing tags with the given names.
77
78 -v::
79 --verify::
80 Verify the gpg signature of the given tag names.
81
82 -n<num>::
83 <num> specifies how many lines from the annotation, if any,
84 are printed when using -l.
85 The default is not to print any annotation lines.
86 If no number is given to `-n`, only the first line is printed.
87 If the tag is not annotated, the commit message is displayed instead.
88
89 -l <pattern>::
90 --list <pattern>::
91 List tags with names that match the given pattern (or all if no
92 pattern is given). Running "git tag" without arguments also
93 lists all tags. The pattern is a shell wildcard (i.e., matched
94 using fnmatch(3)). Multiple patterns may be given; if any of
95 them matches, the tag is shown.
96
97 --sort=<type>::
98 Sort in a specific order. Supported type is "refname"
99 (lexicographic order), "version:refname" or "v:refname" (tag
100 names are treated as versions). The "version:refname" sort
101 order can also be affected by the
102 "versionsort.prereleaseSuffix" configuration variable. Prepend
103 "-" to reverse sort order. When this option is not given, the
104 sort order defaults to the value configured for the 'tag.sort'
105 variable if it exists, or lexicographic order otherwise. See
106 linkgit:git-config[1].
107
108 --column[=<options>]::
109 --no-column::
110 Display tag listing in columns. See configuration variable
111 column.tag for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
112 without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never' respectively.
113 +
114 This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
115
116 --contains [<commit>]::
117 Only list tags which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
118 specified).
119
120 --points-at <object>::
121 Only list tags of the given object.
122
123 -m <msg>::
124 --message=<msg>::
125 Use the given tag message (instead of prompting).
126 If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
127 concatenated as separate paragraphs.
128 Implies `-a` if none of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>`
129 is given.
130
131 -F <file>::
132 --file=<file>::
133 Take the tag message from the given file. Use '-' to
134 read the message from the standard input.
135 Implies `-a` if none of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>`
136 is given.
137
138 --cleanup=<mode>::
139 This option sets how the tag message is cleaned up.
140 The '<mode>' can be one of 'verbatim', 'whitespace' and 'strip'. The
141 'strip' mode is default. The 'verbatim' mode does not change message at
142 all, 'whitespace' removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines and
143 'strip' removes both whitespace and commentary.
144
145 <tagname>::
146 The name of the tag to create, delete, or describe.
147 The new tag name must pass all checks defined by
148 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
149 may restrict the characters allowed in a tag name.
150
151 <commit>::
152 <object>::
153 The object that the new tag will refer to, usually a commit.
154 Defaults to HEAD.
155
156
157 CONFIGURATION
158 -------------
159 By default, 'git tag' in sign-with-default mode (-s) will use your
160 committer identity (of the form `Your Name <your@email.address>`) to
161 find a key. If you want to use a different default key, you can specify
162 it in the repository configuration as follows:
163
164 -------------------------------------
165 [user]
166 signingKey = <gpg-key-id>
167 -------------------------------------
168
169
170 DISCUSSION
171 ----------
172
173 On Re-tagging
174 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
175
176 What should you do when you tag a wrong commit and you would
177 want to re-tag?
178
179 If you never pushed anything out, just re-tag it. Use "-f" to
180 replace the old one. And you're done.
181
182 But if you have pushed things out (or others could just read
183 your repository directly), then others will have already seen
184 the old tag. In that case you can do one of two things:
185
186 . The sane thing.
187 Just admit you screwed up, and use a different name. Others have
188 already seen one tag-name, and if you keep the same name, you
189 may be in the situation that two people both have "version X",
190 but they actually have 'different' "X"'s. So just call it "X.1"
191 and be done with it.
192
193 . The insane thing.
194 You really want to call the new version "X" too, 'even though'
195 others have already seen the old one. So just use 'git tag -f'
196 again, as if you hadn't already published the old one.
197
198 However, Git does *not* (and it should not) change tags behind
199 users back. So if somebody already got the old tag, doing a
200 'git pull' on your tree shouldn't just make them overwrite the old
201 one.
202
203 If somebody got a release tag from you, you cannot just change
204 the tag for them by updating your own one. This is a big
205 security issue, in that people MUST be able to trust their
206 tag-names. If you really want to do the insane thing, you need
207 to just fess up to it, and tell people that you messed up. You
208 can do that by making a very public announcement saying:
209
210 ------------
211 Ok, I messed up, and I pushed out an earlier version tagged as X. I
212 then fixed something, and retagged the *fixed* tree as X again.
213
214 If you got the wrong tag, and want the new one, please delete
215 the old one and fetch the new one by doing:
216
217 git tag -d X
218 git fetch origin tag X
219
220 to get my updated tag.
221
222 You can test which tag you have by doing
223
224 git rev-parse X
225
226 which should return 0123456789abcdef.. if you have the new version.
227
228 Sorry for the inconvenience.
229 ------------
230
231 Does this seem a bit complicated? It *should* be. There is no
232 way that it would be correct to just "fix" it automatically.
233 People need to know that their tags might have been changed.
234
235
236 On Automatic following
237 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
238
239 If you are following somebody else's tree, you are most likely
240 using remote-tracking branches (`refs/heads/origin` in traditional
241 layout, or `refs/remotes/origin/master` in the separate-remote
242 layout). You usually want the tags from the other end.
243
244 On the other hand, if you are fetching because you would want a
245 one-shot merge from somebody else, you typically do not want to
246 get tags from there. This happens more often for people near
247 the toplevel but not limited to them. Mere mortals when pulling
248 from each other do not necessarily want to automatically get
249 private anchor point tags from the other person.
250
251 Often, "please pull" messages on the mailing list just provide
252 two pieces of information: a repo URL and a branch name; this
253 is designed to be easily cut&pasted at the end of a 'git fetch'
254 command line:
255
256 ------------
257 Linus, please pull from
258
259 git://git..../proj.git master
260
261 to get the following updates...
262 ------------
263
264 becomes:
265
266 ------------
267 $ git pull git://git..../proj.git master
268 ------------
269
270 In such a case, you do not want to automatically follow the other
271 person's tags.
272
273 One important aspect of Git is its distributed nature, which
274 largely means there is no inherent "upstream" or
275 "downstream" in the system. On the face of it, the above
276 example might seem to indicate that the tag namespace is owned
277 by the upper echelon of people and that tags only flow downwards, but
278 that is not the case. It only shows that the usage pattern
279 determines who are interested in whose tags.
280
281 A one-shot pull is a sign that a commit history is now crossing
282 the boundary between one circle of people (e.g. "people who are
283 primarily interested in the networking part of the kernel") who may
284 have their own set of tags (e.g. "this is the third release
285 candidate from the networking group to be proposed for general
286 consumption with 2.6.21 release") to another circle of people
287 (e.g. "people who integrate various subsystem improvements").
288 The latter are usually not interested in the detailed tags used
289 internally in the former group (that is what "internal" means).
290 That is why it is desirable not to follow tags automatically in
291 this case.
292
293 It may well be that among networking people, they may want to
294 exchange the tags internal to their group, but in that workflow
295 they are most likely tracking each other's progress by
296 having remote-tracking branches. Again, the heuristic to automatically
297 follow such tags is a good thing.
298
299
300 On Backdating Tags
301 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
302
303 If you have imported some changes from another VCS and would like
304 to add tags for major releases of your work, it is useful to be able
305 to specify the date to embed inside of the tag object; such data in
306 the tag object affects, for example, the ordering of tags in the
307 gitweb interface.
308
309 To set the date used in future tag objects, set the environment
310 variable GIT_COMMITTER_DATE (see the later discussion of possible
311 values; the most common form is "YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM").
312
313 For example:
314
315 ------------
316 $ GIT_COMMITTER_DATE="2006-10-02 10:31" git tag -s v1.0.1
317 ------------
318
319 include::date-formats.txt[]
320
321 SEE ALSO
322 --------
323 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1].
324 linkgit:git-config[1].
325
326 GIT
327 ---
328 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite