Sync with 2.4.1
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.4.1/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.1]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
50 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
51
52 * link:v2.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.8]
53
54 * release notes for
55 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
56 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
57 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
58 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
59 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
60 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
61 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
62 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
63 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
64
65 * link:v2.2.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.2]
66
67 * release notes for
68 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
69 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
70 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
71
72 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
73
74 * release notes for
75 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
76 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
77 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
78 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
79 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
80
81 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
82
83 * release notes for
84 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
85 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
86 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
87 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
88 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
89 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
90
91 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
92
93 * release notes for
94 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
95 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
96 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
97 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
98 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
99 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
100
101 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
102
103 * release notes for
104 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
105 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
106 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
107 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
108 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
109 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
110 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
111
112 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
113
114 * release notes for
115 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
116 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
117 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
118 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
119 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
120 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
121
122 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
123
124 * release notes for
125 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
126 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
127 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
128 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
129 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
130
131 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
132
133 * release notes for
134 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
135 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
136 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
137 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
138
139 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
140
141 * release notes for
142 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
143 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
144 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
145 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
146 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
147 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
148 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
149
150 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
151
152 * release notes for
153 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
154 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
155 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
156 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
157
158 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
159
160 * release notes for
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
165 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
166
167 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
168
169 * release notes for
170 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
171 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
177 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
178
179 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
180
181 * release notes for
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
183 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
188
189 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
190
191 * release notes for
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
194 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
195 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
197 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
198 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
199 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
200
201 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
202
203 * release notes for
204 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
205 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
206 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
207 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
210 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
211
212 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
213
214 * release notes for
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
216 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
217 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
218 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
219 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
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221 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
222 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
223
224 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
225
226 * release notes for
227 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
228 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
229 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
231 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
232 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
233 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
234
235 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
236
237 * release notes for
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
239 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
240 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
241 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
242 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
243
244 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
245
246 * release notes for
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
249 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
250 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
251 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
252 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
253
254 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
255
256 * release notes for
257 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
258 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
259 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
260 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
261 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
262 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
263
264 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
265
266 * release notes for
267 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
268 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
269 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
270 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
271 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
272 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
273
274 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
275
276 * release notes for
277 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
278 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
279 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
280 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
281 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
282
283 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
284
285 * release notes for
286 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
287 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
288 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
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294 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
295 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
296
297 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
298
299 * release notes for
300 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
301 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
302 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
303 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
304
305 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
306
307 * release notes for
308 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
309 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
310 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
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316 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
317 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
318
319 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
320
321 * release notes for
322 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
323 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
324 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
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326 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
327 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
328
329 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
330
331 * release notes for
332 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
333 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
334 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
335 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
336 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
337
338 * release notes for
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340 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
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344 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
345
346 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
347
348 * release notes for
349 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
350 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
351 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
352 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
353
354 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
355
356 * release notes for
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363 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
364
365 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
366
367 * release notes for
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374 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
375
376 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
377
378 * release notes for
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385 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
386
387 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
388
389 * release notes for
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391 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
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398
399 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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401 * release notes for
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410 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
411
412 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
413
414 * release notes for
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416 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
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421
422 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
423
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432
433 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
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439 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
443
444 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
445 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
446 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
447 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
448
449 ============
450
451 endif::stalenotes[]
452
453 OPTIONS
454 -------
455 --version::
456 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
457
458 --help::
459 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
460 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
461 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
462 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
463 +
464 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
465 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
466 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
467 help ...`.
468
469 -C <path>::
470 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
471 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
472 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
473 <path>`.
474 +
475 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
476 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
477 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
478 example the following invocations are equivalent:
479
480 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
481 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
482
483 -c <name>=<value>::
484 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
485 given will override values from configuration files.
486 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
487 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
488 +
489 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
490 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
491 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
492 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
493
494 --exec-path[=<path>]::
495 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
496 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
497 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
498 the current setting and then exit.
499
500 --html-path::
501 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
502 documentation is installed and exit.
503
504 --man-path::
505 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
506 this version of Git and exit.
507
508 --info-path::
509 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
510 version of Git are installed and exit.
511
512 -p::
513 --paginate::
514 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
515 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
516 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
517 below).
518
519 --no-pager::
520 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
521
522 --git-dir=<path>::
523 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
524 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
525 path or relative path to current working directory.
526
527 --work-tree=<path>::
528 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
529 or a path relative to the current working directory.
530 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
531 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
532 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
533 more detailed discussion).
534
535 --namespace=<path>::
536 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
537 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
538 variable.
539
540 --bare::
541 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
542 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
543 directory.
544
545 --no-replace-objects::
546 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
547 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
548
549 --literal-pathspecs::
550 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
551 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
552 variable to `1`.
553
554 --glob-pathspecs::
555 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
556 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
557 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
558 magic ":(literal)"
559
560 --noglob-pathspecs::
561 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
562 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
563 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
564 magic ":(glob)"
565
566 --icase-pathspecs::
567 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
568 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
569
570 GIT COMMANDS
571 ------------
572
573 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
574 ("plumbing") commands.
575
576 High-level commands (porcelain)
577 -------------------------------
578
579 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
580 ancillary user utilities.
581
582 Main porcelain commands
583 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
584
585 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
586
587 Ancillary Commands
588 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
589 Manipulators:
590
591 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
592
593 Interrogators:
594
595 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
596
597
598 Interacting with Others
599 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
600
601 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
602 people via patch over e-mail.
603
604 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
605
606
607 Low-level commands (plumbing)
608 -----------------------------
609
610 Although Git includes its
611 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
612 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
613 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
614 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
615
616 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
617 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
618 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
619 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
620 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
621 end user experience.
622
623 The following description divides
624 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
625 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
626 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
627 repositories.
628
629
630 Manipulation commands
631 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
632
633 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
634
635
636 Interrogation commands
637 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
638
639 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
640
641 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
642 the working tree.
643
644
645 Synching repositories
646 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
647
648 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
649
650 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
651 typically do not use them directly.
652
653 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
654
655
656 Internal helper commands
657 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
658
659 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
660 users typically do not use them directly.
661
662 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
663
664
665 Configuration Mechanism
666 -----------------------
667
668 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
669 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
670 like this:
671
672 ------------
673 #
674 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
675 #
676
677 ; core variables
678 [core]
679 ; Don't trust file modes
680 filemode = false
681
682 ; user identity
683 [user]
684 name = "Junio C Hamano"
685 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
686
687 ------------
688
689 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
690 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
691 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
692
693
694 Identifier Terminology
695 ----------------------
696 <object>::
697 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
698
699 <blob>::
700 Indicates a blob object name.
701
702 <tree>::
703 Indicates a tree object name.
704
705 <commit>::
706 Indicates a commit object name.
707
708 <tree-ish>::
709 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
710 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
711 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
712 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
713
714 <commit-ish>::
715 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
716 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
717 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
718 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
719
720 <type>::
721 Indicates that an object type is required.
722 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
723
724 <file>::
725 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
726 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
727
728 Symbolic Identifiers
729 --------------------
730 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
731 symbolic notation:
732
733 HEAD::
734 indicates the head of the current branch.
735
736 <tag>::
737 a valid tag 'name'
738 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
739
740 <head>::
741 a valid head 'name'
742 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
743
744 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
745 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
746
747
748 File/Directory Structure
749 ------------------------
750
751 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
752
753 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
754
755 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
756 `$GIT_DIR`.
757
758
759 Terminology
760 -----------
761 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
762
763
764 Environment Variables
765 ---------------------
766 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
767
768 The Git Repository
769 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
770 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
771 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
772 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
773
774 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
775 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
776 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
777 is used.
778
779 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
780 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
781 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
782 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
783 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
784
785 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
786 If the object storage directory is specified via this
787 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
788 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
789 directory is used.
790
791 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
792 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
793 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
794 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
795 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
796 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
797
798 'GIT_DIR'::
799 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
800 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
801 for the base of the repository.
802 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
803
804 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
805 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
806 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
807 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
808
809 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
810 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
811 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
812
813 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
814 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
815 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
816 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
817 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
818 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
819 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
820 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
821 might be present in order to compare them with the current
822 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
823 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
824 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
825 e.g.,
826 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
827
828 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
829 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
830 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
831 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
832 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
833 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
834 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
835 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
836 command line.
837
838 'GIT_COMMON_DIR'::
839 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
840 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
841 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
842 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
843 the section 'MULTIPLE CHECKOUT MODE' in linkgit:checkout[1]
844 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
845 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
846
847 Git Commits
848 ~~~~~~~~~~~
849 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
850 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
851 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
852 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
853 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
854 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
855 'EMAIL'::
856 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
857
858 Git Diffs
859 ~~~~~~~~~
860 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
861 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
862 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
863 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
864 value passed on the Git diff command line.
865
866 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
867 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
868 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
869 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
870 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
871
872 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
873 +
874 where:
875
876 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
877 contents of <old|new>,
878 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
879 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
880 +
881 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
882 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
883 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
884 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
885 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
886 +
887 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
888 parameter, <path>.
889 +
890 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
891 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
892
893 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
894 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
895
896 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
897 The total number of paths.
898
899 other
900 ~~~~~
901 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
902 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
903 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
904 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
905
906 'GIT_PAGER'::
907 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
908 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
909 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
910 linkgit:git-config[1].
911
912 'GIT_EDITOR'::
913 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
914 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
915 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
916 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
917
918 'GIT_SSH'::
919 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
920 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
921 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
922 when they need to connect to a remote system.
923 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
924 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
925 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
926 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
927 something other than the default SSH port.
928 +
929 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
930 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
931 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
932 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
933 needed).
934 +
935 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
936 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
937 for further details.
938
939 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
940 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
941 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
942 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
943 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
944 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
945
946 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
947 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
948 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
949
950 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
951 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
952 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
953 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
954 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
955 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
956 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
957
958 'GIT_FLUSH'::
959 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
960 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
961 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
962 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
963 flushed. If this
964 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
965 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
966 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
967 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
968
969 'GIT_TRACE'::
970 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
971 command execution and external command execution.
972 +
973 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
974 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
975 stderr.
976 +
977 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
978 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
979 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
980 trace messages into this file descriptor.
981 +
982 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
983 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
984 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
985 into it.
986 +
987 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
988 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
989
990 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
991 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
992 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
993 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
994 pack-related performance problems.
995 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
996
997 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
998 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
999 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1000 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1001 starting with "PACK".
1002 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1003
1004 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1005 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1006 time of each Git command.
1007 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1008
1009 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1010 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1011 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1012 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1013
1014 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1015 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1016 cloning of shallow repositories.
1017 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1018
1019 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
1020 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1021 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1022 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1023 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1024 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1025 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1026 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1027
1028 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1029 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1030 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1031
1032 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1033 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1034 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1035
1036 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1037 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1038 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1039
1040 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1041 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1042 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1043 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1044 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1045 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1046 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1047 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1048 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1049
1050 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1051 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1052 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1053 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1054 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1055 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1056 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1057 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1058 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1059 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1060
1061
1062 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1063 ------------------------
1064
1065 More detail on the following is available from the
1066 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1067 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1068
1069 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1070 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1071 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1072 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1073 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1074 as tags and branch heads.
1075
1076 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1077 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1078 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1079 and some number of parent commits.
1080
1081 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1082 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1083 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1084 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1085
1086 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1087 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1088 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1089 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1090 purpose.
1091
1092 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1093 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1094
1095 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1096 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1097 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1098 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1099 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1100 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1101
1102 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1103 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1104 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1105 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1106 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1107 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1108 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1109 content stored in the index.
1110
1111 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1112 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1113 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1114
1115 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1116 ---------------------
1117
1118 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1119 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1120 for a first-time user.
1121
1122 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1123 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1124 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1125
1126 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1127
1128 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1129 examples.
1130
1131 The internals are documented in the
1132 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1133
1134 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1135 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1136
1137
1138 Authors
1139 -------
1140 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1141 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1142 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1143 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1144
1145 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1146 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1147 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1148
1149 Reporting Bugs
1150 --------------
1151
1152 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1153 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1154 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1155
1156 SEE ALSO
1157 --------
1158 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1159 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1160 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1161 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1162 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1163
1164 GIT
1165 ---
1166 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite