Sync with 1.8.0.3
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
50 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
51 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
52 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
53
54 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
55
56 * release notes for
57 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
58 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
59 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
60 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
61 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
62
63 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
64
65 * release notes for
66 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
67 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
68 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
69 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
70 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
71 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
72 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
73 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
74
75 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
76
77 * release notes for
78 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
79 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
80 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
81 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
82 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
83 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
84
85 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
86
87 * release notes for
88 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
89 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
90 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
91 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
92 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
93 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
94 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
95 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
96
97 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
98
99 * release notes for
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
101 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
102 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
103 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
104 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
105 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
106 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
107
108 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
109
110 * release notes for
111 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
112 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
113 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
114 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
115 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
116 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
117 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
118 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
119
120 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
121
122 * release notes for
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
124 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
125 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
126 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
127 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
129 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
130
131 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
132
133 * release notes for
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
135 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
136 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
138 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
139
140 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
141
142 * release notes for
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
147 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
148 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
149
150 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
151
152 * release notes for
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
156 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
157 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
158 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
159
160 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
161
162 * release notes for
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
165 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
166 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
167 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
168 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
169
170 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
171
172 * release notes for
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
177 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
178
179 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
180
181 * release notes for
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
183 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
188 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
189 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
192
193 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
194
195 * release notes for
196 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
197 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
198 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
199 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
200
201 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
202
203 * release notes for
204 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
205 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
206 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
207 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
208 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
211 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
212 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
213 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
214
215 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
216
217 * release notes for
218 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
219 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
220 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
221 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
222 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
223 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
224
225 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
226
227 * release notes for
228 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
229 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
230 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
231 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
232 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
233
234 * release notes for
235 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
236 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
237 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
238 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
239 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
240 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
241
242 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
243
244 * release notes for
245 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
246 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
247 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
248 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
249
250 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
251
252 * release notes for
253 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
254 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
255 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
256 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
257 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
258 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
259 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
260
261 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
262
263 * release notes for
264 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
265 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
266 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
268 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
269 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
270 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
271
272 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
273
274 * release notes for
275 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
276 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
277 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
279 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
280 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
281 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
282
283 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
284
285 * release notes for
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
287 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
289 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
290 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
291 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
292 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
293 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
294
295 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
296
297 * release notes for
298 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
299 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
300 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
301 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
302 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
303 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
304 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
305 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
306 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
307
308 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
309
310 * release notes for
311 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
312 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
313 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
314 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
315 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
316 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
317
318 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
319
320 * release notes for
321 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
322 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
323 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
324 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
325 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
326 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
327 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
328
329 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
330
331 * release notes for
332 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
333 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
334 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
335 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
336 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
337 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
338 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
339
340 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
341 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
342 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
343 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
344
345 ============
346
347 endif::stalenotes[]
348
349 OPTIONS
350 -------
351 --version::
352 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
353
354 --help::
355 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
356 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
357 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
358 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
359 +
360 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
361 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
362 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
363 help ...`.
364
365 -c <name>=<value>::
366 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
367 given will override values from configuration files.
368 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
369 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
370
371 --exec-path[=<path>]::
372 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
373 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
374 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
375 the current setting and then exit.
376
377 --html-path::
378 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
379 documentation is installed and exit.
380
381 --man-path::
382 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
383 this version of git and exit.
384
385 --info-path::
386 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
387 version of git are installed and exit.
388
389 -p::
390 --paginate::
391 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
392 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
393 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
394 below).
395
396 --no-pager::
397 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
398
399 --git-dir=<path>::
400 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
401 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
402 path or relative path to current working directory.
403
404 --work-tree=<path>::
405 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
406 or a path relative to the current working directory.
407 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
408 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
409 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
410 more detailed discussion).
411
412 --namespace=<path>::
413 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
414 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
415 variable.
416
417 --bare::
418 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
419 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
420 directory.
421
422 --no-replace-objects::
423 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
424 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
425
426
427 GIT COMMANDS
428 ------------
429
430 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
431 ("plumbing") commands.
432
433 High-level commands (porcelain)
434 -------------------------------
435
436 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
437 ancillary user utilities.
438
439 Main porcelain commands
440 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
441
442 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
443
444 Ancillary Commands
445 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
446 Manipulators:
447
448 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
449
450 Interrogators:
451
452 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
453
454
455 Interacting with Others
456 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
457
458 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
459 people via patch over e-mail.
460
461 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
462
463
464 Low-level commands (plumbing)
465 -----------------------------
466
467 Although git includes its
468 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
469 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
470 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
471 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
472
473 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
474 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
475 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
476 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
477 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
478 end user experience.
479
480 The following description divides
481 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
482 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
483 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
484 repositories.
485
486
487 Manipulation commands
488 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
489
490 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
491
492
493 Interrogation commands
494 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
495
496 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
497
498 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
499 the working tree.
500
501
502 Synching repositories
503 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
504
505 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
506
507 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
508 typically do not use them directly.
509
510 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
511
512
513 Internal helper commands
514 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
515
516 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
517 users typically do not use them directly.
518
519 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
520
521
522 Configuration Mechanism
523 -----------------------
524
525 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
526 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
527 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
528 people. Here is an example:
529
530 ------------
531 #
532 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
533 #
534
535 ; core variables
536 [core]
537 ; Don't trust file modes
538 filemode = false
539
540 ; user identity
541 [user]
542 name = "Junio C Hamano"
543 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
544
545 ------------
546
547 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
548 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
549 list.
550
551
552 Identifier Terminology
553 ----------------------
554 <object>::
555 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
556
557 <blob>::
558 Indicates a blob object name.
559
560 <tree>::
561 Indicates a tree object name.
562
563 <commit>::
564 Indicates a commit object name.
565
566 <tree-ish>::
567 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
568 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
569 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
570 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
571
572 <commit-ish>::
573 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
574 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
575 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
576 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
577
578 <type>::
579 Indicates that an object type is required.
580 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
581
582 <file>::
583 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
584 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
585
586 Symbolic Identifiers
587 --------------------
588 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
589 symbolic notation:
590
591 HEAD::
592 indicates the head of the current branch.
593
594 <tag>::
595 a valid tag 'name'
596 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
597
598 <head>::
599 a valid head 'name'
600 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
601
602 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
603 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
604
605
606 File/Directory Structure
607 ------------------------
608
609 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
610
611 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
612
613 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
614 `$GIT_DIR`.
615
616
617 Terminology
618 -----------
619 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
620
621
622 Environment Variables
623 ---------------------
624 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
625
626 The git Repository
627 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
628 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
629 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
630 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
631
632 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
633 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
634 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
635 is used.
636
637 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
638 If the object storage directory is specified via this
639 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
640 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
641 directory is used.
642
643 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
644 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
645 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
646 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
647 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
648 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
649
650 'GIT_DIR'::
651 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
652 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
653 for the base of the repository.
654 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
655
656 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
657 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
658 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
659 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
660 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
661 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
662
663 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
664 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
665 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
666
667 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
668 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
669 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
670 up into while looking for a repository directory.
671 It will not exclude the current working directory or
672 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
673 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
674
675 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
676 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
677 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
678 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
679 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
680 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
681 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
682 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
683 command line.
684
685 git Commits
686 ~~~~~~~~~~~
687 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
688 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
689 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
690 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
691 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
692 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
693 'EMAIL'::
694 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
695
696 git Diffs
697 ~~~~~~~~~
698 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
699 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
700 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
701 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
702 value passed on the git diff command line.
703
704 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
705 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
706 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
707 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
708 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
709
710 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
711 +
712 where:
713
714 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
715 contents of <old|new>,
716 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
717 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
718 +
719 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
720 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
721 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
722 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
723 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
724 +
725 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
726 parameter, <path>.
727
728 other
729 ~~~~~
730 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
731 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
732 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
733 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
734
735 'GIT_PAGER'::
736 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
737 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
738 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
739 linkgit:git-config[1].
740
741 'GIT_EDITOR'::
742 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
743 It is used by several git commands when, on interactive mode,
744 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
745 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
746
747 'GIT_SSH'::
748 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
749 and 'git push' will use this command instead
750 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
751 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
752 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
753 shell command to execute on that remote system.
754 +
755 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
756 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
757 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
758 +
759 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
760 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
761 for further details.
762
763 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
764 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
765 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
766 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
767 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
768 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
769
770 'GIT_FLUSH'::
771 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
772 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
773 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
774 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
775 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
776 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
777 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
778 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
779
780 'GIT_TRACE'::
781 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
782 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
783 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
784 execution and external command execution.
785 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
786 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
787 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
788 trace messages into this file descriptor.
789 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
790 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
791 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
792 into it.
793
794 Discussion[[Discussion]]
795 ------------------------
796
797 More detail on the following is available from the
798 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
799 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
800
801 A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
802 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
803 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
804 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
805 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
806 as tags and branch heads.
807
808 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
809 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
810 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
811 and some number of parent commits.
812
813 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
814 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
815 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
816 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
817
818 All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
819 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
820 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
821 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
822 purpose.
823
824 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
825 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
826
827 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
828 may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
829 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
830 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
831 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
832 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
833
834 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
835 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
836 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
837 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
838 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
839 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
840 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
841 content stored in the index.
842
843 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
844 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
845 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
846
847 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
848 ---------------------
849
850 See the references in the "description" section to get started
851 using git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
852 for a first-time user.
853
854 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
855 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
856 introductions to the underlying git architecture.
857
858 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
859
860 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
861 examples.
862
863 The internals are documented in the
864 link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
865
866 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
867 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
868
869
870 Authors
871 -------
872 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
873 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
874 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
875 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
876
877 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
878 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
879 the authors for specific parts of the project.
880
881 Reporting Bugs
882 --------------
883
884 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
885 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
886 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
887
888 SEE ALSO
889 --------
890 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
891 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
892 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
893 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
894 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
895
896 GIT
897 ---
898 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite