Merge branch 'lt/tree-2'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-update-index.txt
1 git-update-index(1)
2 ===================
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-update-index - Modifies the index or directory cache
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git-update-index'
13 [--add] [--remove | --force-remove] [--replace]
14 [--refresh] [-q] [--unmerged] [--ignore-missing]
15 [--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <file>]\*
16 [--chmod=(+|-)x]
17 [--assume-unchanged | --no-assume-unchanged]
18 [--really-refresh] [--unresolve] [--again]
19 [--info-only] [--index-info]
20 [-z] [--stdin]
21 [--verbose]
22 [--] [<file>]\*
23
24 DESCRIPTION
25 -----------
26 Modifies the index or directory cache. Each file mentioned is updated
27 into the index and any 'unmerged' or 'needs updating' state is
28 cleared.
29
30 The way "git-update-index" handles files it is told about can be modified
31 using the various options:
32
33 OPTIONS
34 -------
35 --add::
36 If a specified file isn't in the index already then it's
37 added.
38 Default behaviour is to ignore new files.
39
40 --remove::
41 If a specified file is in the index but is missing then it's
42 removed.
43 Default behavior is to ignore removed file.
44
45 --refresh::
46 Looks at the current index and checks to see if merges or
47 updates are needed by checking stat() information.
48
49 -q::
50 Quiet. If --refresh finds that the index needs an update, the
51 default behavior is to error out. This option makes
52 git-update-index continue anyway.
53
54 --unmerged::
55 If --refresh finds unmerged changes in the index, the default
56 behavior is to error out. This option makes git-update-index
57 continue anyway.
58
59 --ignore-missing::
60 Ignores missing files during a --refresh
61
62 --cacheinfo <mode> <object> <path>::
63 Directly insert the specified info into the index.
64
65 --index-info::
66 Read index information from stdin.
67
68 --chmod=(+|-)x::
69 Set the execute permissions on the updated files.
70
71 --assume-unchanged, --no-assume-unchanged::
72 When these flags are specified, the object name recorded
73 for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
74 sets and unsets the "assume unchanged" bit for the
75 paths. When the "assume unchanged" bit is on, git stops
76 checking the working tree files for possible
77 modifications, so you need to manually unset the bit to
78 tell git when you change the working tree file. This is
79 sometimes helpful when working with a big project on a
80 filesystem that has very slow lstat(2) system call
81 (e.g. cifs).
82
83 --again::
84 Runs `git-update-index` itself on the paths whose index
85 entries are different from those from the `HEAD` commit.
86
87 --unresolve::
88 Restores the 'unmerged' or 'needs updating' state of a
89 file during a merge if it was cleared by accident.
90
91 --info-only::
92 Do not create objects in the object database for all
93 <file> arguments that follow this flag; just insert
94 their object IDs into the index.
95
96 --force-remove::
97 Remove the file from the index even when the working directory
98 still has such a file. (Implies --remove.)
99
100 --replace::
101 By default, when a file `path` exists in the index,
102 git-update-index refuses an attempt to add `path/file`.
103 Similarly if a file `path/file` exists, a file `path`
104 cannot be added. With --replace flag, existing entries
105 that conflicts with the entry being added are
106 automatically removed with warning messages.
107
108 --stdin::
109 Instead of taking list of paths from the command line,
110 read list of paths from the standard input. Paths are
111 separated by LF (i.e. one path per line) by default.
112
113 --verbose::
114 Report what is being added and removed from index.
115
116 -z::
117 Only meaningful with `--stdin`; paths are separated with
118 NUL character instead of LF.
119
120 \--::
121 Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
122
123 <file>::
124 Files to act on.
125 Note that files beginning with '.' are discarded. This includes
126 `./file` and `dir/./file`. If you don't want this, then use
127 cleaner names.
128 The same applies to directories ending '/' and paths with '//'
129
130 Using --refresh
131 ---------------
132 '--refresh' does not calculate a new sha1 file or bring the index
133 up-to-date for mode/content changes. But what it *does* do is to
134 "re-match" the stat information of a file with the index, so that you
135 can refresh the index for a file that hasn't been changed but where
136 the stat entry is out of date.
137
138 For example, you'd want to do this after doing a "git-read-tree", to link
139 up the stat index details with the proper files.
140
141 Using --cacheinfo or --info-only
142 --------------------------------
143 '--cacheinfo' is used to register a file that is not in the
144 current working directory. This is useful for minimum-checkout
145 merging.
146
147 To pretend you have a file with mode and sha1 at path, say:
148
149 ----------------
150 $ git-update-index --cacheinfo mode sha1 path
151 ----------------
152
153 '--info-only' is used to register files without placing them in the object
154 database. This is useful for status-only repositories.
155
156 Both '--cacheinfo' and '--info-only' behave similarly: the index is updated
157 but the object database isn't. '--cacheinfo' is useful when the object is
158 in the database but the file isn't available locally. '--info-only' is
159 useful when the file is available, but you do not wish to update the
160 object database.
161
162
163 Using --index-info
164 ------------------
165
166 `--index-info` is a more powerful mechanism that lets you feed
167 multiple entry definitions from the standard input, and designed
168 specifically for scripts. It can take inputs of three formats:
169
170 . mode SP sha1 TAB path
171 +
172 The first format is what "git-apply --index-info"
173 reports, and used to reconstruct a partial tree
174 that is used for phony merge base tree when falling
175 back on 3-way merge.
176
177 . mode SP type SP sha1 TAB path
178 +
179 The second format is to stuff git-ls-tree output
180 into the index file.
181
182 . mode SP sha1 SP stage TAB path
183 +
184 This format is to put higher order stages into the
185 index file and matches git-ls-files --stage output.
186
187 To place a higher stage entry to the index, the path should
188 first be removed by feeding a mode=0 entry for the path, and
189 then feeding necessary input lines in the third format.
190
191 For example, starting with this index:
192
193 ------------
194 $ git ls-files -s
195 100644 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 0 frotz
196 ------------
197
198 you can feed the following input to `--index-info`:
199
200 ------------
201 $ git update-index --index-info
202 0 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 frotz
203 100644 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 1 frotz
204 100755 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 2 frotz
205 ------------
206
207 The first line of the input feeds 0 as the mode to remove the
208 path; the SHA1 does not matter as long as it is well formatted.
209 Then the second and third line feeds stage 1 and stage 2 entries
210 for that path. After the above, we would end up with this:
211
212 ------------
213 $ git ls-files -s
214 100644 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 1 frotz
215 100755 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 2 frotz
216 ------------
217
218
219 Using "assume unchanged" bit
220 ----------------------------
221
222 Many operations in git depend on your filesystem to have an
223 efficient `lstat(2)` implementation, so that `st_mtime`
224 information for working tree files can be cheaply checked to see
225 if the file contents have changed from the version recorded in
226 the index file. Unfortunately, some filesystems have
227 inefficient `lstat(2)`. If your filesystem is one of them, you
228 can set "assume unchanged" bit to paths you have not changed to
229 cause git not to do this check. Note that setting this bit on a
230 path does not mean git will check the contents of the file to
231 see if it has changed -- it makes git to omit any checking and
232 assume it has *not* changed. When you make changes to working
233 tree files, you have to explicitly tell git about it by dropping
234 "assume unchanged" bit, either before or after you modify them.
235
236 In order to set "assume unchanged" bit, use `--assume-unchanged`
237 option. To unset, use `--no-assume-unchanged`.
238
239 The command looks at `core.ignorestat` configuration variable. When
240 this is true, paths updated with `git-update-index paths...` and
241 paths updated with other git commands that update both index and
242 working tree (e.g. `git-apply --index`, `git-checkout-index -u`,
243 and `git-read-tree -u`) are automatically marked as "assume
244 unchanged". Note that "assume unchanged" bit is *not* set if
245 `git-update-index --refresh` finds the working tree file matches
246 the index (use `git-update-index --really-refresh` if you want
247 to mark them as "assume unchanged").
248
249
250 Examples
251 --------
252 To update and refresh only the files already checked out:
253
254 ----------------
255 $ git-checkout-index -n -f -a && git-update-index --ignore-missing --refresh
256 ----------------
257
258 On an inefficient filesystem with `core.ignorestat` set::
259 +
260 ------------
261 $ git update-index --really-refresh <1>
262 $ git update-index --no-assume-unchanged foo.c <2>
263 $ git diff --name-only <3>
264 $ edit foo.c
265 $ git diff --name-only <4>
266 M foo.c
267 $ git update-index foo.c <5>
268 $ git diff --name-only <6>
269 $ edit foo.c
270 $ git diff --name-only <7>
271 $ git update-index --no-assume-unchanged foo.c <8>
272 $ git diff --name-only <9>
273 M foo.c
274 ------------
275 +
276 <1> forces lstat(2) to set "assume unchanged" bits for paths that match index.
277 <2> mark the path to be edited.
278 <3> this does lstat(2) and finds index matches the path.
279 <4> this does lstat(2) and finds index does *not* match the path.
280 <5> registering the new version to index sets "assume unchanged" bit.
281 <6> and it is assumed unchanged.
282 <7> even after you edit it.
283 <8> you can tell about the change after the fact.
284 <9> now it checks with lstat(2) and finds it has been changed.
285
286
287 Configuration
288 -------------
289
290 The command honors `core.filemode` configuration variable. If
291 your repository is on an filesystem whose executable bits are
292 unreliable, this should be set to 'false' (see gitlink:git-repo-config[1]).
293 This causes the command to ignore differences in file modes recorded
294 in the index and the file mode on the filesystem if they differ only on
295 executable bit. On such an unfortunate filesystem, you may
296 need to use `git-update-index --chmod=`.
297
298 The command looks at `core.ignorestat` configuration variable. See
299 'Using "assume unchanged" bit' section above.
300
301
302 See Also
303 --------
304 gitlink:git-repo-config[1]
305
306
307 Author
308 ------
309 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
310
311 Documentation
312 --------------
313 Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
314
315 GIT
316 ---
317 Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
318