1624a35888c2e39f70b925a2f176d53dd02b809e
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
1 git-push(1)
2 ===========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-d | --delete] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
14 [-u | --set-upstream] [--push-option=<string>]
15 [--[no-]signed|--sign=(true|false|if-asked)]
16 [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
17 [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
18
19 DESCRIPTION
20 -----------
21
22 Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
23 necessary to complete the given refs.
24
25 You can make interesting things happen to a repository
26 every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
27 documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
28
29 When the command line does not specify where to push with the
30 `<repository>` argument, `branch.*.remote` configuration for the
31 current branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the
32 configuration is missing, it defaults to 'origin'.
33
34 When the command line does not specify what to push with `<refspec>...`
35 arguments or `--all`, `--mirror`, `--tags` options, the command finds
36 the default `<refspec>` by consulting `remote.*.push` configuration,
37 and if it is not found, honors `push.default` configuration to decide
38 what to push (See linkgit:git-config[1] for the meaning of `push.default`).
39
40 When neither the command-line nor the configuration specify what to
41 push, the default behavior is used, which corresponds to the `simple`
42 value for `push.default`: the current branch is pushed to the
43 corresponding upstream branch, but as a safety measure, the push is
44 aborted if the upstream branch does not have the same name as the
45 local one.
46
47
48 OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
49 ------------------
50 <repository>::
51 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
52 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
53 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
54 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
55
56 <refspec>...::
57 Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
58 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
59 `+`, followed by the source object <src>, followed
60 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
61 +
62 The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
63 it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
64 `HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
65 +
66 The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
67 push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
68 be named.
69 If `git push [<repository>]` without any `<refspec>` argument is set to
70 update some ref at the destination with `<src>` with
71 `remote.<repository>.push` configuration variable, `:<dst>` part can
72 be omitted--such a push will update a ref that `<src>` normally updates
73 without any `<refspec>` on the command line. Otherwise, missing
74 `:<dst>` means to update the same ref as the `<src>`.
75 +
76 The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
77 on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
78 a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward
79 <dst>. By having the optional leading `+`, you can tell Git to update
80 the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by default (e.g., it is not a
81 fast-forward.) This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
82 EXAMPLES below for details.
83 +
84 `tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
85 +
86 Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
87 the remote repository.
88 +
89 The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
90 directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
91 the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
92 already exists on the remote side.
93
94 --all::
95 Push all branches (i.e. refs under `refs/heads/`); cannot be
96 used with other <refspec>.
97
98 --prune::
99 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
100 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
101 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
102 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/*` would
103 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
104 doesn't exist.
105
106 --mirror::
107 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
108 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
109 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
110 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
111 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
112 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
113 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
114 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
115 set.
116
117 -n::
118 --dry-run::
119 Do everything except actually send the updates.
120
121 --porcelain::
122 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
123 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
124 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
125
126 --delete::
127 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
128 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
129
130 --tags::
131 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
132 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
133 line.
134
135 --follow-tags::
136 Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option,
137 and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
138 from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are
139 reachable from the refs being pushed. This can also be specified
140 with configuration variable `push.followTags`. For more
141 information, see `push.followTags` in linkgit:git-config[1].
142
143 --[no-]signed::
144 --sign=(true|false|if-asked)::
145 GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving
146 side, to allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be
147 logged. If `false` or `--no-signed`, no signing will be
148 attempted. If `true` or `--signed`, the push will fail if the
149 server does not support signed pushes. If set to `if-asked`,
150 sign if and only if the server supports signed pushes. The push
151 will also fail if the actual call to `gpg --sign` fails. See
152 linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] for the details on the receiving end.
153
154 --[no-]atomic::
155 Use an atomic transaction on the remote side if available.
156 Either all refs are updated, or on error, no refs are updated.
157 If the server does not support atomic pushes the push will fail.
158
159 -o::
160 --push-option::
161 Transmit the given string to the server, which passes them to
162 the pre-receive as well as the post-receive hook. The given string
163 must not contain a NUL or LF character.
164
165 --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
166 --exec=<git-receive-pack>::
167 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
168 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
169 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
170 a directory on the default $PATH.
171
172 --[no-]force-with-lease::
173 --force-with-lease=<refname>::
174 --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>::
175 Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is
176 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
177 +
178 This option overrides this restriction if the current value of the
179 remote ref is the expected value. "git push" fails otherwise.
180 +
181 Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
182 You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
183 replace the history you originally published with the rebased history.
184 If somebody else built on top of your original history while you are
185 rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may advance with her
186 commit, and blindly pushing with `--force` will lose her work.
187 +
188 This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
189 updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
190 still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
191 other people did anything to the ref. It is like taking a "lease" on
192 the ref without explicitly locking it, and the remote ref is updated
193 only if the "lease" is still valid.
194 +
195 `--force-with-lease` alone, without specifying the details, will protect
196 all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring their
197 current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we have
198 for them.
199 +
200 `--force-with-lease=<refname>`, without specifying the expected value, will
201 protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be updated, by
202 requiring its current value to be the same as the remote-tracking
203 branch we have for it.
204 +
205 `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>` will protect the named ref (alone),
206 if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be
207 the same as the specified value `<expect>` (which is allowed to be
208 different from the remote-tracking branch we have for the refname,
209 or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch when
210 this form is used). If `<expect>` is the empty string, then the named ref
211 must not already exist.
212 +
213 Note that all forms other than `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
214 that specifies the expected current value of the ref explicitly are
215 still experimental and their semantics may change as we gain experience
216 with this feature.
217 +
218 "--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the
219 command line.
220
221 -f::
222 --force::
223 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
224 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
225 Also, when `--force-with-lease` option is used, the command refuses
226 to update a remote ref whose current value does not match
227 what is expected.
228 +
229 This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote repository
230 to lose commits; use it with care.
231 +
232 Note that `--force` applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
233 using it with `push.default` set to `matching` or with multiple push
234 destinations configured with `remote.*.push` may overwrite refs
235 other than the current branch (including local refs that are
236 strictly behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only
237 one branch, use a `+` in front of the refspec to push (e.g `git push
238 origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
239 `<refspec>...` section above for details.
240
241 --repo=<repository>::
242 This option is equivalent to the <repository> argument. If both
243 are specified, the command-line argument takes precedence.
244
245 -u::
246 --set-upstream::
247 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
248 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
249 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
250 see `branch.<name>.merge` in linkgit:git-config[1].
251
252 --[no-]thin::
253 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
254 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
255 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
256 \--thin.
257
258 -q::
259 --quiet::
260 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
261 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
262 error stream.
263
264 -v::
265 --verbose::
266 Run verbosely.
267
268 --progress::
269 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
270 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
271 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
272 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
273
274 --no-recurse-submodules::
275 --recurse-submodules=check|on-demand|only|no::
276 May be used to make sure all submodule commits used by the
277 revisions to be pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch.
278 If 'check' is used Git will verify that all submodule commits that
279 changed in the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one
280 remote of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will
281 be aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
282 all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will be
283 pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary revisions it will
284 also be aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'only' is used all
285 submodules will be recursively pushed while the superproject is left
286 unpushed. A value of 'no' or using `--no-recurse-submodules` can be used
287 to override the push.recurseSubmodules configuration variable when no
288 submodule recursion is required.
289
290 --[no-]verify::
291 Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]). The
292 default is --verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the
293 push. With --no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
294
295 -4::
296 --ipv4::
297 Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.
298
299 -6::
300 --ipv6::
301 Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.
302
303 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
304
305 OUTPUT
306 ------
307
308 The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
309 section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
310 locally or via ssh).
311
312 The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
313 representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
314
315 -------------------------------
316 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
317 -------------------------------
318
319 If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
320
321 -------------------------------
322 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
323 -------------------------------
324
325 The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
326 option is used.
327
328 flag::
329 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
330 (space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
331 `+`;; for a successful forced update;
332 `-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
333 `*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
334 `!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
335 `=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
336
337 summary::
338 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
339 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
340 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
341 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
342 +
343 For a failed update, more details are given:
344 +
345 --
346 rejected::
347 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
348 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
349
350 remote rejected::
351 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
352 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
353 of the following safety options in effect:
354 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
355 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
356 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
357 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
358
359 remote failure::
360 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
361 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
362 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
363 --
364
365 from::
366 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
367 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
368 name of the local ref is omitted.
369
370 to::
371 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
372 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
373
374 reason::
375 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
376 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
377 failure is described.
378
379 Note about fast-forwards
380 ------------------------
381
382 When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
383 point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
384 fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
385
386 In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
387 commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
388 builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
389
390 In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
391 suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
392 a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
393 leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
394
395 ----------------
396
397 B
398 /
399 ---X---A
400
401 ----------------
402
403 Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
404 back to the original repository from which you two obtained the original
405 commit X.
406
407 The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
408 commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
409
410 But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
411 now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
412 so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
413 will now start building on top of B.
414
415 The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
416 to prevent such loss of history.
417
418 If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) or the work by
419 the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
420 history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
421 by both parties, and push the result back.
422
423 You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
424 the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
425 and B.
426
427 ----------------
428
429 B---C
430 / /
431 ---X---A
432
433 ----------------
434
435 Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
436 push will be accepted.
437
438 Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
439 with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
440 create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
441 A.
442
443 ----------------
444
445 B D
446 / /
447 ---X---A
448
449 ----------------
450
451 Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
452 accepted.
453
454 There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
455 rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
456 pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
457 A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
458 commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
459 forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
460 you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
461 (and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
462 overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
463 a case where you do mean to lose history.
464
465
466 Examples
467 --------
468
469 `git push`::
470 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
471 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
472 configured for the current branch).
473
474 `git push origin`::
475 Without additional configuration, pushes the current branch to
476 the configured upstream (`remote.origin.merge` configuration
477 variable) if it has the same name as the current branch, and
478 errors out without pushing otherwise.
479 +
480 The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
481 configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
482 configuration variable.
483 +
484 For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
485 use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
486 the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
487 `git push origin`.
488
489 `git push origin :`::
490 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
491 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
492 description of "matching" branches.
493
494 `git push origin master`::
495 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
496 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
497 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
498 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
499 created.
500
501 `git push origin HEAD`::
502 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
503 remote.
504
505 `git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
506 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
507 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
508 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `mothership` repository;
509 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
510 +
511 This is to emulate `git fetch` run on the `mothership` using `git
512 push` that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate
513 the work done on `satellite`, and is often necessary when you can
514 only make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
515 mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite
516 because the latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).
517 +
518 After running this `git push` on the `satellite` machine, you would
519 ssh into the `mothership` and run `git merge` there to complete the
520 emulation of `git pull` that were run on `mothership` to pull changes
521 made on `satellite`.
522
523 `git push origin HEAD:master`::
524 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
525 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
526 branch without thinking about its local name.
527
528 `git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
529 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
530 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
531 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
532 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
533 the ref name on its own will work.
534
535 `git push origin :experimental`::
536 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
537 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
538
539 `git push origin +dev:master`::
540 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
541 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
542 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
543 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
544 +
545 ----
546 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
547 \
548 X---Y---Z dev
549 ----
550 +
551 The above command would change the origin repository to
552 +
553 ----
554 A---B (unnamed branch)
555 /
556 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
557 ----
558 +
559 Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
560 and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
561 a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
562
563 include::transfer-data-leaks.txt[]
564
565 GIT
566 ---
567 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite