1072ca0eb61e45f5049fedfd24a7512ff81ee957
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-branch.txt
1 git-branch(1)
2 =============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-branch - List, create, or delete branches
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git branch' [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [-r | -a]
12 [--list] [-v [--abbrev=<length> | --no-abbrev]]
13 [--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [--sort=<key>]
14 [(--merged | --no-merged) [<commit>]]
15 [--contains [<commit]] [--no-contains [<commit>]]
16 [--points-at <object>] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
17 'git branch' [--track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
18 'git branch' (--set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
19 'git branch' --unset-upstream [<branchname>]
20 'git branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
21 'git branch' (-c | -C) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
22 'git branch' (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>...
23 'git branch' --edit-description [<branchname>]
24
25 DESCRIPTION
26 -----------
27
28 If `--list` is given, or if there are no non-option arguments, existing
29 branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted with an
30 asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking branches to be listed,
31 and option `-a` shows both local and remote branches. If a `<pattern>`
32 is given, it is used as a shell wildcard to restrict the output to
33 matching branches. If multiple patterns are given, a branch is shown if
34 it matches any of the patterns. Note that when providing a
35 `<pattern>`, you must use `--list`; otherwise the command is interpreted
36 as branch creation.
37
38 With `--contains`, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
39 (in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
40 named commit), `--no-contains` inverts it. With `--merged`, only branches
41 merged into the named commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are
42 reachable from the named commit) will be listed. With `--no-merged` only
43 branches not merged into the named commit will be listed. If the <commit>
44 argument is missing it defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the tip of the current
45 branch).
46
47 The command's second form creates a new branch head named <branchname>
48 which points to the current `HEAD`, or <start-point> if given.
49
50 Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
51 working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
52 new branch.
53
54 When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets up the
55 branch (specifically the `branch.<name>.remote` and `branch.<name>.merge`
56 configuration entries) so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
57 the remote-tracking branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
58 `branch.autoSetupMerge` configuration flag. That setting can be
59 overridden by using the `--track` and `--no-track` options, and
60 changed later using `git branch --set-upstream-to`.
61
62 With a `-m` or `-M` option, <oldbranch> will be renamed to <newbranch>.
63 If <oldbranch> had a corresponding reflog, it is renamed to match
64 <newbranch>, and a reflog entry is created to remember the branch
65 renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename
66 to happen.
67
68 The `-c` and `-C` options have the exact same semantics as `-m` and
69 `-M`, except instead of the branch being renamed it along with its
70 config and reflog will be copied to a new name.
71
72 With a `-d` or `-D` option, `<branchname>` will be deleted. You may
73 specify more than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently
74 has a reflog then the reflog will also be deleted.
75
76 Use `-r` together with `-d` to delete remote-tracking branches. Note, that it
77 only makes sense to delete remote-tracking branches if they no longer exist
78 in the remote repository or if 'git fetch' was configured not to fetch
79 them again. See also the 'prune' subcommand of linkgit:git-remote[1] for a
80 way to clean up all obsolete remote-tracking branches.
81
82
83 OPTIONS
84 -------
85 -d::
86 --delete::
87 Delete a branch. The branch must be fully merged in its
88 upstream branch, or in `HEAD` if no upstream was set with
89 `--track` or `--set-upstream-to`.
90
91 -D::
92 Shortcut for `--delete --force`.
93
94 --create-reflog::
95 Create the branch's reflog. This activates recording of
96 all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
97 based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
98 Note that in non-bare repositories, reflogs are usually
99 enabled by default by the `core.logAllRefUpdates` config option.
100 The negated form `--no-create-reflog` only overrides an earlier
101 `--create-reflog`, but currently does not negate the setting of
102 `core.logAllRefUpdates`.
103 +
104 The `-l` option is a deprecated synonym for `--create-reflog`.
105
106 -f::
107 --force::
108 Reset <branchname> to <startpoint>, even if <branchname> exists
109 already. Without `-f`, 'git branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
110 In combination with `-d` (or `--delete`), allow deleting the
111 branch irrespective of its merged status. In combination with
112 `-m` (or `--move`), allow renaming the branch even if the new
113 branch name already exists, the same applies for `-c` (or `--copy`).
114
115 -m::
116 --move::
117 Move/rename a branch and the corresponding reflog.
118
119 -M::
120 Shortcut for `--move --force`.
121
122 -c::
123 --copy::
124 Copy a branch and the corresponding reflog.
125
126 -C::
127 Shortcut for `--copy --force`.
128
129 --color[=<when>]::
130 Color branches to highlight current, local, and
131 remote-tracking branches.
132 The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.
133
134 --no-color::
135 Turn off branch colors, even when the configuration file gives the
136 default to color output.
137 Same as `--color=never`.
138
139 -i::
140 --ignore-case::
141 Sorting and filtering branches are case insensitive.
142
143 --column[=<options>]::
144 --no-column::
145 Display branch listing in columns. See configuration variable
146 column.branch for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
147 without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never' respectively.
148 +
149 This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
150
151 -r::
152 --remotes::
153 List or delete (if used with -d) the remote-tracking branches.
154
155 -a::
156 --all::
157 List both remote-tracking branches and local branches.
158
159 --list::
160 List branches. With optional `<pattern>...`, e.g. `git
161 branch --list 'maint-*'`, list only the branches that match
162 the pattern(s).
163 +
164 This should not be confused with `git branch -l <branchname>`,
165 which creates a branch named `<branchname>` with a reflog.
166 See `--create-reflog` above for details.
167
168 -v::
169 -vv::
170 --verbose::
171 When in list mode,
172 show sha1 and commit subject line for each head, along with
173 relationship to upstream branch (if any). If given twice, print
174 the name of the upstream branch, as well (see also `git remote
175 show <remote>`).
176
177 -q::
178 --quiet::
179 Be more quiet when creating or deleting a branch, suppressing
180 non-error messages.
181
182 --abbrev=<length>::
183 Alter the sha1's minimum display length in the output listing.
184 The default value is 7 and can be overridden by the `core.abbrev`
185 config option.
186
187 --no-abbrev::
188 Display the full sha1s in the output listing rather than abbreviating them.
189
190 -t::
191 --track::
192 When creating a new branch, set up `branch.<name>.remote` and
193 `branch.<name>.merge` configuration entries to mark the
194 start-point branch as "upstream" from the new branch. This
195 configuration will tell git to show the relationship between the
196 two branches in `git status` and `git branch -v`. Furthermore,
197 it directs `git pull` without arguments to pull from the
198 upstream when the new branch is checked out.
199 +
200 This behavior is the default when the start point is a remote-tracking branch.
201 Set the branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable to `false` if you
202 want `git checkout` and `git branch` to always behave as if `--no-track`
203 were given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
204 start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
205
206 --no-track::
207 Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
208 branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is true.
209
210 --set-upstream::
211 As this option had confusing syntax, it is no longer supported.
212 Please use `--track` or `--set-upstream-to` instead.
213
214 -u <upstream>::
215 --set-upstream-to=<upstream>::
216 Set up <branchname>'s tracking information so <upstream> is
217 considered <branchname>'s upstream branch. If no <branchname>
218 is specified, then it defaults to the current branch.
219
220 --unset-upstream::
221 Remove the upstream information for <branchname>. If no branch
222 is specified it defaults to the current branch.
223
224 --edit-description::
225 Open an editor and edit the text to explain what the branch is
226 for, to be used by various other commands (e.g. `format-patch`,
227 `request-pull`, and `merge` (if enabled)). Multi-line explanations
228 may be used.
229
230 --contains [<commit>]::
231 Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD
232 if not specified). Implies `--list`.
233
234 --no-contains [<commit>]::
235 Only list branches which don't contain the specified commit
236 (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
237
238 --merged [<commit>]::
239 Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the
240 specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`,
241 incompatible with `--no-merged`.
242
243 --no-merged [<commit>]::
244 Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the
245 specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`,
246 incompatible with `--merged`.
247
248 <branchname>::
249 The name of the branch to create or delete.
250 The new branch name must pass all checks defined by
251 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
252 may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
253
254 <start-point>::
255 The new branch head will point to this commit. It may be
256 given as a branch name, a commit-id, or a tag. If this
257 option is omitted, the current HEAD will be used instead.
258
259 <oldbranch>::
260 The name of an existing branch to rename.
261
262 <newbranch>::
263 The new name for an existing branch. The same restrictions as for
264 <branchname> apply.
265
266 --sort=<key>::
267 Sort based on the key given. Prefix `-` to sort in descending
268 order of the value. You may use the --sort=<key> option
269 multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
270 key. The keys supported are the same as those in `git
271 for-each-ref`. Sort order defaults to sorting based on the
272 full refname (including `refs/...` prefix). This lists
273 detached HEAD (if present) first, then local branches and
274 finally remote-tracking branches.
275
276
277 --points-at <object>::
278 Only list branches of the given object.
279
280 --format <format>::
281 A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from a branch ref being shown
282 and the object it points at. The format is the same as
283 that of linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1].
284
285 CONFIGURATION
286 -------------
287 `pager.branch` is only respected when listing branches, i.e., when
288 `--list` is used or implied. The default is to use a pager.
289 See linkgit:git-config[1].
290
291 EXAMPLES
292 --------
293
294 Start development from a known tag::
295 +
296 ------------
297 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
298 $ cd my2.6
299 $ git branch my2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
300 $ git checkout my2.6.14
301 ------------
302 +
303 <1> This step and the next one could be combined into a single step with
304 "checkout -b my2.6.14 v2.6.14".
305
306 Delete an unneeded branch::
307 +
308 ------------
309 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/.../git.git my.git
310 $ cd my.git
311 $ git branch -d -r origin/todo origin/html origin/man <1>
312 $ git branch -D test <2>
313 ------------
314 +
315 <1> Delete the remote-tracking branches "todo", "html" and "man". The next
316 'fetch' or 'pull' will create them again unless you configure them not to.
317 See linkgit:git-fetch[1].
318 <2> Delete the "test" branch even if the "master" branch (or whichever branch
319 is currently checked out) does not have all commits from the test branch.
320
321
322 NOTES
323 -----
324
325 If you are creating a branch that you want to checkout immediately, it is
326 easier to use the git checkout command with its `-b` option to create
327 a branch and check it out with a single command.
328
329 The options `--contains`, `--no-contains`, `--merged` and `--no-merged`
330 serve four related but different purposes:
331
332 - `--contains <commit>` is used to find all branches which will need
333 special attention if <commit> were to be rebased or amended, since those
334 branches contain the specified <commit>.
335
336 - `--no-contains <commit>` is the inverse of that, i.e. branches that don't
337 contain the specified <commit>.
338
339 - `--merged` is used to find all branches which can be safely deleted,
340 since those branches are fully contained by HEAD.
341
342 - `--no-merged` is used to find branches which are candidates for merging
343 into HEAD, since those branches are not fully contained by HEAD.
344
345 SEE ALSO
346 --------
347 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1],
348 linkgit:git-fetch[1],
349 linkgit:git-remote[1],
350 link:user-manual.html#what-is-a-branch[``Understanding history: What is
351 a branch?''] in the Git User's Manual.
352
353 GIT
354 ---
355 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite