git stash: document apply's --index switch
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-stash.txt
1 git-stash(1)
2 ============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-stash - Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git-stash' (list | show [<stash>] | apply [<stash>] | clear)
12 'git-stash' [save] [message...]
13
14 DESCRIPTION
15 -----------
16
17 Use 'git-stash' when you want to record the current state of the
18 working directory and the index, but want to go back to a clean
19 working directory. The command saves your local modifications away
20 and reverts the working directory to match the `HEAD` commit.
21
22 The modifications stashed away by this command can be listed with
23 `git-stash list`, inspected with `git-stash show`, and restored
24 (potentially on top of a different commit) with `git-stash apply`.
25 Calling git-stash without any arguments is equivalent to `git-stash
26 save`. A stash is by default listed as "WIP on 'branchname' ...", but
27 you can give a more descriptive message on the command line when
28 you create one.
29
30 The latest stash you created is stored in `$GIT_DIR/refs/stash`; older
31 stashes are found in the reflog of this reference and can be named using
32 the usual reflog syntax (e.g. `stash@\{0}` is the most recently
33 created stash, `stash@\{1}` is the one before it, `stash@\{2.hours.ago}`
34 is also possible).
35
36 OPTIONS
37 -------
38
39 save::
40
41 Save your local modifications to a new 'stash', and run `git-reset
42 --hard` to revert them. This is the default action when no
43 subcommand is given.
44
45 list::
46
47 List the stashes that you currently have. Each 'stash' is listed
48 with its name (e.g. `stash@\{0}` is the latest stash, `stash@\{1}` is
49 the one before, etc.), the name of the branch that was current when the
50 stash was made, and a short description of the commit the stash was
51 based on.
52 +
53 ----------------------------------------------------------------
54 stash@{0}: WIP on submit: 6ebd0e2... Update git-stash documentation
55 stash@{1}: On master: 9cc0589... Add git-stash
56 ----------------------------------------------------------------
57
58 show [<stash>]::
59
60 Show the changes recorded in the stash as a diff between the the
61 stashed state and its original parent. When no `<stash>` is given,
62 shows the latest one. By default, the command shows the diffstat, but
63 it will accept any format known to `git-diff` (e.g., `git-stash show
64 -p stash@\{1}` to view the second most recent stash in patch form).
65
66 apply [--index] [<stash>]::
67
68 Restore the changes recorded in the stash on top of the current
69 working tree state. When no `<stash>` is given, applies the latest
70 one. The working directory must match the index.
71 +
72 This operation can fail with conflicts; you need to resolve them
73 by hand in the working tree.
74 +
75 If the `--index` option is used, then tries to reinstate not only the working
76 tree's changes, but also the index's ones. However, this can fail, when you
77 have conflicts (which are stored in the index, where you therefore can no
78 longer apply the changes as they were originally).
79
80 clear::
81 Remove all the stashed states. Note that those states will then
82 be subject to pruning, and may be difficult or impossible to recover.
83
84
85 DISCUSSION
86 ----------
87
88 A stash is represented as a commit whose tree records the state of the
89 working directory, and its first parent is the commit at `HEAD` when
90 the stash was created. The tree of the second parent records the
91 state of the index when the stash is made, and it is made a child of
92 the `HEAD` commit. The ancestry graph looks like this:
93
94 .----W
95 / /
96 -----H----I
97
98 where `H` is the `HEAD` commit, `I` is a commit that records the state
99 of the index, and `W` is a commit that records the state of the working
100 tree.
101
102
103 EXAMPLES
104 --------
105
106 Pulling into a dirty tree::
107
108 When you are in the middle of something, you learn that there are
109 upstream changes that are possibly relevant to what you are
110 doing. When your local changes do not conflict with the changes in
111 the upstream, a simple `git pull` will let you move forward.
112 +
113 However, there are cases in which your local changes do conflict with
114 the upstream changes, and `git pull` refuses to overwrite your
115 changes. In such a case, you can stash your changes away,
116 perform a pull, and then unstash, like this:
117 +
118 ----------------------------------------------------------------
119 $ git pull
120 ...
121 file foobar not up to date, cannot merge.
122 $ git stash
123 $ git pull
124 $ git stash apply
125 ----------------------------------------------------------------
126
127 Interrupted workflow::
128
129 When you are in the middle of something, your boss comes in and
130 demands that you fix something immediately. Traditionally, you would
131 make a commit to a temporary branch to store your changes away, and
132 return to your original branch to make the emergency fix, like this:
133 +
134 ----------------------------------------------------------------
135 ... hack hack hack ...
136 $ git checkout -b my_wip
137 $ git commit -a -m "WIP"
138 $ git checkout master
139 $ edit emergency fix
140 $ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
141 $ git checkout my_wip
142 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
143 ... continue hacking ...
144 ----------------------------------------------------------------
145 +
146 You can use `git-stash` to simplify the above, like this:
147 +
148 ----------------------------------------------------------------
149 ... hack hack hack ...
150 $ git stash
151 $ edit emergency fix
152 $ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
153 $ git stash apply
154 ... continue hacking ...
155 ----------------------------------------------------------------
156
157 SEE ALSO
158 --------
159 gitlink:git-checkout[1],
160 gitlink:git-commit[1],
161 gitlink:git-reflog[1],
162 gitlink:git-reset[1]
163
164 AUTHOR
165 ------
166 Written by Nanako Shiraishi <nanako3@bluebottle.com>
167
168 GIT
169 ---
170 Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite