reflog inspection: introduce shortcut "-g"
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-rev-list.txt
1 git-rev-list(1)
2 ===============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git-rev-list' [ \--max-count=number ]
13 [ \--skip=number ]
14 [ \--max-age=timestamp ]
15 [ \--min-age=timestamp ]
16 [ \--sparse ]
17 [ \--no-merges ]
18 [ \--remove-empty ]
19 [ \--not ]
20 [ \--all ]
21 [ \--stdin ]
22 [ \--topo-order ]
23 [ \--parents ]
24 [ \--encoding[=<encoding>] ]
25 [ \--(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
26 [ [\--objects | \--objects-edge] [ \--unpacked ] ]
27 [ \--pretty | \--header ]
28 [ \--bisect ]
29 [ \--merge ]
30 [ \--walk-reflogs ]
31 <commit>... [ \-- <paths>... ]
32
33 DESCRIPTION
34 -----------
35
36 Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order starting at the
37 given commit(s), taking ancestry relationship into account. This is
38 useful to produce human-readable log output.
39
40 Commits which are stated with a preceding '{caret}' cause listing to
41 stop at that point. Their parents are implied. Thus the following
42 command:
43
44 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
45 $ git-rev-list foo bar ^baz
46 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
47
48 means "list all the commits which are included in 'foo' and 'bar', but
49 not in 'baz'".
50
51 A special notation "'<commit1>'..'<commit2>'" can be used as a
52 short-hand for "{caret}'<commit1>' '<commit2>'". For example, either of
53 the following may be used interchangeably:
54
55 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
56 $ git-rev-list origin..HEAD
57 $ git-rev-list HEAD ^origin
58 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
59
60 Another special notation is "'<commit1>'...'<commit2>'" which is useful
61 for merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference
62 between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:
63
64 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
65 $ git-rev-list A B --not $(git-merge-base --all A B)
66 $ git-rev-list A...B
67 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
68
69 gitlink:git-rev-list[1] is a very essential git program, since it
70 provides the ability to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For
71 this reason, it has a lot of different options that enables it to be
72 used by commands as different as gitlink:git-bisect[1] and
73 gitlink:git-repack[1].
74
75 OPTIONS
76 -------
77
78 Commit Formatting
79 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
80
81 Using these options, gitlink:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
82 more specialized family of commit log tools: gitlink:git-log[1],
83 gitlink:git-show[1], and gitlink:git-whatchanged[1]
84
85 include::pretty-formats.txt[]
86
87 --relative-date::
88
89 Show dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2 hours ago".
90 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
91 as when using "--pretty".
92
93 --header::
94
95 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
96 separated with a NUL character.
97
98 --parents::
99
100 Print the parents of the commit.
101
102 Diff Formatting
103 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
104
105 Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
106 Some of them are specific to gitlink:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
107 options may be given. See gitlink:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
108
109 -c::
110
111 This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed. It shows
112 the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
113 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
114 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
115 which were modified from all parents.
116
117 --cc::
118
119 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
120 patch output by omitting hunks that show differences from only
121 one parent, or show the same change from all but one parent for
122 an Octopus merge.
123
124 -r::
125
126 Show recursive diffs.
127
128 -t::
129
130 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
131
132 Commit Limiting
133 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
134
135 Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
136 special notations explained in the description, additional commit
137 limiting may be applied.
138
139 --
140
141 -n 'number', --max-count='number'::
142
143 Limit the number of commits output.
144
145 --skip='number'::
146
147 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
148
149 --since='date', --after='date'::
150
151 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
152
153 --until='date', --before='date'::
154
155 Show commits older than a specific date.
156
157 --max-age='timestamp', --min-age='timestamp'::
158
159 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
160
161 --author='pattern', --committer='pattern'::
162
163 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
164 header lines that match the specified pattern.
165
166 --grep='pattern'::
167
168 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
169 matches the specified pattern.
170
171 --remove-empty::
172
173 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
174
175 --no-merges::
176
177 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
178
179 --not::
180
181 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
182 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
183
184 --all::
185
186 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/` are listed on the
187 command line as '<commit>'.
188
189 --stdin::
190
191 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
192 line, read them from the standard input.
193
194 -g, --walk-reflogs::
195
196 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
197 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
198 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
199 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
200 nor 'commit1...commit2' notations cannot be used).
201 +
202 With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
203 this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
204 taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@{Nth}' notation is
205 used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
206 'commit@{now}', output also uses 'commit@{timestamp}' notation
207 instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
208 prefixed with this information on the same line.
209
210 --merge::
211
212 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
213 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
214
215 --boundary::
216
217 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
218 not shown.
219
220 --dense, --sparse::
221
222 When optional paths are given, the default behaviour ('--dense') is to
223 only output commits that changes at least one of them, and also ignore
224 merges that do not touch the given paths.
225
226 Use the '--sparse' flag to makes the command output all eligible commits
227 (still subject to count and age limitation), but apply merge
228 simplification nevertheless.
229
230 --bisect::
231
232 Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
233 the included and excluded commits. Thus, if
234
235 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
236 $ git-rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
237 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
238
239 outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
240
241 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
242 $ git-rev-list foo ^midpoint
243 $ git-rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
244 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
245
246 would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
247 introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
248 generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
249 one.
250
251 --
252
253 Commit Ordering
254 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
255
256 By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
257
258 --topo-order::
259
260 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
261 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
262
263 --date-order::
264
265 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
266 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
267 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
268
269 Object Traversal
270 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
271
272 These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
273
274 --objects::
275
276 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
277 commits. 'git-rev-list --objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
278 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
279 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
280
281 --objects-edge::
282
283 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
284 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
285 gitlink:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
286 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
287 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
288
289 --unpacked::
290
291 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
292 in packs.
293
294 Author
295 ------
296 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
297
298 Documentation
299 --------------
300 Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano, Jonas Fonseca
301 and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
302
303 GIT
304 ---
305 Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite