remote-bzr: detect local repositories
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v1.8.0/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0],
50
51 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
52
53 * release notes for
54 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
55 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
56 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
57 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
58 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
59
60 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
61
62 * release notes for
63 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
64 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
65 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
66 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
67 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
68 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
69 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
70 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
71
72 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
73
74 * release notes for
75 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
76 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
77 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
78 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
79 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
80 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
81
82 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
83
84 * release notes for
85 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
86 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
87 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
88 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
89 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
90 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
91 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
92 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
93
94 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
95
96 * release notes for
97 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
98 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
99 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
101 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
102 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
103 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
104
105 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
106
107 * release notes for
108 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
109 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
110 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
111 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
112 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
113 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
114 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
115 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
116
117 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
118
119 * release notes for
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
122 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
124 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
125 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
126 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
127
128 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
129
130 * release notes for
131 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
132 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
135 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
136
137 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
138
139 * release notes for
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
141 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
146
147 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
148
149 * release notes for
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
156
157 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
158
159 * release notes for
160 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
165 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
166
167 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
168
169 * release notes for
170 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
171 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
175
176 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
177
178 * release notes for
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
181 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
183 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
188 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
189
190 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
191
192 * release notes for
193 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
194 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
195 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
196 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
197
198 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
199
200 * release notes for
201 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
202 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
203 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
204 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
205 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
206 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
207 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
208 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
211
212 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
213
214 * release notes for
215 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
216 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
217 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
218 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
219 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
220 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
221
222 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
223
224 * release notes for
225 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
226 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
227 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
228 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
229 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
230
231 * release notes for
232 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
233 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
234 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
235 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
236 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
237 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
238
239 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
240
241 * release notes for
242 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
243 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
244 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
245 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
246
247 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
248
249 * release notes for
250 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
251 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
252 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
253 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
254 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
255 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
256 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
257
258 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
259
260 * release notes for
261 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
262 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
263 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
264 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
265 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
266 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
268
269 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
270
271 * release notes for
272 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
273 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
274 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
275 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
276 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
277 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
279
280 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
281
282 * release notes for
283 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
284 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
285 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
287 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
289 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
290 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
291
292 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
293
294 * release notes for
295 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
296 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
297 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
298 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
299 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
300 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
301 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
302 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
303 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
304
305 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
306
307 * release notes for
308 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
309 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
310 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
311 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
312 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
313 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
314
315 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
316
317 * release notes for
318 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
319 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
320 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
321 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
322 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
323 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
324 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
325
326 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
327
328 * release notes for
329 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
330 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
331 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
332 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
333 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
334 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
335 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
336
337 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
338 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
339 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
340 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
341
342 ============
343
344 endif::stalenotes[]
345
346 OPTIONS
347 -------
348 --version::
349 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
350
351 --help::
352 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
353 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
354 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
355 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
356 +
357 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
358 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
359 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
360 help ...`.
361
362 -c <name>=<value>::
363 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
364 given will override values from configuration files.
365 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
366 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
367
368 --exec-path[=<path>]::
369 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
370 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
371 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
372 the current setting and then exit.
373
374 --html-path::
375 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
376 documentation is installed and exit.
377
378 --man-path::
379 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
380 this version of git and exit.
381
382 --info-path::
383 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
384 version of git are installed and exit.
385
386 -p::
387 --paginate::
388 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
389 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
390 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
391 below).
392
393 --no-pager::
394 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
395
396 --git-dir=<path>::
397 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
398 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
399 path or relative path to current working directory.
400
401 --work-tree=<path>::
402 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
403 or a path relative to the current working directory.
404 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
405 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
406 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
407 more detailed discussion).
408
409 --namespace=<path>::
410 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
411 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
412 variable.
413
414 --bare::
415 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
416 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
417 directory.
418
419 --no-replace-objects::
420 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
421 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
422
423
424 GIT COMMANDS
425 ------------
426
427 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
428 ("plumbing") commands.
429
430 High-level commands (porcelain)
431 -------------------------------
432
433 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
434 ancillary user utilities.
435
436 Main porcelain commands
437 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
438
439 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
440
441 Ancillary Commands
442 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
443 Manipulators:
444
445 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
446
447 Interrogators:
448
449 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
450
451
452 Interacting with Others
453 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
454
455 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
456 people via patch over e-mail.
457
458 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
459
460
461 Low-level commands (plumbing)
462 -----------------------------
463
464 Although git includes its
465 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
466 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
467 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
468 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
469
470 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
471 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
472 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
473 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
474 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
475 end user experience.
476
477 The following description divides
478 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
479 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
480 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
481 repositories.
482
483
484 Manipulation commands
485 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
486
487 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
488
489
490 Interrogation commands
491 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
492
493 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
494
495 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
496 the working tree.
497
498
499 Synching repositories
500 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
501
502 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
503
504 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
505 typically do not use them directly.
506
507 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
508
509
510 Internal helper commands
511 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
512
513 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
514 users typically do not use them directly.
515
516 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
517
518
519 Configuration Mechanism
520 -----------------------
521
522 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
523 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
524 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
525 people. Here is an example:
526
527 ------------
528 #
529 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
530 #
531
532 ; core variables
533 [core]
534 ; Don't trust file modes
535 filemode = false
536
537 ; user identity
538 [user]
539 name = "Junio C Hamano"
540 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
541
542 ------------
543
544 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
545 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
546 list.
547
548
549 Identifier Terminology
550 ----------------------
551 <object>::
552 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
553
554 <blob>::
555 Indicates a blob object name.
556
557 <tree>::
558 Indicates a tree object name.
559
560 <commit>::
561 Indicates a commit object name.
562
563 <tree-ish>::
564 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
565 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
566 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
567 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
568
569 <commit-ish>::
570 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
571 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
572 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
573 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
574
575 <type>::
576 Indicates that an object type is required.
577 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
578
579 <file>::
580 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
581 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
582
583 Symbolic Identifiers
584 --------------------
585 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
586 symbolic notation:
587
588 HEAD::
589 indicates the head of the current branch.
590
591 <tag>::
592 a valid tag 'name'
593 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
594
595 <head>::
596 a valid head 'name'
597 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
598
599 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
600 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
601
602
603 File/Directory Structure
604 ------------------------
605
606 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
607
608 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
609
610 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
611 `$GIT_DIR`.
612
613
614 Terminology
615 -----------
616 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
617
618
619 Environment Variables
620 ---------------------
621 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
622
623 The git Repository
624 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
625 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
626 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
627 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
628
629 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
630 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
631 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
632 is used.
633
634 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
635 If the object storage directory is specified via this
636 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
637 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
638 directory is used.
639
640 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
641 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
642 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
643 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
644 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
645 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
646
647 'GIT_DIR'::
648 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
649 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
650 for the base of the repository.
651
652 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
653 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
654 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
655 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
656 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
657 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
658
659 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
660 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
661 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
662
663 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
664 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
665 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
666 up into while looking for a repository directory.
667 It will not exclude the current working directory or
668 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
669 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
670
671 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
672 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
673 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
674 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
675 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
676 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
677 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
678 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
679 command line.
680
681 git Commits
682 ~~~~~~~~~~~
683 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
684 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
685 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
686 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
687 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
688 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
689 'EMAIL'::
690 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
691
692 git Diffs
693 ~~~~~~~~~
694 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
695 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
696 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
697 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
698 value passed on the git diff command line.
699
700 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
701 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
702 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
703 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
704 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
705
706 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
707 +
708 where:
709
710 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
711 contents of <old|new>,
712 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
713 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
714 +
715 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
716 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
717 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
718 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
719 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
720 +
721 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
722 parameter, <path>.
723
724 other
725 ~~~~~
726 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
727 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
728 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
729 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
730
731 'GIT_PAGER'::
732 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
733 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
734 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
735 linkgit:git-config[1].
736
737 'GIT_EDITOR'::
738 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
739 It is used by several git commands when, on interactive mode,
740 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
741 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
742
743 'GIT_SSH'::
744 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
745 and 'git push' will use this command instead
746 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
747 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
748 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
749 shell command to execute on that remote system.
750 +
751 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
752 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
753 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
754 +
755 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
756 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
757 for further details.
758
759 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
760 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
761 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
762 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
763 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
764 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
765
766 'GIT_FLUSH'::
767 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
768 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
769 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
770 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
771 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
772 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
773 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
774 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
775
776 'GIT_TRACE'::
777 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
778 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
779 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
780 execution and external command execution.
781 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
782 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
783 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
784 trace messages into this file descriptor.
785 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
786 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
787 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
788 into it.
789
790 Discussion[[Discussion]]
791 ------------------------
792
793 More detail on the following is available from the
794 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
795 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
796
797 A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
798 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
799 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
800 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
801 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
802 as tags and branch heads.
803
804 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
805 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
806 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
807 and some number of parent commits.
808
809 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
810 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
811 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
812 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
813
814 All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
815 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
816 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
817 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
818 purpose.
819
820 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
821 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
822
823 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
824 may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
825 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
826 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
827 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
828 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
829
830 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
831 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
832 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
833 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
834 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
835 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
836 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
837 content stored in the index.
838
839 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
840 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
841 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
842
843 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
844 ---------------------
845
846 See the references in the "description" section to get started
847 using git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
848 for a first-time user.
849
850 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
851 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
852 introductions to the underlying git architecture.
853
854 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
855
856 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
857 examples.
858
859 The internals are documented in the
860 link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
861
862 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
863 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
864
865
866 Authors
867 -------
868 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
869 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
870 <git@vger.kernel.org>. For a more complete list of contributors, see
871 http://git-scm.com/about. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
872 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
873 the authors for specific parts of the project.
874
875 Reporting Bugs
876 --------------
877
878 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
879 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
880 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
881
882 SEE ALSO
883 --------
884 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
885 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
886 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
887 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
888 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
889
890 GIT
891 ---
892 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite