Merge branch 'ps/t1509-chroot-test-fixup'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.5.0/git.html[documentation for release 2.5]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.5.0.txt[2.5].
50
51 * link:v2.4.8/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.8]
52
53 * release notes for
54 link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
55 link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
56 link:RelNotes/2.4.6.txt[2.4.6],
57 link:RelNotes/2.4.5.txt[2.4.5],
58 link:RelNotes/2.4.4.txt[2.4.4],
59 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
60 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
61 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
62 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
63
64 * link:v2.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.8]
65
66 * release notes for
67 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
68 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
69 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
70 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
71 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
72 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
73 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
74 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
75 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
76
77 * link:v2.2.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.2]
78
79 * release notes for
80 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
81 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
82 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
83
84 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
85
86 * release notes for
87 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
88 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
89 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
90 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
91 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
92
93 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
94
95 * release notes for
96 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
97 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
98 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
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100 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
101 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
102
103 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
104
105 * release notes for
106 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
107 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
108 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
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110 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
111 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
112
113 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
114
115 * release notes for
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117 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
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122 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
123
124 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
125
126 * release notes for
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128 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
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131 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
132 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
133
134 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
135
136 * release notes for
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141 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
142
143 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
144
145 * release notes for
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147 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
148 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
149 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
150
151 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
152
153 * release notes for
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155 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
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160 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
161
162 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
163
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168 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
169
170 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
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172 * release notes for
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177 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
178
179 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
180
181 * release notes for
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189 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
190
191 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
192
193 * release notes for
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195 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
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199 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
200
201 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
202
203 * release notes for
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211 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
212
213 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
214
215 * release notes for
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224 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
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236 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
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238 * release notes for
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245 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
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247 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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256 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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266 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
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276 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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295 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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309 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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317 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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331 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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440 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
443 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
444
445 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
446
447 * release notes for
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
452 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
454 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
455
456 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
457 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
458 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
459 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
460
461 ============
462
463 endif::stalenotes[]
464
465 OPTIONS
466 -------
467 --version::
468 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
469
470 --help::
471 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
472 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
473 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
474 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
475 +
476 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
477 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
478 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
479 help ...`.
480
481 -C <path>::
482 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
483 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
484 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
485 <path>`.
486 +
487 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
488 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
489 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
490 example the following invocations are equivalent:
491
492 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
493 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
494
495 -c <name>=<value>::
496 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
497 given will override values from configuration files.
498 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
499 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
500 +
501 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
502 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
503 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
504 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
505
506 --exec-path[=<path>]::
507 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
508 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
509 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
510 the current setting and then exit.
511
512 --html-path::
513 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
514 documentation is installed and exit.
515
516 --man-path::
517 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
518 this version of Git and exit.
519
520 --info-path::
521 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
522 version of Git are installed and exit.
523
524 -p::
525 --paginate::
526 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
527 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
528 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
529 below).
530
531 --no-pager::
532 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
533
534 --git-dir=<path>::
535 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
536 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
537 path or relative path to current working directory.
538
539 --work-tree=<path>::
540 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
541 or a path relative to the current working directory.
542 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
543 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
544 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
545 more detailed discussion).
546
547 --namespace=<path>::
548 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
549 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
550 variable.
551
552 --bare::
553 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
554 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
555 directory.
556
557 --no-replace-objects::
558 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
559 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
560
561 --literal-pathspecs::
562 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
563 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
564 variable to `1`.
565
566 --glob-pathspecs::
567 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
568 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
569 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
570 magic ":(literal)"
571
572 --noglob-pathspecs::
573 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
574 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
575 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
576 magic ":(glob)"
577
578 --icase-pathspecs::
579 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
580 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
581
582 GIT COMMANDS
583 ------------
584
585 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
586 ("plumbing") commands.
587
588 High-level commands (porcelain)
589 -------------------------------
590
591 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
592 ancillary user utilities.
593
594 Main porcelain commands
595 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
596
597 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
598
599 Ancillary Commands
600 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
601 Manipulators:
602
603 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
604
605 Interrogators:
606
607 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
608
609
610 Interacting with Others
611 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
612
613 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
614 people via patch over e-mail.
615
616 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
617
618
619 Low-level commands (plumbing)
620 -----------------------------
621
622 Although Git includes its
623 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
624 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
625 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
626 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
627
628 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
629 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
630 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
631 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
632 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
633 end user experience.
634
635 The following description divides
636 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
637 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
638 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
639 repositories.
640
641
642 Manipulation commands
643 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
644
645 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
646
647
648 Interrogation commands
649 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
650
651 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
652
653 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
654 the working tree.
655
656
657 Synching repositories
658 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
659
660 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
661
662 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
663 typically do not use them directly.
664
665 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
666
667
668 Internal helper commands
669 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
670
671 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
672 users typically do not use them directly.
673
674 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
675
676
677 Configuration Mechanism
678 -----------------------
679
680 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
681 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
682 like this:
683
684 ------------
685 #
686 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
687 #
688
689 ; core variables
690 [core]
691 ; Don't trust file modes
692 filemode = false
693
694 ; user identity
695 [user]
696 name = "Junio C Hamano"
697 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
698
699 ------------
700
701 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
702 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
703 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
704
705
706 Identifier Terminology
707 ----------------------
708 <object>::
709 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
710
711 <blob>::
712 Indicates a blob object name.
713
714 <tree>::
715 Indicates a tree object name.
716
717 <commit>::
718 Indicates a commit object name.
719
720 <tree-ish>::
721 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
722 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
723 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
724 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
725
726 <commit-ish>::
727 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
728 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
729 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
730 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
731
732 <type>::
733 Indicates that an object type is required.
734 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
735
736 <file>::
737 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
738 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
739
740 Symbolic Identifiers
741 --------------------
742 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
743 symbolic notation:
744
745 HEAD::
746 indicates the head of the current branch.
747
748 <tag>::
749 a valid tag 'name'
750 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
751
752 <head>::
753 a valid head 'name'
754 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
755
756 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
757 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
758
759
760 File/Directory Structure
761 ------------------------
762
763 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
764
765 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
766
767 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
768 `$GIT_DIR`.
769
770
771 Terminology
772 -----------
773 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
774
775
776 Environment Variables
777 ---------------------
778 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
779
780 The Git Repository
781 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
782 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
783 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
784 Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
785
786 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
787 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
788 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
789 is used.
790
791 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
792 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
793 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
794 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
795 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
796
797 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
798 If the object storage directory is specified via this
799 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
800 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
801 directory is used.
802
803 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
804 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
805 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
806 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
807 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
808 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
809
810 'GIT_DIR'::
811 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
812 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
813 for the base of the repository.
814 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
815
816 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
817 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
818 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
819 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
820
821 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
822 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
823 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
824
825 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
826 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
827 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
828 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
829 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
830 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
831 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
832 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
833 might be present in order to compare them with the current
834 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
835 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
836 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
837 e.g.,
838 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
839
840 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
841 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
842 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
843 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
844 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
845 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
846 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
847 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
848 command line.
849
850 'GIT_COMMON_DIR'::
851 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
852 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
853 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
854 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
855 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
856 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
857 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
858
859 Git Commits
860 ~~~~~~~~~~~
861 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
862 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
863 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
864 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
865 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
866 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
867 'EMAIL'::
868 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
869
870 Git Diffs
871 ~~~~~~~~~
872 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
873 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
874 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
875 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
876 value passed on the Git diff command line.
877
878 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
879 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
880 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
881 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
882 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
883
884 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
885 +
886 where:
887
888 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
889 contents of <old|new>,
890 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
891 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
892 +
893 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
894 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
895 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
896 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
897 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
898 +
899 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
900 parameter, <path>.
901 +
902 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
903 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
904
905 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
906 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
907
908 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
909 The total number of paths.
910
911 other
912 ~~~~~
913 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
914 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
915 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
916 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
917
918 'GIT_PAGER'::
919 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
920 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
921 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
922 linkgit:git-config[1].
923
924 'GIT_EDITOR'::
925 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
926 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
927 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
928 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
929
930 'GIT_SSH'::
931 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
932 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
933 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
934 when they need to connect to a remote system.
935 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
936 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
937 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
938 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
939 something other than the default SSH port.
940 +
941 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
942 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
943 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
944 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
945 needed).
946 +
947 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
948 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
949 for further details.
950
951 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
952 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
953 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
954 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
955 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
956 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
957
958 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
959 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
960 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
961
962 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
963 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
964 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
965 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
966 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
967 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
968 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
969
970 'GIT_FLUSH'::
971 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
972 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
973 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
974 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
975 flushed. If this
976 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
977 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
978 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
979 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
980
981 'GIT_TRACE'::
982 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
983 command execution and external command execution.
984 +
985 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
986 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
987 stderr.
988 +
989 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
990 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
991 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
992 trace messages into this file descriptor.
993 +
994 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
995 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
996 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
997 into it.
998 +
999 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1000 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
1001
1002 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
1003 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
1004 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1005 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1006 pack-related performance problems.
1007 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1008
1009 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
1010 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1011 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1012 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1013 starting with "PACK" (but see 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE' below).
1014 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1015
1016 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE'::
1017 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1018 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1019 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1020 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1021 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1022 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1023 +
1024 Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1025 of clones and fetches.
1026
1027 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1028 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1029 time of each Git command.
1030 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1031
1032 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1033 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1034 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1035 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1036
1037 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1038 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1039 cloning of shallow repositories.
1040 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1041
1042 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
1043 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1044 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1045 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1046 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1047 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1048 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1049 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1050
1051 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1052 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1053 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1054
1055 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1056 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1057 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1058
1059 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1060 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1061 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1062
1063 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1064 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1065 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1066 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1067 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1068 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1069 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1070 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1071 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1072
1073 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1074 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1075 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1076 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1077 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1078 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1079 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1080 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1081 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1082 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1083
1084
1085 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1086 ------------------------
1087
1088 More detail on the following is available from the
1089 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1090 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1091
1092 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1093 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1094 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1095 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1096 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1097 as tags and branch heads.
1098
1099 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1100 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1101 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1102 and some number of parent commits.
1103
1104 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1105 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1106 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1107 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1108
1109 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1110 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1111 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1112 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1113 purpose.
1114
1115 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1116 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1117
1118 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1119 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1120 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1121 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1122 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1123 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1124
1125 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1126 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1127 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1128 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1129 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1130 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1131 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1132 content stored in the index.
1133
1134 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1135 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1136 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1137
1138 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1139 ---------------------
1140
1141 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1142 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1143 for a first-time user.
1144
1145 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1146 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1147 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1148
1149 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1150
1151 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1152 examples.
1153
1154 The internals are documented in the
1155 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1156
1157 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1158 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1159
1160
1161 Authors
1162 -------
1163 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1164 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1165 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1166 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1167
1168 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1169 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1170 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1171
1172 Reporting Bugs
1173 --------------
1174
1175 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1176 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1177 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1178
1179 SEE ALSO
1180 --------
1181 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1182 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1183 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1184 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1185 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1186
1187 GIT
1188 ---
1189 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite