Merge branch 'ps/t1509-chroot-test-fixup'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-send-email.txt
1 git-send-email(1)
2 =================
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-send-email - Send a collection of patches as emails
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git send-email' [options] <file|directory|rev-list options>...
13
14
15 DESCRIPTION
16 -----------
17 Takes the patches given on the command line and emails them out.
18 Patches can be specified as files, directories (which will send all
19 files in the directory), or directly as a revision list. In the
20 last case, any format accepted by linkgit:git-format-patch[1] can
21 be passed to git send-email.
22
23 The header of the email is configurable via command-line options. If not
24 specified on the command line, the user will be prompted with a ReadLine
25 enabled interface to provide the necessary information.
26
27 There are two formats accepted for patch files:
28
29 1. mbox format files
30 +
31 This is what linkgit:git-format-patch[1] generates. Most headers and MIME
32 formatting are ignored.
33
34 2. The original format used by Greg Kroah-Hartman's 'send_lots_of_email.pl'
35 script
36 +
37 This format expects the first line of the file to contain the "Cc:" value
38 and the "Subject:" of the message as the second line.
39
40
41 OPTIONS
42 -------
43
44 Composing
45 ~~~~~~~~~
46
47 --annotate::
48 Review and edit each patch you're about to send. Default is the value
49 of 'sendemail.annotate'. See the CONFIGURATION section for
50 'sendemail.multiEdit'.
51
52 --bcc=<address>,...::
53 Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
54 'sendemail.bcc'.
55 +
56 This option may be specified multiple times.
57
58 --cc=<address>,...::
59 Specify a starting "Cc:" value for each email.
60 Default is the value of 'sendemail.cc'.
61 +
62 This option may be specified multiple times.
63
64 --compose::
65 Invoke a text editor (see GIT_EDITOR in linkgit:git-var[1])
66 to edit an introductory message for the patch series.
67 +
68 When '--compose' is used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and
69 In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the body of the message
70 (what you type after the headers and a blank line) only contains blank
71 (or Git: prefixed) lines, the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
72 and In-Reply-To headers will be used unless they are removed.
73 +
74 Missing From or In-Reply-To headers will be prompted for.
75 +
76 See the CONFIGURATION section for 'sendemail.multiEdit'.
77
78 --from=<address>::
79 Specify the sender of the emails. If not specified on the command line,
80 the value of the 'sendemail.from' configuration option is used. If
81 neither the command-line option nor 'sendemail.from' are set, then the
82 user will be prompted for the value. The default for the prompt will be
83 the value of GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT, or GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT if that is not
84 set, as returned by "git var -l".
85
86 --in-reply-to=<identifier>::
87 Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
88 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
89 provide a new patch series.
90 The second and subsequent emails will be sent as replies according to
91 the `--[no]-chain-reply-to` setting.
92 +
93 So for example when `--thread` and `--no-chain-reply-to` are specified, the
94 second and subsequent patches will be replies to the first one like in the
95 illustration below where `[PATCH v2 0/3]` is in reply to `[PATCH 0/2]`:
96 +
97 [PATCH 0/2] Here is what I did...
98 [PATCH 1/2] Clean up and tests
99 [PATCH 2/2] Implementation
100 [PATCH v2 0/3] Here is a reroll
101 [PATCH v2 1/3] Clean up
102 [PATCH v2 2/3] New tests
103 [PATCH v2 3/3] Implementation
104 +
105 Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
106 is not set, this will be prompted for.
107
108 --subject=<string>::
109 Specify the initial subject of the email thread.
110 Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
111 is not set, this will be prompted for.
112
113 --to=<address>,...::
114 Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated. Generally, this
115 will be the upstream maintainer of the project involved. Default is the
116 value of the 'sendemail.to' configuration value; if that is unspecified,
117 and --to-cmd is not specified, this will be prompted for.
118 +
119 This option may be specified multiple times.
120
121 --8bit-encoding=<encoding>::
122 When encountering a non-ASCII message or subject that does not
123 declare its encoding, add headers/quoting to indicate it is
124 encoded in <encoding>. Default is the value of the
125 'sendemail.assume8bitEncoding'; if that is unspecified, this
126 will be prompted for if any non-ASCII files are encountered.
127 +
128 Note that no attempts whatsoever are made to validate the encoding.
129
130 --compose-encoding=<encoding>::
131 Specify encoding of compose message. Default is the value of the
132 'sendemail.composeencoding'; if that is unspecified, UTF-8 is assumed.
133
134 --transfer-encoding=(7bit|8bit|quoted-printable|base64)::
135 Specify the transfer encoding to be used to send the message over SMTP.
136 7bit will fail upon encountering a non-ASCII message. quoted-printable
137 can be useful when the repository contains files that contain carriage
138 returns, but makes the raw patch email file (as saved from a MUA) much
139 harder to inspect manually. base64 is even more fool proof, but also
140 even more opaque. Default is the value of the 'sendemail.transferEncoding'
141 configuration value; if that is unspecified, git will use 8bit and not
142 add a Content-Transfer-Encoding header.
143
144 --xmailer::
145 --no-xmailer::
146 Add (or prevent adding) the "X-Mailer:" header. By default,
147 the header is added, but it can be turned off by setting the
148 `sendemail.xmailer` configuration variable to `false`.
149
150 Sending
151 ~~~~~~~
152
153 --envelope-sender=<address>::
154 Specify the envelope sender used to send the emails.
155 This is useful if your default address is not the address that is
156 subscribed to a list. In order to use the 'From' address, set the
157 value to "auto". If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
158 suitable privileges for the -f parameter. Default is the value of the
159 'sendemail.envelopeSender' configuration variable; if that is
160 unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left to your MTA.
161
162 --smtp-encryption=<encryption>::
163 Specify the encryption to use, either 'ssl' or 'tls'. Any other
164 value reverts to plain SMTP. Default is the value of
165 'sendemail.smtpEncryption'.
166
167 --smtp-domain=<FQDN>::
168 Specifies the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) used in the
169 HELO/EHLO command to the SMTP server. Some servers require the
170 FQDN to match your IP address. If not set, git send-email attempts
171 to determine your FQDN automatically. Default is the value of
172 'sendemail.smtpDomain'.
173
174 --smtp-pass[=<password>]::
175 Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no
176 argument is specified, then the empty string is used as
177 the password. Default is the value of 'sendemail.smtpPass',
178 however '--smtp-pass' always overrides this value.
179 +
180 Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files
181 or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
182 '--smtp-user' or a 'sendemail.smtpUser'), but no password has been
183 specified (with '--smtp-pass' or 'sendemail.smtpPass'), then
184 a password is obtained using 'git-credential'.
185
186 --smtp-server=<host>::
187 If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
188 `smtp.example.com` or a raw IP address). Alternatively it can
189 specify a full pathname of a sendmail-like program instead;
190 the program must support the `-i` option. Default value can
191 be specified by the 'sendemail.smtpServer' configuration
192 option; the built-in default is `/usr/sbin/sendmail` or
193 `/usr/lib/sendmail` if such program is available, or
194 `localhost` otherwise.
195
196 --smtp-server-port=<port>::
197 Specifies a port different from the default port (SMTP
198 servers typically listen to smtp port 25, but may also listen to
199 submission port 587, or the common SSL smtp port 465);
200 symbolic port names (e.g. "submission" instead of 587)
201 are also accepted. The port can also be set with the
202 'sendemail.smtpServerPort' configuration variable.
203
204 --smtp-server-option=<option>::
205 If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server option to use.
206 Default value can be specified by the 'sendemail.smtpServerOption'
207 configuration option.
208 +
209 The --smtp-server-option option must be repeated for each option you want
210 to pass to the server. Likewise, different lines in the configuration files
211 must be used for each option.
212
213 --smtp-ssl::
214 Legacy alias for '--smtp-encryption ssl'.
215
216 --smtp-ssl-cert-path::
217 Path to a store of trusted CA certificates for SMTP SSL/TLS
218 certificate validation (either a directory that has been processed
219 by 'c_rehash', or a single file containing one or more PEM format
220 certificates concatenated together: see verify(1) -CAfile and
221 -CApath for more information on these). Set it to an empty string
222 to disable certificate verification. Defaults to the value of the
223 'sendemail.smtpsslcertpath' configuration variable, if set, or the
224 backing SSL library's compiled-in default otherwise (which should
225 be the best choice on most platforms).
226
227 --smtp-user=<user>::
228 Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of 'sendemail.smtpUser';
229 if a username is not specified (with '--smtp-user' or 'sendemail.smtpUser'),
230 then authentication is not attempted.
231
232 --smtp-debug=0|1::
233 Enable (1) or disable (0) debug output. If enabled, SMTP
234 commands and replies will be printed. Useful to debug TLS
235 connection and authentication problems.
236
237 Automating
238 ~~~~~~~~~~
239
240 --to-cmd=<command>::
241 Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
242 should generate patch file specific "To:" entries.
243 Output of this command must be single email address per line.
244 Default is the value of 'sendemail.tocmd' configuration value.
245
246 --cc-cmd=<command>::
247 Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
248 should generate patch file specific "Cc:" entries.
249 Output of this command must be single email address per line.
250 Default is the value of 'sendemail.ccCmd' configuration value.
251
252 --[no-]chain-reply-to::
253 If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to the previous
254 email sent. If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails after
255 the first will be sent as replies to the first email sent. When using
256 this, it is recommended that the first file given be an overview of the
257 entire patch series. Disabled by default, but the 'sendemail.chainReplyTo'
258 configuration variable can be used to enable it.
259
260 --identity=<identity>::
261 A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the
262 'sendemail.<identity>' subsection to take precedence over
263 values in the 'sendemail' section. The default identity is
264 the value of 'sendemail.identity'.
265
266 --[no-]signed-off-by-cc::
267 If this is set, add emails found in Signed-off-by: or Cc: lines to the
268 cc list. Default is the value of 'sendemail.signedoffbycc' configuration
269 value; if that is unspecified, default to --signed-off-by-cc.
270
271 --[no-]cc-cover::
272 If this is set, emails found in Cc: headers in the first patch of
273 the series (typically the cover letter) are added to the cc list
274 for each email set. Default is the value of 'sendemail.cccover'
275 configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-cc-cover.
276
277 --[no-]to-cover::
278 If this is set, emails found in To: headers in the first patch of
279 the series (typically the cover letter) are added to the to list
280 for each email set. Default is the value of 'sendemail.tocover'
281 configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-to-cover.
282
283 --suppress-cc=<category>::
284 Specify an additional category of recipients to suppress the
285 auto-cc of:
286 +
287 --
288 - 'author' will avoid including the patch author
289 - 'self' will avoid including the sender
290 - 'cc' will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in the patch header
291 except for self (use 'self' for that).
292 - 'bodycc' will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in the
293 patch body (commit message) except for self (use 'self' for that).
294 - 'sob' will avoid including anyone mentioned in Signed-off-by lines except
295 for self (use 'self' for that).
296 - 'cccmd' will avoid running the --cc-cmd.
297 - 'body' is equivalent to 'sob' + 'bodycc'
298 - 'all' will suppress all auto cc values.
299 --
300 +
301 Default is the value of 'sendemail.suppresscc' configuration value; if
302 that is unspecified, default to 'self' if --suppress-from is
303 specified, as well as 'body' if --no-signed-off-cc is specified.
304
305 --[no-]suppress-from::
306 If this is set, do not add the From: address to the cc: list.
307 Default is the value of 'sendemail.suppressFrom' configuration
308 value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-suppress-from.
309
310 --[no-]thread::
311 If this is set, the In-Reply-To and References headers will be
312 added to each email sent. Whether each mail refers to the
313 previous email (`deep` threading per 'git format-patch'
314 wording) or to the first email (`shallow` threading) is
315 governed by "--[no-]chain-reply-to".
316 +
317 If disabled with "--no-thread", those headers will not be added
318 (unless specified with --in-reply-to). Default is the value of the
319 'sendemail.thread' configuration value; if that is unspecified,
320 default to --thread.
321 +
322 It is up to the user to ensure that no In-Reply-To header already
323 exists when 'git send-email' is asked to add it (especially note that
324 'git format-patch' can be configured to do the threading itself).
325 Failure to do so may not produce the expected result in the
326 recipient's MUA.
327
328
329 Administering
330 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
331
332 --confirm=<mode>::
333 Confirm just before sending:
334 +
335 --
336 - 'always' will always confirm before sending
337 - 'never' will never confirm before sending
338 - 'cc' will confirm before sending when send-email has automatically
339 added addresses from the patch to the Cc list
340 - 'compose' will confirm before sending the first message when using --compose.
341 - 'auto' is equivalent to 'cc' + 'compose'
342 --
343 +
344 Default is the value of 'sendemail.confirm' configuration value; if that
345 is unspecified, default to 'auto' unless any of the suppress options
346 have been specified, in which case default to 'compose'.
347
348 --dry-run::
349 Do everything except actually send the emails.
350
351 --[no-]format-patch::
352 When an argument may be understood either as a reference or as a file name,
353 choose to understand it as a format-patch argument ('--format-patch')
354 or as a file name ('--no-format-patch'). By default, when such a conflict
355 occurs, git send-email will fail.
356
357 --quiet::
358 Make git-send-email less verbose. One line per email should be
359 all that is output.
360
361 --[no-]validate::
362 Perform sanity checks on patches.
363 Currently, validation means the following:
364 +
365 --
366 * Warn of patches that contain lines longer than 998 characters; this
367 is due to SMTP limits as described by http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2821.txt.
368 --
369 +
370 Default is the value of 'sendemail.validate'; if this is not set,
371 default to '--validate'.
372
373 --force::
374 Send emails even if safety checks would prevent it.
375
376
377 CONFIGURATION
378 -------------
379
380 sendemail.aliasesFile::
381 To avoid typing long email addresses, point this to one or more
382 email aliases files. You must also supply 'sendemail.aliasFileType'.
383
384 sendemail.aliasFileType::
385 Format of the file(s) specified in sendemail.aliasesFile. Must be
386 one of 'mutt', 'mailrc', 'pine', 'elm', or 'gnus', or 'sendmail'.
387 +
388 What an alias file in each format looks like can be found in
389 the documentation of the email program of the same name. The
390 differences and limitations from the standard formats are
391 described below:
392 +
393 --
394 sendmail;;
395 * Quoted aliases and quoted addresses are not supported: lines that
396 contain a `"` symbol are ignored.
397 * Redirection to a file (`/path/name`) or pipe (`|command`) is not
398 supported.
399 * File inclusion (`:include: /path/name`) is not supported.
400 * Warnings are printed on the standard error output for any
401 explicitly unsupported constructs, and any other lines that are not
402 recognized by the parser.
403 --
404
405 sendemail.multiEdit::
406 If true (default), a single editor instance will be spawned to edit
407 files you have to edit (patches when '--annotate' is used, and the
408 summary when '--compose' is used). If false, files will be edited one
409 after the other, spawning a new editor each time.
410
411 sendemail.confirm::
412 Sets the default for whether to confirm before sending. Must be
413 one of 'always', 'never', 'cc', 'compose', or 'auto'. See '--confirm'
414 in the previous section for the meaning of these values.
415
416 EXAMPLE
417 -------
418 Use gmail as the smtp server
419 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
420 To use 'git send-email' to send your patches through the GMail SMTP server,
421 edit ~/.gitconfig to specify your account settings:
422
423 [sendemail]
424 smtpEncryption = tls
425 smtpServer = smtp.gmail.com
426 smtpUser = yourname@gmail.com
427 smtpServerPort = 587
428
429 Once your commits are ready to be sent to the mailing list, run the
430 following commands:
431
432 $ git format-patch --cover-letter -M origin/master -o outgoing/
433 $ edit outgoing/0000-*
434 $ git send-email outgoing/*
435
436 Note: the following perl modules are required
437 Net::SMTP::SSL, MIME::Base64 and Authen::SASL
438
439 SEE ALSO
440 --------
441 linkgit:git-format-patch[1], linkgit:git-imap-send[1], mbox(5)
442
443 GIT
444 ---
445 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite