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[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
d0e8e09c 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
38a25591 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-d | --delete] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
97c5d246 14 [-u | --set-upstream] [-o <string> | --push-option=<string>]
a81383ba 15 [--[no-]signed|--signed=(true|false|if-asked)]
28f5d176 16 [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
90d32d1f 17 [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
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18
19DESCRIPTION
20-----------
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21
22Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
23necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 24
cc55aaec 25You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 26every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 27documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 28
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29When the command line does not specify where to push with the
30`<repository>` argument, `branch.*.remote` configuration for the
31current branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the
32configuration is missing, it defaults to 'origin'.
33
34When the command line does not specify what to push with `<refspec>...`
35arguments or `--all`, `--mirror`, `--tags` options, the command finds
36the default `<refspec>` by consulting `remote.*.push` configuration,
37and if it is not found, honors `push.default` configuration to decide
366c8d4c 38what to push (See linkgit:git-config[1] for the meaning of `push.default`).
cfe1348d 39
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40When neither the command-line nor the configuration specify what to
41push, the default behavior is used, which corresponds to the `simple`
42value for `push.default`: the current branch is pushed to the
43corresponding upstream branch, but as a safety measure, the push is
44aborted if the upstream branch does not have the same name as the
45local one.
46
7fc9d69f 47
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48OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
49------------------
3598a308 50<repository>::
85a97d4e 51 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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52 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
53 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
54 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 55
2c9693bd 56<refspec>...::
cfe1348d 57 Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
7a0d911f 58 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
cfe1348d 59 `+`, followed by the source object <src>, followed
7a0d911f 60 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
3598a308 61+
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62The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
63it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
9d83e382 64`HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
3598a308 65+
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66The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
67push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
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68be named.
69If `git push [<repository>]` without any `<refspec>` argument is set to
70update some ref at the destination with `<src>` with
71`remote.<repository>.push` configuration variable, `:<dst>` part can
3b19dba7 72be omitted--such a push will update a ref that `<src>` normally updates
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73without any `<refspec>` on the command line. Otherwise, missing
74`:<dst>` means to update the same ref as the `<src>`.
3598a308 75+
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76If <dst> doesn't start with `refs/` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) we will
77try to infer where in `refs/*` on the destination <repository> it
24966cd9 78belongs based on the type of <src> being pushed and whether <dst>
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79is ambiguous.
80+
81--
82* If <dst> unambiguously refers to a ref on the <repository> remote,
83 then push to that ref.
84
85* If <src> resolves to a ref starting with refs/heads/ or refs/tags/,
86 then prepend that to <dst>.
87
88* Other ambiguity resolutions might be added in the future, but for
89 now any other cases will error out with an error indicating what we
90 tried, and depending on the `advice.pushUnqualifiedRefname`
91 configuration (see linkgit:git-config[1]) suggest what refs/
92 namespace you may have wanted to push to.
93
94--
95+
149f6ddf 96The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
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97on the remote side. Whether this is allowed depends on where in
98`refs/*` the <dst> reference lives as described in detail below, in
99those sections "update" means any modifications except deletes, which
100as noted after the next few sections are treated differently.
3598a308 101+
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102The `refs/heads/*` namespace will only accept commit objects, and
103updates only if they can be fast-forwarded.
104+
105The `refs/tags/*` namespace will accept any kind of object (as
106commits, trees and blobs can be tagged), and any updates to them will
107be rejected.
108+
109It's possible to push any type of object to any namespace outside of
110`refs/{tags,heads}/*`. In the case of tags and commits, these will be
111treated as if they were the commits inside `refs/heads/*` for the
112purposes of whether the update is allowed.
113+
114I.e. a fast-forward of commits and tags outside `refs/{tags,heads}/*`
115is allowed, even in cases where what's being fast-forwarded is not a
116commit, but a tag object which happens to point to a new commit which
117is a fast-forward of the commit the last tag (or commit) it's
118replacing. Replacing a tag with an entirely different tag is also
119allowed, if it points to the same commit, as well as pushing a peeled
120tag, i.e. pushing the commit that existing tag object points to, or a
121new tag object which an existing commit points to.
122+
123Tree and blob objects outside of `refs/{tags,heads}/*` will be treated
124the same way as if they were inside `refs/tags/*`, any update of them
125will be rejected.
126+
127All of the rules described above about what's not allowed as an update
128can be overridden by adding an the optional leading `+` to a refspec
129(or using `--force` command line option). The only exception to this
130is that no amount of forcing will make the `refs/heads/*` namespace
131accept a non-commit object. Hooks and configuration can also override
132or amend these rules, see e.g. `receive.denyNonFastForwards` in
f4ec16ad 133linkgit:git-config[1] and `pre-receive` and `update` in
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134linkgit:githooks[5].
135+
136Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from the
137remote repository. Deletions are always accepted without a leading `+`
138in the refspec (or `--force`), except when forbidden by configuration
139or hooks. See `receive.denyDeletes` in linkgit:git-config[1] and
140`pre-receive` and `update` in linkgit:githooks[5].
a83619d6 141+
6cf378f0 142The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
2de9b711 143directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
89edd5a9 144the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
cfe1348d 145already exists on the remote side.
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146+
147`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
7fc9d69f 148
3240240f 149--all::
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150 Push all branches (i.e. refs under `refs/heads/`); cannot be
151 used with other <refspec>.
d6a73596 152
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153--prune::
154 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
155 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
156 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
6cf378f0 157 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/*` would
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158 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
159 doesn't exist.
160
3240240f 161--mirror::
ff206748 162 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 163 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
73f03627 164 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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165 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
166 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
167 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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168 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
169 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
170 set.
ff206748 171
9f67fee2 172-n::
3240240f 173--dry-run::
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174 Do everything except actually send the updates.
175
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176--porcelain::
177 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
178 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
179 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
180
97c5d246 181-d::
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182--delete::
183 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
184 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
185
3240240f 186--tags::
cc1b8d8b 187 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
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188 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
189 line.
190
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191--follow-tags::
192 Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option,
193 and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
a8a5406a 194 from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are
a8bc269f 195 reachable from the refs being pushed. This can also be specified
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196 with configuration variable `push.followTags`. For more
197 information, see `push.followTags` in linkgit:git-config[1].
a8bc269f 198
30261094 199--[no-]signed::
a81383ba 200--signed=(true|false|if-asked)::
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201 GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving
202 side, to allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be
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203 logged. If `false` or `--no-signed`, no signing will be
204 attempted. If `true` or `--signed`, the push will fail if the
205 server does not support signed pushes. If set to `if-asked`,
206 sign if and only if the server supports signed pushes. The push
207 will also fail if the actual call to `gpg --sign` fails. See
208 linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] for the details on the receiving end.
a85b377d 209
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210--[no-]atomic::
211 Use an atomic transaction on the remote side if available.
212 Either all refs are updated, or on error, no refs are updated.
213 If the server does not support atomic pushes the push will fail.
214
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215-o <option>::
216--push-option=<option>::
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217 Transmit the given string to the server, which passes them to
218 the pre-receive as well as the post-receive hook. The given string
219 must not contain a NUL or LF character.
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220 When multiple `--push-option=<option>` are given, they are
221 all sent to the other side in the order listed on the
222 command line.
223 When no `--push-option=<option>` is given from the command
224 line, the values of configuration variable `push.pushOption`
225 are used instead.
f6a4e61f 226
3240240f 227--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 228--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 229 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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230 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
231 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
232 a directory on the default $PATH.
233
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234--[no-]force-with-lease::
235--force-with-lease=<refname>::
236--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>::
237 Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is
238 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
239+
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240This option overrides this restriction if the current value of the
241remote ref is the expected value. "git push" fails otherwise.
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242+
243Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
244You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
245replace the history you originally published with the rebased history.
246If somebody else built on top of your original history while you are
247rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may advance with her
248commit, and blindly pushing with `--force` will lose her work.
249+
250This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
251updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
252still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
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253other people did anything to the ref. It is like taking a "lease" on
254the ref without explicitly locking it, and the remote ref is updated
255only if the "lease" is still valid.
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256+
257`--force-with-lease` alone, without specifying the details, will protect
258all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring their
259current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we have
fddfaf8a 260for them.
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261+
262`--force-with-lease=<refname>`, without specifying the expected value, will
263protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be updated, by
264requiring its current value to be the same as the remote-tracking
265branch we have for it.
266+
267`--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>` will protect the named ref (alone),
268if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be
d132b32b 269the same as the specified value `<expect>` (which is allowed to be
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270different from the remote-tracking branch we have for the refname,
271or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch when
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272this form is used). If `<expect>` is the empty string, then the named ref
273must not already exist.
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274+
275Note that all forms other than `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
276that specifies the expected current value of the ref explicitly are
277still experimental and their semantics may change as we gain experience
278with this feature.
279+
280"--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the
281command line.
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282+
283A general note on safety: supplying this option without an expected
284value, i.e. as `--force-with-lease` or `--force-with-lease=<refname>`
285interacts very badly with anything that implicitly runs `git fetch` on
286the remote to be pushed to in the background, e.g. `git fetch origin`
287on your repository in a cronjob.
288+
289The protection it offers over `--force` is ensuring that subsequent
290changes your work wasn't based on aren't clobbered, but this is
291trivially defeated if some background process is updating refs in the
292background. We don't have anything except the remote tracking info to
293go by as a heuristic for refs you're expected to have seen & are
294willing to clobber.
295+
296If your editor or some other system is running `git fetch` in the
297background for you a way to mitigate this is to simply set up another
298remote:
299+
300 git remote add origin-push $(git config remote.origin.url)
301 git fetch origin-push
302+
303Now when the background process runs `git fetch origin` the references
304on `origin-push` won't be updated, and thus commands like:
305+
306 git push --force-with-lease origin-push
307+
308Will fail unless you manually run `git fetch origin-push`. This method
309is of course entirely defeated by something that runs `git fetch
310--all`, in that case you'd need to either disable it or do something
311more tedious like:
312+
313 git fetch # update 'master' from remote
314 git tag base master # mark our base point
315 git rebase -i master # rewrite some commits
316 git push --force-with-lease=master:base master:master
317+
318I.e. create a `base` tag for versions of the upstream code that you've
319seen and are willing to overwrite, then rewrite history, and finally
320force push changes to `master` if the remote version is still at
321`base`, regardless of what your local `remotes/origin/master` has been
322updated to in the background.
28f5d176 323
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324-f::
325--force::
f0fff36e 326 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 327 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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328 Also, when `--force-with-lease` option is used, the command refuses
329 to update a remote ref whose current value does not match
330 what is expected.
331+
332This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote repository
333to lose commits; use it with care.
334+
335Note that `--force` applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
336using it with `push.default` set to `matching` or with multiple push
337destinations configured with `remote.*.push` may overwrite refs
338other than the current branch (including local refs that are
339strictly behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only
340one branch, use a `+` in front of the refspec to push (e.g `git push
341origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
342`<refspec>...` section above for details.
7fc9d69f 343
bf07cc58 344--repo=<repository>::
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345 This option is equivalent to the <repository> argument. If both
346 are specified, the command-line argument takes precedence.
dc36f265 347
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348-u::
349--set-upstream::
350 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
351 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
352 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
ae9f6311 353 see `branch.<name>.merge` in linkgit:git-config[1].
0ed3a111 354
0460ed2c 355--[no-]thin::
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356 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
357 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
358 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
9e9f132f 359 `--thin`.
dc36f265 360
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361-q::
362--quiet::
363 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
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364 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
365 error stream.
989119d9 366
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367-v::
368--verbose::
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369 Run verbosely.
370
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371--progress::
372 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
373 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
374 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
375 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
989119d9 376
b33a15b0 377--no-recurse-submodules::
9c24c874 378--recurse-submodules=check|on-demand|only|no::
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379 May be used to make sure all submodule commits used by the
380 revisions to be pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch.
381 If 'check' is used Git will verify that all submodule commits that
382 changed in the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one
383 remote of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will
384 be aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
385 all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will be
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386 pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary revisions it will
387 also be aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'only' is used all
388 submodules will be recursively pushed while the superproject is left
389 unpushed. A value of 'no' or using `--no-recurse-submodules` can be used
390 to override the push.recurseSubmodules configuration variable when no
391 submodule recursion is required.
d2b17b32 392
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393--[no-]verify::
394 Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]). The
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395 default is --verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the
396 push. With --no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
90d32d1f 397
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398-4::
399--ipv4::
400 Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.
401
402-6::
403--ipv6::
404 Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.
d2b17b32 405
37ba0561 406include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 407
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408OUTPUT
409------
410
411The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
2de9b711 412section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
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413locally or via ssh).
414
415The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
416representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
417
418-------------------------------
419 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
420-------------------------------
421
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422If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
423
424-------------------------------
425 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
426-------------------------------
427
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428The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
429option is used.
430
066a5268 431flag::
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432 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
433(space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
6cf378f0 434`+`;; for a successful forced update;
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435`-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
436`*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
437`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
438`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
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439
440summary::
441 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
442 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
443 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
6cf378f0 444 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
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445+
446For a failed update, more details are given:
447+
448--
449rejected::
450 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
451 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
452
453remote rejected::
454 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
455 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
456 of the following safety options in effect:
457 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
458 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
459 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
460 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
461
462remote failure::
463 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
464 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
465 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
466--
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467
468from::
469 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
470 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
471 name of the local ref is omitted.
472
473to::
474 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
475 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
476
477reason::
478 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
479 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
480 failure is described.
bb9fca80 481
76a8788c 482NOTE ABOUT FAST-FORWARDS
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483------------------------
484
485When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
486point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
487fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
488
489In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
490commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
491builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
492
493In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
494suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
495a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
496leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
497
498----------------
499
500 B
501 /
502 ---X---A
503
504----------------
505
506Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
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507back to the original repository from which you two obtained the original
508commit X.
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509
510The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
511commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
512
513But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
514now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
515so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
516will now start building on top of B.
517
518The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
519to prevent such loss of history.
520
a58088ab 521If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) or the work by
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522the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
523history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
524by both parties, and push the result back.
525
526You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
527the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
528and B.
529
530----------------
531
532 B---C
533 / /
534 ---X---A
535
536----------------
537
538Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
539push will be accepted.
540
541Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
542with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
543create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
544A.
545
546----------------
547
548 B D
549 / /
550 ---X---A
551
552----------------
553
554Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
555accepted.
556
557There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
558rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
559pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
560A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
561commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
562forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
563you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
564(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
565overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
566a case where you do mean to lose history.
567
568
76a8788c 569EXAMPLES
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570--------
571
5d2fc913 572`git push`::
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573 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
574 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
575 configured for the current branch).
576
5d2fc913 577`git push origin`::
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578 Without additional configuration, pushes the current branch to
579 the configured upstream (`remote.origin.merge` configuration
580 variable) if it has the same name as the current branch, and
581 errors out without pushing otherwise.
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582+
583The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
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584configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
585configuration variable.
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586+
587For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
588use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
589the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
590`git push origin`.
591
5d2fc913 592`git push origin :`::
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593 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
594 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
595 description of "matching" branches.
596
5d2fc913 597`git push origin master`::
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598 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
599 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
600 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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601 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
602 created.
bb9fca80 603
5d2fc913 604`git push origin HEAD`::
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605 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
606 remote.
bb9fca80 607
b48990e7 608`git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
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609 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
610 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
b48990e7 611 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `mothership` repository;
2c9693bd 612 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
b48990e7 613+
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614See the section describing `<refspec>...` above for a discussion of
615the matching semantics.
616+
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617This is to emulate `git fetch` run on the `mothership` using `git
618push` that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate
619the work done on `satellite`, and is often necessary when you can
620only make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
621mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite
622because the latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).
623+
624After running this `git push` on the `satellite` machine, you would
625ssh into the `mothership` and run `git merge` there to complete the
626emulation of `git pull` that were run on `mothership` to pull changes
627made on `satellite`.
bb9fca80 628
5d2fc913 629`git push origin HEAD:master`::
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630 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
631 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
632 branch without thinking about its local name.
633
5d2fc913 634`git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
4e560158 635 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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636 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
637 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
638 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
639 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 640
5d2fc913 641`git push origin :experimental`::
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642 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
643 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
644
6cf378f0 645`git push origin +dev:master`::
149f6ddf 646 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
a75d7b54 647 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
149f6ddf 648 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
a75d7b54 649 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
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650+
651----
652 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
653 \
654 X---Y---Z dev
655----
656+
657The above command would change the origin repository to
658+
659----
660 A---B (unnamed branch)
661 /
662 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
663----
664+
665Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
666and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
667a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
668
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669include::transfer-data-leaks.txt[]
670
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671GIT
672---
9e1f0a85 673Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite