Documentation about exclude/ignore files
[git/git.git] / Documentation / repository-layout.txt
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72e9340c 1git repository layout
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3
4You may find these things in your git repository (`.git`
5directory for a repository associated with your working tree, or
87e80c4b 6`'project'.git` directory for a public 'bare' repository).
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7
8objects::
9 Object store associated with this repository. Usually
10 an object store is self sufficient (i.e. all the objects
11 that are referred to by an object found in it are also
12 found in it), but there are couple of ways to violate
13 it.
14+
15. You could populate the repository by running a commit walker
16without `-a` option. Depending on which options are given, you
17could have only commit objects without associated blobs and
18trees this way, for example. A repository with this kind of
19incomplete object store is not suitable to be published to the
20outside world but sometimes useful for private repository.
21. You can be using `objects/info/alternates` mechanism, or
22`$GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES` mechanism to 'borrow'
23objects from other object stores. A repository with this kind
89438677 24of incomplete object store is not suitable to be published for
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25use with dumb transports but otherwise is OK as long as
26`objects/info/alternates` points at the right object stores
27it borrows from.
28
29objects/[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]::
30 Traditionally, each object is stored in its own file.
31 They are split into 256 subdirectories using the first
32 two letters from its object name to keep the number of
33 directory entries `objects` directory itself needs to
34 hold. Objects found here are often called 'unpacked'
35 objects.
36
37objects/pack::
38 Packs (files that store many object in compressed form,
39 along with index files to allow them to be randomly
40 accessed) are found in this directory.
41
42objects/info::
43 Additional information about the object store is
44 recorded in this directory.
45
46objects/info/packs::
47 This file is to help dumb transports discover what packs
48 are available in this object store. Whenever a pack is
49 added or removed, `git update-server-info` should be run
50 to keep this file up-to-date if the repository is
51 published for dumb transports. `git repack` does this
52 by default.
53
54objects/info/alternates::
55 This file records absolute filesystem paths of alternate
56 object stores that this object store borrows objects
57 from, one pathname per line.
58
59refs::
60 References are stored in subdirectories of this
61 directory. The `git prune` command knows to keep
62 objects reachable from refs found in this directory and
63 its subdirectories.
64
65refs/heads/`name`::
66 records tip-of-the-tree commit objects of branch `name`
67
68refs/tags/`name`::
69 records any object name (not necessarily a commit
70 object, or a tag object that points at a commit object).
71
72HEAD::
73 A symlink of the form `refs/heads/'name'` to point at
74 the current branch, if exists. It does not mean much if
75 the repository is not associated with any working tree
87e80c4b 76 (i.e. a 'bare' repository), but a valid git repository
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77 *must* have such a symlink here. It is legal if the
78 named branch 'name' does not (yet) exist.
79
80branches::
81 A slightly deprecated way to store shorthands to be used
82 to specify URL to `git fetch`, `git pull` and `git push`
83 commands is to store a file in `branches/'name'` and
84 give 'name' to these commands in place of 'repository'
85 argument.
86
87hooks::
88 Hooks are customization scripts used by various git
89 commands. A handful of sample hooks are installed when
90 `git init-db` is run, but all of them are disabled by
91 default. To enable, they need to be made executable.
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92 Read link:hooks.html[hooks] for more details about
93 each hook.
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94
95index::
96 The current index file for the repository. It is
87e80c4b 97 usually not found in a bare repository.
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98
99info::
100 Additional information about the repository is recorded
101 in this directory.
102
103info/refs::
104 This file is to help dumb transports to discover what
105 refs are available in this repository. Whenever you
106 create/delete a new branch or a new tag, `git
107 update-server-info` should be run to keep this file
108 up-to-date if the repository is published for dumb
109 transports. The `git-receive-pack` command, which is
110 run on a remote repository when you `git push` into it,
89438677 111 runs `hooks/update` hook to help you achieve this.
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112
113info/grafts::
114 This file records fake commit ancestry information, to
115 pretend the set of parents a commit has is different
116 from how the commit was actually created. One record
117 per line describes a commit and its fake parents by
118 listing their 40-byte hexadecimal object names separated
119 by a space and terminated by a newline.
120
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121info/exclude::
122 This file, by convention among Porcelains, stores the
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123 exclude pattern list. `.gitignore` is the per-directory
124 ignore file. `git status`, `git add`, `git rm` and `git
125 clean` look at it but the core git commands do not look
126 at it. See also: gitlink:git-ls-files[1] `--exclude-from`
127 and `--exclude-per-directory`.
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128
129remotes::
d5e34380 130 Stores shorthands to be used to give URL and default
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131 refnames to interact with remote repository to `git
132 fetch`, `git pull` and `git push` commands.
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133
134logs::
135 Records of changes made to refs are stored in this
136 directory. See the documentation on git-update-ref
137 for more information.
138
139logs/refs/heads/`name`::
140 Records all changes made to the branch tip named `name`.
141
142logs/refs/tags/`name`::
143 Records all changes made to the tag named `name`.