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[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
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1Commit Formatting
2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4ifdef::git-rev-list[]
5Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
6more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
7linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
8endif::git-rev-list[]
9
10include::pretty-options.txt[]
11
12--relative-date::
13
14 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
15
7dff9b30 16--date={relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short,raw}::
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17
18 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
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19 as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
20 value for log command's --date option.
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21+
22`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
23e.g. "2 hours ago".
24+
25`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
26+
27`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
28+
29`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
30format, often found in E-mail messages.
31+
32`--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
33+
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34`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw git format `%s %z` format.
35+
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36`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
37(either committer's or author's).
38
adf60f14 39ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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40--header::
41
42 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
43 separated with a NUL character.
adf60f14 44endif::git-rev-list[]
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45
46--parents::
47
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48 Print the parents of the commit. Also enables parent
49 rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
fdcf39e5 50
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51--children::
52
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53 Print the children of the commit. Also enables parent
54 rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
72276a3e 55
adf60f14 56ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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57--timestamp::
58 Print the raw commit timestamp.
adf60f14 59endif::git-rev-list[]
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60
61--left-right::
62
63 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
64 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
65 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
66 commits are prefixed with `-`.
67+
68For example, if you have this topology:
69+
70-----------------------------------------------------------------------
71 y---b---b branch B
72 / \ /
73 / .
74 / / \
75 o---x---a---a branch A
76-----------------------------------------------------------------------
77+
d777af86 78you would get an output like this:
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79+
80-----------------------------------------------------------------------
81 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
82
83 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
84 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
85 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
86 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
87 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
88 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
89-----------------------------------------------------------------------
90
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91--graph::
92
93 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
94 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
95 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
96 to be drawn properly.
97+
98This implies the '--topo-order' option by default, but the
99'--date-order' option may also be specified.
100
9612e743 101ifndef::git-rev-list[]
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102Diff Formatting
103~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
104
105Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
106Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
107options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
108
109-c::
110
111 This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed. It shows
112 the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
113 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
114 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
115 which were modified from all parents.
116
117--cc::
118
119 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
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120 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
121 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
122 one of them without modification.
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123
124-r::
125
126 Show recursive diffs.
127
128-t::
129
130 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
9612e743 131endif::git-rev-list[]
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132
133Commit Limiting
134~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
135
136Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
137special notations explained in the description, additional commit
138limiting may be applied.
139
140--
141
3240240f 142-n 'number'::
982962ce 143--max-count=<number>::
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144
145 Limit the number of commits output.
146
982962ce 147--skip=<number>::
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148
149 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
150
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151--since=<date>::
152--after=<date>::
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153
154 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
155
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156--until=<date>::
157--before=<date>::
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158
159 Show commits older than a specific date.
160
56b6d01d 161ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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162--max-age=<timestamp>::
163--min-age=<timestamp>::
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164
165 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
56b6d01d 166endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 167
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168--author=<pattern>::
169--committer=<pattern>::
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170
171 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
172 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
173
982962ce 174--grep=<pattern>::
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175
176 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
177 matches the specified pattern (regular expression).
178
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179--all-match::
180 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
181 --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.
182
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183-i::
184--regexp-ignore-case::
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185
186 Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
187
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188-E::
189--extended-regexp::
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190
191 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
192 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
193
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194-F::
195--fixed-strings::
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196
197 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
198 pattern as a regular expression).
199
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200--remove-empty::
201
202 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
203
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204--merges::
205
206 Print only merge commits.
207
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208--no-merges::
209
210 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
211
212--first-parent::
213 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
214 commit. This option can give a better overview when
215 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
216 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
217 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
218 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
219 brought in to your history by such a merge.
220
221--not::
222
223 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
224 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
225
226--all::
227
228 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/` are listed on the
229 command line as '<commit>'.
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230
231--branches::
232
233 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` are listed
234 on the command line as '<commit>'.
235
236--tags::
237
238 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are listed
239 on the command line as '<commit>'.
240
241--remotes::
242
243 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes` are listed
244 on the command line as '<commit>'.
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245
246--stdin::
247
248 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
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249 line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
250 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
251 result.
fdcf39e5 252
8b3dce56 253ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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254--quiet::
255
256 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
257 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
258 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
259 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
260 to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.
adf60f14 261endif::git-rev-list[]
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262
263--cherry-pick::
264
265 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
266 another commit on the "other side" when the set of
267 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
268+
269For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
270to list all commits on only one side of them is with
271`--left-right`, like the example above in the description of
272that option. It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked
273from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked
274from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
275excluded from the output.
276
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277-g::
278--walk-reflogs::
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279
280 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
281 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
282 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
283 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
284 nor 'commit1...commit2' notations cannot be used).
285+
286With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
287this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
288taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
289used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
18a2197e 290'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
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291instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
292prefixed with this information on the same line.
e534735a 293This option cannot be combined with '\--reverse'.
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294See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
295
296--merge::
297
298 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
299 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
300
301--boundary::
302
303 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
304 not shown.
305
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306--
307
308History Simplification
309~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
310
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311Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
312commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
313'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
314is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
315
316The following options select the commits to be shown:
317
318<paths>::
319
320 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
321
322--simplify-by-decoration::
323
324 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
325
326Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
327
328The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
329
330Default mode::
331
332 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
333 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
334 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
335 with the same content)
336
337--full-history::
338
339 As the default mode but does not prune some history.
340
341--dense::
342
343 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
344 meaningful history.
345
346--sparse::
347
348 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
349
350--simplify-merges::
351
352 Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
353 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
354 commits contributing to this merge.
355
356A more detailed explanation follows.
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357
358Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
359that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
360filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
361
362In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
363illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
364that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
365-----------------------------------------------------------------------
366 .-A---M---N---O---P
367 / / / / /
368 I B C D E
369 \ / / / /
370 `-------------'
371-----------------------------------------------------------------------
372The horizontal line of history A--P is taken to be the first parent of
373each merge. The commits are:
374
375* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
376 "asdf", and a file `quux` exists with contents "quux". Initial
377 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
378
379* In `A`, `foo` contains just "foo".
380
381* `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
382 hence TREESAME to all parents.
383
384* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to "foobar",
385 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
386
387* `D` sets `foo` to "baz". Its merge `O` combines the strings from
388 `N` and `D` to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
389
390* `E` changes `quux` to "xyzzy", and its merge `P` combines the
391 strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting, `P` is
392 TREESAME to all parents.
393
394'rev-list' walks backwards through history, including or excluding
395commits based on whether '\--full-history' and/or parent rewriting
396(via '\--parents' or '\--children') are used. The following settings
397are available.
398
399Default mode::
400
401 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
402 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below). If the
403 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
404 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
405 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
406 parents.
407+
408This results in:
409+
410-----------------------------------------------------------------------
411 .-A---N---O
412 / /
413 I---------D
414-----------------------------------------------------------------------
415+
416Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
417available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
418considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
419empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
420+
421Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
422not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
423parent lines.
424
425--full-history without parent rewriting::
426
427 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
428 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
429 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
430 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
431 the example, we get
432+
433-----------------------------------------------------------------------
434 I A B N D O
435-----------------------------------------------------------------------
436+
437`P` and `M` were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent. `E`,
438`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
439do not appear.
440+
441Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
442about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
443them disconnected.
444
445--full-history with parent rewriting::
446
447 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
448 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).
449+
450Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
451Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
452themselves. This results in
453+
454-----------------------------------------------------------------------
455 .-A---M---N---O---P
456 / / / / /
457 I B / D /
458 \ / / / /
459 `-------------'
460-----------------------------------------------------------------------
461+
462Compare to '\--full-history' without rewriting above. Note that `E`
463was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
464rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
465`N`. Note also that `P` was included despite being TREESAME.
466
467In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
468affects inclusion:
469
3240240f 470--dense::
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471
472 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
473 to any parent.
474
3240240f 475--sparse::
fdcf39e5 476
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477 All commits that are walked are included.
478+
479Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
480one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
481sides of the merge are never walked.
fdcf39e5 482
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483Finally, there is a fourth simplification mode available:
484
485--simplify-merges::
486
487 First, build a history graph in the same way that
488 '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
489+
490Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
491history according to the following rules:
492+
493--
494* Set `C'` to `C`.
495+
496* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
497 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
498 remove duplicates.
499+
500* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
501 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
502 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
503--
504+
505The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
506'\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
507+
508-----------------------------------------------------------------------
509 .-A---M---N---O
510 / / /
511 I B D
512 \ / /
513 `---------'
514-----------------------------------------------------------------------
515+
516Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '\--full-history':
517+
518--
519* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
520 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
521+
522* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
523 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
524--
fdcf39e5 525
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526The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
527big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
528that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
529(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
530above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
531contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
532commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
533
fdcf39e5 534ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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535Bisection Helpers
536~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
537
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538--bisect::
539
540Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
541the included and excluded commits. Thus, if
542
543-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6514aa36 544 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
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545-----------------------------------------------------------------------
546
547outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
548
549-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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550 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
551 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
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552-----------------------------------------------------------------------
553
554would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
555introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
556generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
557one.
558
559--bisect-vars::
560
561This calculates the same as `--bisect`, but outputs text ready
562to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the name of
563the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
564expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is
565tested to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be
566tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`,
567the expected number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev`
568turns out to be bad to `bisect_bad`, and the number of commits
569we are bisecting right now to `bisect_all`.
570
571--bisect-all::
572
573This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
574commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
575commits. The farthest from them is displayed first. (This is the only
576one displayed by `--bisect`.)
3d2d4f96 577+
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578This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
579test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
580may not compile for example).
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582This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
583after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
584`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
585endif::git-rev-list[]
586
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587
588Commit Ordering
589~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
590
591By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
592
593--topo-order::
594
595 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
596 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
597
598--date-order::
599
600 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
601 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
602 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
603
604--reverse::
605
606 Output the commits in reverse order.
607 Cannot be combined with '\--walk-reflogs'.
608
609Object Traversal
610~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
611
612These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
613
614--objects::
615
616 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
617 commits. '--objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
618 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
619 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
620
621--objects-edge::
622
623 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
624 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
625 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
626 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
627 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
628
629--unpacked::
630
631 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
632 in packs.
633
634--no-walk::
635
636 Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.
637
638--do-walk::
639
640 Overrides a previous --no-walk.