Remove upload-tar and make git-tar-tree a thin wrapper to git-archive
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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7984eabe 1git(7)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
6acbcb92 12'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]] [-p|--paginate]
8b70004b 13 [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
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14
15DESCRIPTION
16-----------
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17Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
18unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
19and full access to internals.
20
21See this link:tutorial.html[tutorial] to get started, then see
22link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
23"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
24also want to read link:cvs-migration.html[CVS migration].
cb22bc44 25
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26The COMMAND is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
27as defined in the configuration file (see gitlink:git-repo-config[1]).
28
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29OPTIONS
30-------
31--version::
a87cd02c 32 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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33
34--help::
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35 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
36 commands. If a git command is named this option will bring up
37 the man-page for that command. If the option '--all' or '-a' is
38 given then all available commands are printed.
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39
40--exec-path::
a87cd02c 41 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
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42 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
43 environment variable. If no path is given 'git' will print
44 the current setting and then exit.
45
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46-p|--paginate::
47 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER).
48
49--git-dir=<path>::
50 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
51 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable.
52
53--bare::
54 Same as --git-dir=`pwd`.
9755afbd 55
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56FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
57---------------------
9755afbd 58
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59See the references above to get started using git. The following is
60probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 61
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62The <<Discussion,Discussion>> section below and the
63link:core-tutorial.html[Core tutorial] both provide introductions to the
64underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 65
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66See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
67examples.
9755afbd 68
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69GIT COMMANDS
70------------
9755afbd 71
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72We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
73("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 74
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75Low-level commands (plumbing)
76-----------------------------
e6fc2346 77
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78Although git includes its
79own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
80development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
81might start by reading about gitlink:git-update-index[1] and
82gitlink:git-read-tree[1].
2cf565c5 83
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84We divide the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
85the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
86compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
87repositories.
204ee6a9 88
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89Manipulation commands
90~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
a7154e91 91gitlink:git-apply[1]::
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92 Reads a "diff -up1" or git generated patch file and
93 applies it to the working tree.
94
a7154e91 95gitlink:git-checkout-index[1]::
2fa090b6 96 Copy files from the index to the working tree.
2cf565c5 97
a7154e91 98gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 99 Creates a new commit object.
2cf565c5 100
a7154e91 101gitlink:git-hash-object[1]::
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102 Computes the object ID from a file.
103
a52e4ef8 104gitlink:git-index-pack[1]::
2fa090b6 105 Build pack idx file for an existing packed archive.
9cf6d335 106
a7154e91 107gitlink:git-init-db[1]::
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108 Creates an empty git object database, or reinitialize an
109 existing one.
2cf565c5 110
a7154e91 111gitlink:git-merge-index[1]::
2fa090b6 112 Runs a merge for files needing merging.
2cf565c5 113
a7154e91 114gitlink:git-mktag[1]::
2fa090b6 115 Creates a tag object.
2cf565c5 116
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117gitlink:git-mktree[1]::
118 Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
119
a7154e91 120gitlink:git-pack-objects[1]::
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121 Creates a packed archive of objects.
122
a7154e91 123gitlink:git-prune-packed[1]::
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124 Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
125
a7154e91 126gitlink:git-read-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 127 Reads tree information into the index.
2cf565c5 128
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129gitlink:git-repo-config[1]::
130 Get and set options in .git/config.
131
a7154e91 132gitlink:git-unpack-objects[1]::
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133 Unpacks objects out of a packed archive.
134
a7154e91 135gitlink:git-update-index[1]::
2fa090b6 136 Registers files in the working tree to the index.
2cf565c5 137
a7154e91 138gitlink:git-write-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 139 Creates a tree from the index.
2cf565c5 140
e31bb3bb 141
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142Interrogation commands
143~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
f85a4191 144
a7154e91 145gitlink:git-cat-file[1]::
2fa090b6 146 Provide content or type/size information for repository objects.
2cf565c5 147
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148gitlink:git-describe[1]::
149 Show the most recent tag that is reachable from a commit.
150
a7154e91 151gitlink:git-diff-index[1]::
2fa090b6 152 Compares content and mode of blobs between the index and repository.
2cf565c5 153
a7154e91 154gitlink:git-diff-files[1]::
2fa090b6 155 Compares files in the working tree and the index.
2cf565c5 156
a7154e91 157gitlink:git-diff-stages[1]::
2fa090b6 158 Compares two "merge stages" in the index.
83db04ff 159
a7154e91 160gitlink:git-diff-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 161 Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
f85a4191 162
a7154e91 163gitlink:git-fsck-objects[1]::
2fa090b6 164 Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database.
2cf565c5 165
a7154e91 166gitlink:git-ls-files[1]::
2fa090b6 167 Information about files in the index and the working tree.
2cf565c5 168
a7154e91 169gitlink:git-ls-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 170 Displays a tree object in human readable form.
2cf565c5 171
a7154e91 172gitlink:git-merge-base[1]::
2fa090b6 173 Finds as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
2cf565c5 174
a60d2d8f 175gitlink:git-name-rev[1]::
2fa090b6 176 Find symbolic names for given revs.
a60d2d8f 177
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178gitlink:git-pack-redundant[1]::
179 Find redundant pack files.
180
a7154e91 181gitlink:git-rev-list[1]::
2fa090b6 182 Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
2cf565c5 183
a7154e91 184gitlink:git-show-index[1]::
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185 Displays contents of a pack idx file.
186
a7154e91 187gitlink:git-tar-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 188 Creates a tar archive of the files in the named tree object.
2cf565c5 189
a7154e91 190gitlink:git-unpack-file[1]::
2fa090b6 191 Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
2cf565c5 192
a7154e91 193gitlink:git-var[1]::
2fa090b6 194 Displays a git logical variable.
aed022ab 195
a7154e91 196gitlink:git-verify-pack[1]::
2fa090b6 197 Validates packed git archive files.
f9253394 198
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199In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
200the working tree.
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201
202
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203Synching repositories
204~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
205
a7154e91 206gitlink:git-fetch-pack[1]::
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207 Updates from a remote repository (engine for ssh and
208 local transport).
f85a4191 209
a7154e91 210gitlink:git-http-fetch[1]::
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211 Downloads a remote git repository via HTTP by walking
212 commit chain.
204ee6a9 213
a7154e91 214gitlink:git-local-fetch[1]::
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215 Duplicates another git repository on a local system by
216 walking commit chain.
204ee6a9 217
a7154e91 218gitlink:git-peek-remote[1]::
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219 Lists references on a remote repository using
220 upload-pack protocol (engine for ssh and local
221 transport).
2f2de9b4 222
a7154e91 223gitlink:git-receive-pack[1]::
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224 Invoked by 'git-send-pack' to receive what is pushed to it.
225
a7154e91 226gitlink:git-send-pack[1]::
f85a4191 227 Pushes to a remote repository, intelligently.
2f2de9b4 228
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229gitlink:git-http-push[1]::
230 Push missing objects using HTTP/DAV.
231
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232gitlink:git-shell[1]::
233 Restricted shell for GIT-only SSH access.
234
a7154e91 235gitlink:git-ssh-fetch[1]::
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236 Pulls from a remote repository over ssh connection by
237 walking commit chain.
508e67ab 238
a7154e91 239gitlink:git-ssh-upload[1]::
2fa090b6 240 Helper "server-side" program used by git-ssh-fetch.
2f2de9b4 241
a7154e91 242gitlink:git-update-server-info[1]::
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243 Updates auxiliary information on a dumb server to help
244 clients discover references and packs on it.
245
a7154e91 246gitlink:git-upload-pack[1]::
efc7fa53 247 Invoked by 'git-fetch-pack' to push
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248 what are asked for.
249
2f2de9b4 250
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251High-level commands (porcelain)
252-------------------------------
253
254We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
255ancillary user utilities.
256
257Main porcelain commands
258~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 259
a7154e91 260gitlink:git-add[1]::
2fa090b6 261 Add paths to the index.
905197de 262
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263gitlink:git-am[1]::
264 Apply patches from a mailbox, but cooler.
265
a7154e91 266gitlink:git-applymbox[1]::
2fa090b6 267 Apply patches from a mailbox, original version by Linus.
f85a4191 268
a7154e91 269gitlink:git-bisect[1]::
2fa090b6 270 Find the change that introduced a bug by binary search.
f85a4191 271
a7154e91 272gitlink:git-branch[1]::
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273 Create and Show branches.
274
a7154e91 275gitlink:git-checkout[1]::
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276 Checkout and switch to a branch.
277
a7154e91 278gitlink:git-cherry-pick[1]::
f85a4191 279 Cherry-pick the effect of an existing commit.
3f971fc4 280
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281gitlink:git-clean[1]::
282 Remove untracked files from the working tree.
283
a7154e91 284gitlink:git-clone[1]::
f85a4191 285 Clones a repository into a new directory.
3f971fc4 286
a7154e91 287gitlink:git-commit[1]::
f85a4191 288 Record changes to the repository.
3f971fc4 289
a7154e91 290gitlink:git-diff[1]::
2aba319a 291 Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
35ef3a4c 292
a7154e91 293gitlink:git-fetch[1]::
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294 Download from a remote repository via various protocols.
295
a7154e91 296gitlink:git-format-patch[1]::
2aba319a 297 Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
35ef3a4c 298
a7154e91 299gitlink:git-grep[1]::
2fa090b6 300 Print lines matching a pattern.
2aba319a 301
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302gitlink:gitk[1]::
303 The git repository browser.
304
a7154e91 305gitlink:git-log[1]::
f85a4191 306 Shows commit logs.
62033318 307
a7154e91 308gitlink:git-ls-remote[1]::
f85a4191 309 Shows references in a remote or local repository.
ab9b3138 310
a7154e91 311gitlink:git-merge[1]::
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312 Grand unified merge driver.
313
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314gitlink:git-mv[1]::
315 Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
316
a7154e91 317gitlink:git-pull[1]::
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318 Fetch from and merge with a remote repository.
319
a7154e91 320gitlink:git-push[1]::
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321 Update remote refs along with associated objects.
322
a7154e91 323gitlink:git-rebase[1]::
2fa090b6 324 Rebase local commits to the updated upstream head.
62033318 325
a7154e91 326gitlink:git-repack[1]::
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327 Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
328
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329gitlink:git-rerere[1]::
330 Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
331
a7154e91 332gitlink:git-reset[1]::
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333 Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
334
a7154e91 335gitlink:git-resolve[1]::
f85a4191 336 Merge two commits.
83db04ff 337
a7154e91 338gitlink:git-revert[1]::
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339 Revert an existing commit.
340
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341gitlink:git-rm[1]::
342 Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
343
a7154e91 344gitlink:git-shortlog[1]::
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345 Summarizes 'git log' output.
346
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347gitlink:git-show[1]::
348 Show one commit log and its diff.
349
a7154e91 350gitlink:git-show-branch[1]::
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351 Show branches and their commits.
352
a7154e91 353gitlink:git-status[1]::
f85a4191 354 Shows the working tree status.
83db04ff 355
a7154e91 356gitlink:git-verify-tag[1]::
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357 Check the GPG signature of tag.
358
a7154e91 359gitlink:git-whatchanged[1]::
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360 Shows commit logs and differences they introduce.
361
e31bb3bb 362
90933efb 363Ancillary Commands
23091e95 364~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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365Manipulators:
366
a7154e91 367gitlink:git-applypatch[1]::
f85a4191 368 Apply one patch extracted from an e-mail.
905197de 369
a7154e91 370gitlink:git-archimport[1]::
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371 Import an arch repository into git.
372
a7154e91 373gitlink:git-convert-objects[1]::
2fa090b6 374 Converts old-style git repository.
2f2de9b4 375
a7154e91 376gitlink:git-cvsimport[1]::
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377 Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
378
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379gitlink:git-cvsexportcommit[1]::
380 Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
381
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382gitlink:git-cvsserver[1]::
383 A CVS server emulator for git.
384
0086e2c8 385gitlink:git-lost-found[1]::
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386 Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been pruned.
387
a7154e91 388gitlink:git-merge-one-file[1]::
2fa090b6 389 The standard helper program to use with `git-merge-index`.
204ee6a9 390
a7154e91 391gitlink:git-prune[1]::
2fa090b6 392 Prunes all unreachable objects from the object database.
204ee6a9 393
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394gitlink:git-quiltimport[1]::
395 Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
396
a7154e91 397gitlink:git-relink[1]::
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398 Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
399
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400gitlink:git-svn[1]::
401 Bidirectional operation between a single Subversion branch and git.
402
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403gitlink:git-svnimport[1]::
404 Import a SVN repository into git.
405
a7154e91 406gitlink:git-sh-setup[1]::
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407 Common git shell script setup code.
408
a60d2d8f 409gitlink:git-symbolic-ref[1]::
2fa090b6 410 Read and modify symbolic refs.
a60d2d8f 411
a7154e91 412gitlink:git-tag[1]::
2fa090b6 413 An example script to create a tag object signed with GPG.
204ee6a9 414
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415gitlink:git-update-ref[1]::
416 Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
417
204ee6a9 418
90933efb 419Interrogators:
204ee6a9 420
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421gitlink:git-annotate[1]::
422 Annotate file lines with commit info.
423
424gitlink:git-blame[1]::
425 Blame file lines on commits.
426
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427gitlink:git-check-ref-format[1]::
428 Make sure ref name is well formed.
429
a7154e91 430gitlink:git-cherry[1]::
f85a4191 431 Find commits not merged upstream.
905197de 432
a7154e91 433gitlink:git-count-objects[1]::
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434 Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
435
a7154e91 436gitlink:git-daemon[1]::
72e9340c 437 A really simple server for git repositories.
5077fa9c 438
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439gitlink:git-fmt-merge-msg[1]::
440 Produce a merge commit message.
441
a7154e91 442gitlink:git-get-tar-commit-id[1]::
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443 Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-tar-tree.
444
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445gitlink:git-imap-send[1]::
446 Dump a mailbox from stdin into an imap folder.
447
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448gitlink:git-instaweb[1]::
449 Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.
450
a7154e91 451gitlink:git-mailinfo[1]::
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452 Extracts patch and authorship information from a single
453 e-mail message, optionally transliterating the commit
454 message into utf-8.
f85a4191 455
a7154e91 456gitlink:git-mailsplit[1]::
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457 A stupid program to split UNIX mbox format mailbox into
458 individual pieces of e-mail.
f85a4191 459
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460gitlink:git-merge-tree[1]::
461 Show three-way merge without touching index.
462
a7154e91 463gitlink:git-patch-id[1]::
f85a4191 464 Compute unique ID for a patch.
204ee6a9 465
a7154e91 466gitlink:git-parse-remote[1]::
2fa090b6 467 Routines to help parsing `$GIT_DIR/remotes/` files.
5077fa9c 468
a7154e91 469gitlink:git-request-pull[1]::
215a7ad1 470 git-request-pull.
5077fa9c 471
a7154e91 472gitlink:git-rev-parse[1]::
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473 Pick out and massage parameters.
474
a7154e91 475gitlink:git-send-email[1]::
83db04ff 476 Send patch e-mails out of "format-patch --mbox" output.
204ee6a9 477
c1fe2fe4 478gitlink:git-symbolic-ref[1]::
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479 Read and modify symbolic refs.
480
a7154e91 481gitlink:git-stripspace[1]::
35ef3a4c 482 Filter out empty lines.
7fc9d69f 483
7fc9d69f 484
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485Configuration Mechanism
486-----------------------
487
2fa090b6 488Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 489is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 490simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
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491people. Here is an example:
492
493------------
494#
2fa090b6 495# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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496#
497
498; core variables
499[core]
500 ; Don't trust file modes
501 filemode = false
502
503; user identity
504[user]
505 name = "Junio C Hamano"
506 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
507
508------------
509
510Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
511their operation accordingly.
512
513
6c84e2e0 514Identifier Terminology
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515----------------------
516<object>::
2fa090b6 517 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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518
519<blob>::
2fa090b6 520 Indicates a blob object name.
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521
522<tree>::
2fa090b6 523 Indicates a tree object name.
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524
525<commit>::
2fa090b6 526 Indicates a commit object name.
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527
528<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 529 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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530 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
531 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
532 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
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533
534<type>::
535 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 536 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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537
538<file>::
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539 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
540 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 541
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542Symbolic Identifiers
543--------------------
90933efb 544Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 545symbolic notation:
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546
547HEAD::
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548 indicates the head of the current branch (i.e. the
549 contents of `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`).
550
c1bdacf9 551<tag>::
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552 a valid tag 'name'
553 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`).
554
c1bdacf9 555<head>::
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556 a valid head 'name'
557 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`).
558
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559
560File/Directory Structure
561------------------------
c1bdacf9 562
a1d4aa74 563Please see link:repository-layout.html[repository layout] document.
c1bdacf9 564
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565Read link:hooks.html[hooks] for more details about each hook.
566
c1bdacf9 567Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 568`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 569
a1d4aa74 570
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571Terminology
572-----------
1bff6490 573Please see link:glossary.html[glossary] document.
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574
575
576Environment Variables
577---------------------
578Various git commands use the following environment variables:
579
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580The git Repository
581~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
582These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
583is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 584git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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585
586'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
587 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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588 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
589 is used.
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590
591'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
592 If the object storage directory is specified via this
593 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
594 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
595 directory is used.
596
597'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
598 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
599 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
90933efb 600 specifies a ":" separated list of git object directories which
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601 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
602 written to these directories.
603
604'GIT_DIR'::
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605 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
606 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
607 for the base of the repository.
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608
609git Commits
610~~~~~~~~~~~
611'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
612'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
613'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
614'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
615'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
a7154e91 616 see gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]
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617
618git Diffs
619~~~~~~~~~
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620'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
621'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
c1bdacf9 622 see the "generating patches" section in :
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623 gitlink:git-diff-index[1];
624 gitlink:git-diff-files[1];
625 gitlink:git-diff-tree[1]
2cf565c5 626
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627other
628~~~~~
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629'GIT_PAGER'::
630 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`.
631
575ba9d6 632'GIT_TRACE'::
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633 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
634 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
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635 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
636 execution and external command execution.
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637 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
638 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
639 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
640 trace messages into this file descriptor.
641 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
642 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
643 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
644 into it.
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646Discussion[[Discussion]]
647------------------------
941c9449 648include::README[]
6c84e2e0 649
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650Authors
651-------
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652* git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
653* The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>.
654* The git potty was written by Andres Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
655* General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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656
657Documentation
658--------------
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659The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
660<david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
661contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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662
663GIT
664---
a7154e91 665Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
2cf565c5 666