t/README: Add 'Skipping Tests' section below 'Running Tests'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
11f2441f 12'git-push' [--all] [--dry-run] [--tags] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
05ee917a 13 [--repo=all] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [<repository> <refspec>...]
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14
15DESCRIPTION
16-----------
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17
18Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
19necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 20
cc55aaec 21You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 22every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 23documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 24
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25
26OPTIONS
27-------
3598a308 28<repository>::
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29 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
30 operation. See the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below.
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31
32<refspec>::
33 The canonical format of a <refspec> parameter is
34 `+?<src>:<dst>`; that is, an optional plus `+`, followed
35 by the source ref, followed by a colon `:`, followed by
36 the destination ref.
37+
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38The <src> side represents the source branch (or arbitrary
39"SHA1 expression", such as `master~4` (four parents before the
40tip of `master` branch); see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]) that you
41want to push. The <dst> side represents the destination location.
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42+
43The local ref that matches <src> is used
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44to fast forward the remote ref that matches <dst> (or, if no <dst> was
45specified, the same ref that <src> referred to locally). If
46the optional leading plus `+` is used, the remote ref is updated
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47even if it does not result in a fast forward update.
48+
25fb6290 49`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
3598a308 50+
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51A parameter <ref> without a colon pushes the <ref> from the source
52repository to the destination repository under the same name.
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53+
54Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
55the remote repository.
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56+
57The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast forward updates)
58directs git to push "matching" heads: for every head that exists on
59the local side, the remote side is updated if a head of the same name
60already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
61if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
62nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
7fc9d69f 63
3240240f 64--all::
cc55aaec 65 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
5c633a4c 66 refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 67
3240240f 68--mirror::
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69 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
70 refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/` and `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/`
71 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
72 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
73 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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74 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
75 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
76 set.
ff206748 77
3240240f 78--dry-run::
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79 Do everything except actually send the updates.
80
3240240f 81--tags::
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82 All refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are pushed, in
83 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
84 line.
85
3240240f 86--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
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87 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
88 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
89 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
90 a directory on the default $PATH.
91
3240240f 92--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
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93 Same as \--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>.
94
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95-f::
96--force::
f0fff36e 97 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 98 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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99 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
100 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
7fc9d69f 101
3240240f 102--repo=<repo>::
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103 When no repository is specified the command defaults to
104 "origin"; this overrides it.
105
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106--thin::
107--no-thin::
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108 These options are passed to `git-send-pack`. Thin
109 transfer spends extra cycles to minimize the number of
110 objects to be sent and meant to be used on slower connection.
111
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112-v::
113--verbose::
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114 Run verbosely.
115
37ba0561 116include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 117
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118OUTPUT
119------
120
121The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
122section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
123locally or via ssh).
124
125The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
126representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
127
128-------------------------------
129 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
130-------------------------------
131
132flag::
133 A single character indicating the status of the ref. This is
134 blank for a successfully pushed ref, `!` for a ref that was
135 rejected or failed to push, and '=' for a ref that was up to
136 date and did not need pushing (note that the status of up to
137 date refs is shown only when `git push` is running verbosely).
138
139summary::
140 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
141 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
142 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
143 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast forward updates). For a
144 failed update, more details are given for the failure.
145 The string `rejected` indicates that git did not try to send the
146 ref at all (typically because it is not a fast forward). The
147 string `remote rejected` indicates that the remote end refused
148 the update; this rejection is typically caused by a hook on the
149 remote side. The string `remote failure` indicates that the
150 remote end did not report the successful update of the ref
151 (perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
152 break in the network connection, or other transient error).
153
154from::
155 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
156 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
157 name of the local ref is omitted.
158
159to::
160 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
161 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
162
163reason::
164 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
165 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
166 failure is described.
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167
168Examples
169--------
170
171git push origin master::
172 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
173 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
174 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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175 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
176 created.
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177
178git push origin :experimental::
179 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
180 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
181
182git push origin master:satellite/master::
183 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
184 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
185 the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most likely, it would
186 be `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in `origin` repository with it.
187
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188git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental::
189 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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190 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
191 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
192 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
193 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 194
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195Author
196------
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197Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>, later rewritten in C
198by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
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199
200Documentation
201--------------
202Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
203
204GIT
205---
9e1f0a85 206Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite