git-log.txt,rev-list-options.txt: put option blocks in proper order
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
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1Commit Limiting
2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
5special notations explained in the description, additional commit
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6limiting may be applied. Note that they are applied before commit
7ordering and formatting options, such as '--reverse'.
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8
9--
10
3240240f 11-n 'number'::
982962ce 12--max-count=<number>::
fdcf39e5 13
841d8118 14 Limit the number of commits to output.
fdcf39e5 15
982962ce 16--skip=<number>::
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17
18 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
19
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20--since=<date>::
21--after=<date>::
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22
23 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
24
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25--until=<date>::
26--before=<date>::
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27
28 Show commits older than a specific date.
29
56b6d01d 30ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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31--max-age=<timestamp>::
32--min-age=<timestamp>::
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33
34 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
56b6d01d 35endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 36
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37--author=<pattern>::
38--committer=<pattern>::
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39
40 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
41 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
42
982962ce 43--grep=<pattern>::
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44
45 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
46 matches the specified pattern (regular expression).
47
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48--all-match::
49 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
50 --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.
51
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52-i::
53--regexp-ignore-case::
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54
55 Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
56
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57-E::
58--extended-regexp::
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59
60 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
61 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
62
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63-F::
64--fixed-strings::
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65
66 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
67 pattern as a regular expression).
68
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69--remove-empty::
70
71 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
72
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73--merges::
74
75 Print only merge commits.
76
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77--no-merges::
78
79 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
80
81--first-parent::
82 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
83 commit. This option can give a better overview when
84 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
85 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
86 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
87 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
88 brought in to your history by such a merge.
89
90--not::
91
92 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
93 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
94
95--all::
96
cc1b8d8b 97 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/` are listed on the
fdcf39e5 98 command line as '<commit>'.
c2e6385d 99
62b4698e 100--branches[=<pattern>]::
c2e6385d 101
cc1b8d8b 102 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/heads` are listed
62b4698e 103 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
b09fe971 104 branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?',
6a5d0b0a 105 '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 106
62b4698e 107--tags[=<pattern>]::
c2e6385d 108
cc1b8d8b 109 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/tags` are listed
62b4698e 110 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
b09fe971 111 tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
6a5d0b0a 112 or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 113
62b4698e 114--remotes[=<pattern>]::
c2e6385d 115
cc1b8d8b 116 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/remotes` are listed
62b4698e 117 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
0e615b25 118 remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
6a5d0b0a 119 If pattern lacks '?', '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
fdcf39e5 120
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121--glob=<glob-pattern>::
122 Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob '<glob-pattern>'
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123 are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. Leading 'refs/',
124 is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
6a5d0b0a 125 or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
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126
127
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128ifndef::git-rev-list[]
129--bisect::
130
cc1b8d8b 131 Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `refs/bisect/bad`
af06e93a 132 was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
cc1b8d8b 133 bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
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134 line.
135endif::git-rev-list[]
136
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137--stdin::
138
139 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
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140 line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
141 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
142 result.
fdcf39e5 143
8b3dce56 144ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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145--quiet::
146
147 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
148 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
149 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
150 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
151 to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.
adf60f14 152endif::git-rev-list[]
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153
154--cherry-pick::
155
156 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
157 another commit on the "other side" when the set of
158 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
159+
160For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
161to list all commits on only one side of them is with
162`--left-right`, like the example above in the description of
163that option. It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked
164from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked
165from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
166excluded from the output.
167
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168-g::
169--walk-reflogs::
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170
171 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
172 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
173 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
174 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
b9190e79 175 nor 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
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176+
177With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
178this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
179taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
180used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
18a2197e 181'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
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182instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
183prefixed with this information on the same line.
e534735a 184This option cannot be combined with '\--reverse'.
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185See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
186
187--merge::
188
189 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
190 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
191
192--boundary::
193
194 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
195 not shown.
196
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197--
198
199History Simplification
200~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
201
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202Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
203commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
204'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
205is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
206
207The following options select the commits to be shown:
208
209<paths>::
210
211 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
212
213--simplify-by-decoration::
214
215 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
216
217Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
218
219The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
220
221Default mode::
222
223 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
224 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
225 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
226 with the same content)
227
228--full-history::
229
230 As the default mode but does not prune some history.
231
232--dense::
233
234 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
235 meaningful history.
236
237--sparse::
238
239 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
240
241--simplify-merges::
242
243 Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
244 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
245 commits contributing to this merge.
246
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247--ancestry-path::
248
249 When given a range of commits to display (e.g. 'commit1..commit2'
250 or 'commit2 {caret}commit1'), only display commits that exist
251 directly on the ancestry chain between the 'commit1' and
252 'commit2', i.e. commits that are both descendants of 'commit1',
253 and ancestors of 'commit2'.
254
7bc2508b 255A more detailed explanation follows.
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256
257Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
258that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
259filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
260
261In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
262illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
263that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
264-----------------------------------------------------------------------
265 .-A---M---N---O---P
266 / / / / /
267 I B C D E
268 \ / / / /
269 `-------------'
270-----------------------------------------------------------------------
271The horizontal line of history A--P is taken to be the first parent of
272each merge. The commits are:
273
274* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
275 "asdf", and a file `quux` exists with contents "quux". Initial
276 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
277
278* In `A`, `foo` contains just "foo".
279
280* `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
281 hence TREESAME to all parents.
282
283* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to "foobar",
284 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
285
286* `D` sets `foo` to "baz". Its merge `O` combines the strings from
287 `N` and `D` to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
288
289* `E` changes `quux` to "xyzzy", and its merge `P` combines the
290 strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting, `P` is
291 TREESAME to all parents.
292
293'rev-list' walks backwards through history, including or excluding
294commits based on whether '\--full-history' and/or parent rewriting
295(via '\--parents' or '\--children') are used. The following settings
296are available.
297
298Default mode::
299
300 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
301 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below). If the
302 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
303 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
304 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
305 parents.
306+
307This results in:
308+
309-----------------------------------------------------------------------
310 .-A---N---O
f70d0586 311 / / /
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312 I---------D
313-----------------------------------------------------------------------
314+
315Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
316available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
317considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
318empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
319+
320Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
321not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
322parent lines.
323
324--full-history without parent rewriting::
325
326 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
327 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
328 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
329 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
330 the example, we get
331+
332-----------------------------------------------------------------------
333 I A B N D O
334-----------------------------------------------------------------------
335+
336`P` and `M` were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent. `E`,
337`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
338do not appear.
339+
340Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
341about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
342them disconnected.
343
344--full-history with parent rewriting::
345
346 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
347 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).
348+
349Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
350Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
351themselves. This results in
352+
353-----------------------------------------------------------------------
354 .-A---M---N---O---P
355 / / / / /
356 I B / D /
357 \ / / / /
358 `-------------'
359-----------------------------------------------------------------------
360+
361Compare to '\--full-history' without rewriting above. Note that `E`
362was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
363rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
364`N`. Note also that `P` was included despite being TREESAME.
365
366In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
367affects inclusion:
368
3240240f 369--dense::
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370
371 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
372 to any parent.
373
3240240f 374--sparse::
fdcf39e5 375
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376 All commits that are walked are included.
377+
378Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
379one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
380sides of the merge are never walked.
fdcf39e5 381
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382--simplify-merges::
383
384 First, build a history graph in the same way that
385 '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
386+
387Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
388history according to the following rules:
389+
390--
391* Set `C'` to `C`.
392+
393* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
394 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
395 remove duplicates.
396+
397* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
398 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
399 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
400--
401+
402The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
403'\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
404+
405-----------------------------------------------------------------------
406 .-A---M---N---O
407 / / /
408 I B D
409 \ / /
410 `---------'
411-----------------------------------------------------------------------
412+
413Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '\--full-history':
414+
415--
416* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
417 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
418+
419* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
420 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
421--
fdcf39e5 422
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423Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:
424
425--ancestry-path::
426
427 Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
428 chain between the "from" and "to" commits in the given commit
429 range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the "to"
430 commit, and descendants of the "from" commit.
431+
432As an example use case, consider the following commit history:
433+
434-----------------------------------------------------------------------
435 D---E-------F
436 / \ \
437 B---C---G---H---I---J
438 / \
439 A-------K---------------L--M
440-----------------------------------------------------------------------
441+
442A regular 'D..M' computes the set of commits that are ancestors of `M`,
443but excludes the ones that are ancestors of `D`. This is useful to see
444what happened to the history leading to `M` since `D`, in the sense
445that "what does `M` have that did not exist in `D`". The result in this
446example would be all the commits, except `A` and `B` (and `D` itself,
447of course).
448+
449When we want to find out what commits in `M` are contaminated with the
450bug introduced by `D` and need fixing, however, we might want to view
451only the subset of 'D..M' that are actually descendants of `D`, i.e.
452excluding `C` and `K`. This is exactly what the '\--ancestry-path'
453option does. Applied to the 'D..M' range, it results in:
454+
455-----------------------------------------------------------------------
456 E-------F
457 \ \
458 G---H---I---J
459 \
460 L--M
461-----------------------------------------------------------------------
462
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463The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
464big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
465that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
466(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
467above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
468contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
469commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
470
fdcf39e5 471ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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472Bisection Helpers
473~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
474
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475--bisect::
476
477Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
af06e93a 478included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
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479`refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
480exists) and the good bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` are
af06e93a 481added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
cc1b8d8b 482are no refs in `refs/bisect/`, if
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483
484-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6514aa36 485 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
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486-----------------------------------------------------------------------
487
488outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
489
490-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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491 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
492 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
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493-----------------------------------------------------------------------
494
495would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
496introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
497generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
498one.
499
500--bisect-vars::
501
af06e93a 502This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
cc1b8d8b 503`refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
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504text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
505name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
506expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
507to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
508`bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
509number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
510`bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
511`bisect_all`.
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512
513--bisect-all::
514
515This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
516commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
cc1b8d8b 517commits. Refs in `refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
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518from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
519`--bisect`.)
3d2d4f96 520+
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521This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
522test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
523may not compile for example).
3d2d4f96 524+
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525This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
526after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
527`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
528endif::git-rev-list[]
529
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530
531Commit Ordering
532~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
533
534By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
535
536--topo-order::
537
538 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
539 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
540
541--date-order::
542
543 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
544 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
545 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
546
547--reverse::
548
549 Output the commits in reverse order.
550 Cannot be combined with '\--walk-reflogs'.
551
552Object Traversal
553~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
554
555These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
556
557--objects::
558
559 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
560 commits. '--objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
561 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
562 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
563
564--objects-edge::
565
566 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
567 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
568 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
569 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
570 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
571
572--unpacked::
573
574 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
575 in packs.
576
577--no-walk::
578
579 Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.
580
581--do-walk::
582
583 Overrides a previous --no-walk.
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584
585Commit Formatting
586~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
587
588ifdef::git-rev-list[]
589Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
590more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
591linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
592endif::git-rev-list[]
593
594include::pretty-options.txt[]
595
596--relative-date::
597
598 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
599
600--date=(relative|local|default|iso|rfc|short|raw)::
601
602 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
603 as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
604 value for log command's --date option.
605+
606`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
607e.g. "2 hours ago".
608+
609`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
610+
611`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
612+
613`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
614format, often found in E-mail messages.
615+
616`--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
617+
618`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw git format `%s %z` format.
619+
620`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
621(either committer's or author's).
622
623ifdef::git-rev-list[]
624--header::
625
626 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
627 separated with a NUL character.
628endif::git-rev-list[]
629
630--parents::
631
632 Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
633 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
634
635--children::
636
637 Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
638 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
639
640ifdef::git-rev-list[]
641--timestamp::
642 Print the raw commit timestamp.
643endif::git-rev-list[]
644
645--left-right::
646
647 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
648 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
649 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
650 commits are prefixed with `-`.
651+
652For example, if you have this topology:
653+
654-----------------------------------------------------------------------
655 y---b---b branch B
656 / \ /
657 / .
658 / / \
659 o---x---a---a branch A
660-----------------------------------------------------------------------
661+
662you would get an output like this:
663+
664-----------------------------------------------------------------------
665 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
666
667 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
668 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
669 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
670 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
671 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
672 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
673-----------------------------------------------------------------------
674
675--graph::
676
677 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
678 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
679 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
680 to be drawn properly.
681+
682This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
683+
684This implies the '--topo-order' option by default, but the
685'--date-order' option may also be specified.
686
687ifdef::git-rev-list[]
688--count::
689 Print a number stating how many commits would have been
690 listed, and suppress all other output. When used together
691 with '--left-right', instead print the counts for left and
692 right commits, separated by a tab.
693endif::git-rev-list[]
694
695
696ifndef::git-rev-list[]
697Diff Formatting
698~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
699
700Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
701Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
702options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
703
704-c::
705
706 With this option, diff output for a merge commit
707 shows the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
708 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
709 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
710 which were modified from all parents.
711
712--cc::
713
714 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
715 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
716 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
717 one of them without modification.
718
719-m::
720
721 This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like
722 regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry
723 and diff is generated. An exception is that only diff against
724 the first parent is shown when '--first-parent' option is given;
725 in that case, the output represents the changes the merge
726 brought _into_ the then-current branch.
727
728-r::
729
730 Show recursive diffs.
731
732-t::
733
734 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
735
736-s::
737 Suppress diff output.
738endif::git-rev-list[]