http: always warn if libcurl version is too old
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
44e1e4d6 12'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
68e4b552 13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
673151a9 25linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
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26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
06ab60c0 32manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
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34A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation
35can be viewed at `https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
06ab60c0 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
e0c1ceaf 46* link:v2.9.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.9.3]
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47
48* release notes for
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52 link:RelNotes/2.9.0.txt[2.9].
53
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55
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61 link:RelNotes/2.8.0.txt[2.8].
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64
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69 link:RelNotes/2.7.0.txt[2.7].
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72
73* release notes for
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80 link:RelNotes/2.6.0.txt[2.6].
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106 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
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121 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
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360 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
361 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
362 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
902f2353 363
1b974346 364* link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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365
366* release notes for
1b974346 367 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
761e742d
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368 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
369 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
370 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
371 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
372 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
373 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
374 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
375 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
376 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
78d553b7 377
1b974346 378* link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
0a53e9dd
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379
380* release notes for
1b974346 381 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
761e742d
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382 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
383 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
384 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
385 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
386 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
0a53e9dd 387
441b40d8 388* link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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389
390* release notes for
761e742d
NP
391 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
392 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
393 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
394 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
395 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
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396
397* release notes for
761e742d
NP
398 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
399 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
400 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
401 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
402 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
403 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
a95148de 404
621f1b4b 405* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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406
407* release notes for
761e742d
NP
408 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
409 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
410 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
411 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
8104ebfe 412
efe05b01 413* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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414
415* release notes for
761e742d
NP
416 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
417 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
418 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
419 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
420 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
421 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
422 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 423
efe05b01 424* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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425
426* release notes for
761e742d
NP
427 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
428 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
429 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
431 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
432 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
433 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 434
efe05b01 435* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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436
437* release notes for
761e742d
NP
438 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
439 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
443 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
444 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 445
efe05b01 446* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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447
448* release notes for
761e742d
NP
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
452 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
454 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
455 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
456 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 457
e708af6e 458* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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459
460* release notes for
761e742d
NP
461 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
462 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
463 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
464 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
465 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
466 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
467 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
468 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
469 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 470
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471* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
472
aba170cd 473* release notes for
761e742d
NP
474 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
475 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
476 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
477 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
478 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
479 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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480
481* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
482
483* release notes for
761e742d
NP
484 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
485 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
486 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
487 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
488 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
489 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
490 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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491
492* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
493
aba170cd 494* release notes for
761e742d
NP
495 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
496 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
497 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
498 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
499 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
500 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
501 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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502
503* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
504 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
505 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
506 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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507
508============
509
510endif::stalenotes[]
511
cb22bc44
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512OPTIONS
513-------
514--version::
2de9b711 515 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
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516
517--help::
a87cd02c 518 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
bcf9626a 519 commands. If the option `--all` or `-a` is given then all
2de9b711 520 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 521 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
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522+
523Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 524displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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525because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
526help ...`.
cb22bc44 527
44e1e4d6
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528-C <path>::
529 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
530 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
531 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
532 <path>`.
533+
534This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
535`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
536made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
537example the following invocations are equivalent:
538
539 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
540 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
541
8b1fa778
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542-c <name>=<value>::
543 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
544 given will override values from configuration files.
545 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
546 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
a789ca70
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547+
548Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
549`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
550config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
551foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
8b1fa778 552
62b4698e 553--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 554 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 555 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 556 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
cb22bc44
AE
557 the current setting and then exit.
558
89a56bfb 559--html-path::
2de9b711 560 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 561 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 562
f2dd8c37 563--man-path::
239b5ed9 564 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 565 this version of Git and exit.
f2dd8c37
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566
567--info-path::
239b5ed9 568 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 569 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 570
3240240f
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571-p::
572--paginate::
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573 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
574 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
575 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
576 below).
6acbcb92 577
463a849d 578--no-pager::
2de9b711 579 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 580
6acbcb92
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581--git-dir=<path>::
582 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
47d81b5c 583 setting the `GIT_DIR` environment variable. It can be an absolute
302cc11a 584 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 585
892c41b9 586--work-tree=<path>::
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587 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
588 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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589 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
590 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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591 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
592 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 593
d49483f0 594--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 595 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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596 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
597 variable.
598
6acbcb92 599--bare::
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600 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
601 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
602 directory.
603
b0fa7ab5 604--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 605 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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606 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
607
823ab40f 608--literal-pathspecs::
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609 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
610 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
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611 variable to `1`.
612
6fb02165 613--glob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
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614 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
615 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
616 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
617 magic ":(literal)"
618
6fb02165 619--noglob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
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620 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
621 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
622 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
623 magic ":(glob)"
9755afbd 624
6fb02165 625--icase-pathspecs::
93d93537
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626 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
627 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
9755afbd 628
23091e95
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629GIT COMMANDS
630------------
9755afbd 631
2de9b711 632We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 633("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 634
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635High-level commands (porcelain)
636-------------------------------
637
638We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
639ancillary user utilities.
640
641Main porcelain commands
642~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 643
377e8139 644include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 645
90933efb 646Ancillary Commands
23091e95 647~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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648Manipulators:
649
377e8139 650include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 651
90933efb 652Interrogators:
204ee6a9 653
377e8139 654include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 655
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656
657Interacting with Others
658~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
659
660These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
661people via patch over e-mail.
662
663include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
664
665
b1f33d62
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666Low-level commands (plumbing)
667-----------------------------
668
2de9b711 669Although Git includes its
b1f33d62
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670own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
671development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
5162e697
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672might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
673linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 674
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675The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
676to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
677than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
678primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
679on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
680end user experience.
681
682The following description divides
683the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
b1f33d62
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684the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
685compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
686repositories.
687
89bf2077 688
b1f33d62
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689Manipulation commands
690~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 691
377e8139 692include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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693
694
695Interrogation commands
696~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
697
377e8139 698include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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699
700In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
701the working tree.
702
703
704Synching repositories
705~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
706
377e8139 707include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 708
57f6ec02 709The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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710typically do not use them directly.
711
712include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
713
714
715Internal helper commands
716~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
717
718These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
719users typically do not use them directly.
720
721include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
722
b1f33d62 723
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724Configuration Mechanism
725-----------------------
726
c0179c0d
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727Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
728repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
729like this:
5773c9f2
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730
731------------
732#
2fa090b6 733# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
5773c9f2
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734#
735
736; core variables
737[core]
738 ; Don't trust file modes
739 filemode = false
740
741; user identity
742[user]
743 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 744 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
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745
746------------
747
748Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 749their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 750list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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751
752
6c84e2e0 753Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
DG
754----------------------
755<object>::
2fa090b6 756 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
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757
758<blob>::
2fa090b6 759 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
DG
760
761<tree>::
2fa090b6 762 Indicates a tree object name.
2cf565c5
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763
764<commit>::
2fa090b6 765 Indicates a commit object name.
2cf565c5
DG
766
767<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 768 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
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769 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
770 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
771 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 772
043d7605
TT
773<commit-ish>::
774 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
775 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
776 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
777 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
778
2cf565c5
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779<type>::
780 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 781 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
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782
783<file>::
2fa090b6
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784 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
785 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 786
c1bdacf9
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787Symbolic Identifiers
788--------------------
2de9b711 789Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 790symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
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791
792HEAD::
0abcfbff 793 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 794
c1bdacf9 795<tag>::
2fa090b6 796 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 797 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 798
c1bdacf9 799<head>::
2fa090b6 800 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 801 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 802
d47107d8 803For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 804"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 805
c1bdacf9
DG
806
807File/Directory Structure
808------------------------
c1bdacf9 809
6998e4db 810Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 811
6998e4db 812Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 813
c1bdacf9 814Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 815`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 816
a1d4aa74 817
2cf565c5
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818Terminology
819-----------
6998e4db 820Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
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821
822
823Environment Variables
824---------------------
2de9b711 825Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 826
2de9b711 827The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 828~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 829These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 830is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
f25b98e6 831Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
c1bdacf9 832
eee7f4a2 833`GIT_INDEX_FILE`::
c1bdacf9 834 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
LS
835 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
836 is used.
c1bdacf9 837
eee7f4a2 838`GIT_INDEX_VERSION`::
136347d7
TG
839 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
840 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
70320541
NTND
841 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
842 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
136347d7 843
eee7f4a2 844`GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY`::
c1bdacf9
DG
845 If the object storage directory is specified via this
846 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
847 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
848 directory is used.
849
eee7f4a2 850`GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES`::
2de9b711 851 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 852 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 853 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 854 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 855 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9 856
eee7f4a2
TR
857`GIT_DIR`::
858 If the `GIT_DIR` environment variable is set then it
2fa090b6
JH
859 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
860 for the base of the repository.
bcf9626a 861 The `--git-dir` command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 862
eee7f4a2 863`GIT_WORK_TREE`::
a758a349 864 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
bcf9626a 865 This can also be controlled by the `--work-tree` command-line
892c41b9
ML
866 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
867
eee7f4a2 868`GIT_NAMESPACE`::
2de9b711 869 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
bcf9626a 870 The `--namespace` command-line option also sets this value.
d49483f0 871
eee7f4a2 872`GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES`::
7ec30aaa 873 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 874 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
7ec30aaa
MH
875 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
876 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
877 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
878 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
879 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
880 might be present in order to compare them with the current
881 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
882 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
883 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
884 e.g.,
eee7f4a2 885 `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink`.
0454dd93 886
eee7f4a2 887`GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM`::
e6405517 888 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 889 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
e6405517
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890 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
891 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 892 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
eee7f4a2
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893 boundaries. Like `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES`, this will not affect
894 an explicit repository directory set via `GIT_DIR` or on the
cf87463e 895 command line.
8030e442 896
eee7f4a2 897`GIT_COMMON_DIR`::
c7b3a3d2
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898 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
899 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
900 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
529fef20 901 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
1eaca7a5 902 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
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903 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
904 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
905
2de9b711 906Git Commits
c1bdacf9 907~~~~~~~~~~~
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908`GIT_AUTHOR_NAME`::
909`GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL`::
910`GIT_AUTHOR_DATE`::
911`GIT_COMMITTER_NAME`::
912`GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL`::
913`GIT_COMMITTER_DATE`::
28a94f88 914'EMAIL'::
5162e697 915 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 916
2de9b711 917Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 918~~~~~~~~~
eee7f4a2 919`GIT_DIFF_OPTS`::
fde97d8a
SE
920 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
921 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
922 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 923 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 924
eee7f4a2
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925`GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF`::
926 When the environment variable `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is set, the
fde97d8a
SE
927 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
928 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
eee7f4a2 929 `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called with 7 parameters:
fde97d8a
SE
930
931 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
932+
933where:
934
935 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
936 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 937 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 938 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
SE
939+
940The file parameters can point at the user's working file
941(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
942when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
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TR
943index). `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` should not worry about unlinking the
944temporary file --- it is removed when `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` exits.
fde97d8a 945+
eee7f4a2 946For a path that is unmerged, `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called with 1
fde97d8a 947parameter, <path>.
ee7fb0b1 948+
eee7f4a2
TR
949For each path `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called, two environment variables,
950`GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER` and `GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL` are set.
ee7fb0b1 951
eee7f4a2 952`GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER`::
ee7fb0b1
ZK
953 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
954
eee7f4a2 955`GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL`::
ee7fb0b1 956 The total number of paths.
2cf565c5 957
575ba9d6
ML
958other
959~~~~~
eee7f4a2 960`GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY`::
dbddb714
JN
961 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
962 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 963 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 964
eee7f4a2 965`GIT_PAGER`::
a7738c77 966 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 967 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
ab54cd6c
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968 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
969 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 970
eee7f4a2 971`GIT_EDITOR`::
36384c97 972 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 973 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
36384c97
RSM
974 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
975 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
976
eee7f4a2
TR
977`GIT_SSH`::
978`GIT_SSH_COMMAND`::
39942766
TQ
979 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
980 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
981 when they need to connect to a remote system.
982 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
983 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
984 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
23f8239b 985 `-p` (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
39942766 986 something other than the default SSH port.
d5538b41 987+
39942766
TQ
988`$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
989by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
990`$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
991(which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
992needed).
d5538b41
SP
993+
994Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
995personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
996for further details.
997
eee7f4a2 998`GIT_ASKPASS`::
2de9b711 999 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
453842c9 1000 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
06ab60c0 1001 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
ae9f6311 1002 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the `core.askPass`
453842c9
KF
1003 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
1004
eee7f4a2 1005`GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT`::
e652c0eb
JK
1006 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
1007 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
1008
eee7f4a2 1009`GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM`::
e8ef401c
JN
1010 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
1011 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
1012 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
1013 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
1014 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
1015 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
1016
eee7f4a2 1017`GIT_FLUSH`::
06f59e9f 1018 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb 1019 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
627a8b8d 1020 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
f1ed7fea
AS
1021 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
1022 flushed. If this
06f59e9f
TT
1023 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
1024 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 1025 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
06f59e9f
TT
1026 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
1027
eee7f4a2 1028`GIT_TRACE`::
eb9250df
KB
1029 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
1030 command execution and external command execution.
1031+
1032If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
1033is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
1034stderr.
1035+
1036If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
1037and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
1038value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
1039trace messages into this file descriptor.
1040+
1041Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
1042(starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
1043as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
1044into it.
1045+
1046Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1047"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
575ba9d6 1048
eee7f4a2 1049`GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS`::
67dc598e 1050 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
b12ca963
NTND
1051 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1052 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1053 pack-related performance problems.
eee7f4a2 1054 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
b12ca963 1055
eee7f4a2 1056`GIT_TRACE_PACKET`::
eb9250df
KB
1057 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1058 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1059 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
eee7f4a2
TR
1060 starting with "PACK" (but see `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE` below).
1061 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
eb9250df 1062
eee7f4a2 1063`GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE`::
32359838
JK
1064 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1065 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1066 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1067 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1068 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1069 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1070+
1071Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1072of clones and fetches.
1073
eee7f4a2 1074`GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE`::
578da039
KB
1075 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1076 time of each Git command.
eee7f4a2 1077 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
578da039 1078
eee7f4a2 1079`GIT_TRACE_SETUP`::
eb9250df
KB
1080 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1081 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
eee7f4a2 1082 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
eb9250df 1083
eee7f4a2 1084`GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW`::
eb9250df
KB
1085 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1086 cloning of shallow repositories.
eee7f4a2 1087 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1dd278ce 1088
eee7f4a2 1089`GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS`::
2de9b711 1090 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
823ab40f
JK
1091 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1092 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1093 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1094 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 1095 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
823ab40f
JK
1096 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1097
eee7f4a2 1098`GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS`::
bd30c2e4
NTND
1099 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1100 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1101
eee7f4a2 1102`GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS`::
bd30c2e4
NTND
1103 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1104 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1105
eee7f4a2 1106`GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS`::
93d93537
NTND
1107 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1108 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1109
eee7f4a2 1110`GIT_REFLOG_ACTION`::
c3e2d189
JH
1111 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1112 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1113 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1114 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1115 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1116 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1117 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1118 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1119
eee7f4a2 1120`GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
49672f26
JK
1121 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1122 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1123 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1124 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1125 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1126 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1127 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1128 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1129 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1130
eee7f4a2 1131`GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL`::
a5adaced
JK
1132 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1133 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1134 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1135 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1136 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1137 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1138 currently used by git are:
1139
1140 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1141 or local paths)
1142
1143 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1144 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1145
1146 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
07c7782c 1147 `ssh://`, etc).
a5adaced 1148
a5adaced
JK
1149 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1150 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1151 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1152
1153 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1154 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
a5adaced 1155
823ab40f 1156
8db9307c
JH
1157Discussion[[Discussion]]
1158------------------------
40dac517
BF
1159
1160More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 1161link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 1162user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 1163
2de9b711 1164A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
40dac517
BF
1165subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1166things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1167of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1168contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1169as tags and branch heads.
1170
1171The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1172hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 1173directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
40dac517
BF
1174and some number of parent commits.
1175
1176The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1177"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1178represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1179parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1180
d5fa1f1a 1181All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
40dac517
BF
1182written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1183The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1184just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1185purpose.
1186
1187When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1188efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1189
1190Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
d5fa1f1a
TA
1191may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1192with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1193recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
40dac517
BF
1194tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1195`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1196
1197The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1198path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1199the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1200attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1201corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1202working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1203be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1204content stored in the index.
1205
1206The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1207for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1208unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 1209
7687ae98
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1210FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1211---------------------
1212
1213See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 1214using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
7687ae98
JH
1215for a first-time user.
1216
2de9b711 1217The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 1218user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 1219introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
7687ae98
JH
1220
1221See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1222
1223See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1224examples.
1225
1226The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 1227link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
7687ae98
JH
1228
1229Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1230read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1231
1232
cb22bc44
AE
1233Authors
1234-------
48bb914e 1235Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 1236C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
405869d0 1237<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
6ecc01f2
JH
1238gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1239
1240If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
d8f708f8
JK
1241output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1242the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 1243
c97ca277
JH
1244Reporting Bugs
1245--------------
1246
1247Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1248development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1249subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1250
497c8331
CC
1251SEE ALSO
1252--------
1253linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
673151a9 1254linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 1255linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
801a011d
TR
1256linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1257linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 1258
2cf565c5
DG
1259GIT
1260---
9e1f0a85 1261Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite