git p4 doc: use two-line style for options with multiple spellings
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-p4.txt
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1git-p4(1)
2=========
3
4NAME
5----
6git-p4 - Import from and submit to Perforce repositories
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
11[verse]
12'git p4 clone' [<sync options>] [<clone options>] <p4 depot path>...
13'git p4 sync' [<sync options>] [<p4 depot path>...]
14'git p4 rebase'
15'git p4 submit' [<submit options>] [<master branch name>]
16
17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
20This command provides a way to interact with p4 repositories
2de9b711 21using Git.
6679c34c 22
2de9b711 23Create a new Git repository from an existing p4 repository using
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24'git p4 clone', giving it one or more p4 depot paths. Incorporate
25new commits from p4 changes with 'git p4 sync'. The 'sync' command
26is also used to include new branches from other p4 depot paths.
2de9b711 27Submit Git changes back to p4 using 'git p4 submit'. The command
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28'git p4 rebase' does a sync plus rebases the current branch onto
29the updated p4 remote branch.
30
31
32EXAMPLE
33-------
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34* Clone a repository:
35+
36------------
37$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
38------------
39
2de9b711 40* Do some work in the newly created Git repository:
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41+
42------------
43$ cd project
44$ vi foo.h
45$ git commit -a -m "edited foo.h"
46------------
47
2de9b711 48* Update the Git repository with recent changes from p4, rebasing your
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49 work on top:
50+
51------------
52$ git p4 rebase
53------------
54
55* Submit your commits back to p4:
56+
57------------
58$ git p4 submit
59------------
60
61
62COMMANDS
63--------
64
65Clone
66~~~~~
2de9b711 67Generally, 'git p4 clone' is used to create a new Git directory
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68from an existing p4 repository:
69------------
70$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
71------------
72This:
73
2de9b711 741. Creates an empty Git repository in a subdirectory called 'project'.
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75+
762. Imports the full contents of the head revision from the given p4
2de9b711 77depot path into a single commit in the Git branch 'refs/remotes/p4/master'.
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78+
793. Creates a local branch, 'master' from this remote and checks it out.
80
2de9b711 81To reproduce the entire p4 history in Git, use the '@all' modifier on
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82the depot path:
83------------
84$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project@all
85------------
86
87
88Sync
89~~~~
90As development continues in the p4 repository, those changes can
2de9b711 91be included in the Git repository using:
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92------------
93$ git p4 sync
94------------
2de9b711 95This command finds new changes in p4 and imports them as Git commits.
6679c34c 96
2de9b711 97P4 repositories can be added to an existing Git repository using
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98'git p4 sync' too:
99------------
100$ mkdir repo-git
101$ cd repo-git
102$ git init
103$ git p4 sync //path/in/your/perforce/depot
104------------
105This imports the specified depot into
2de9b711 106'refs/remotes/p4/master' in an existing Git repository. The
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107'--branch' option can be used to specify a different branch to
108be used for the p4 content.
109
2de9b711 110If a Git repository includes branches 'refs/remotes/origin/p4', these
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111will be fetched and consulted first during a 'git p4 sync'. Since
112importing directly from p4 is considerably slower than pulling changes
2de9b711 113from a Git remote, this can be useful in a multi-developer environment.
6679c34c 114
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115If there are multiple branches, doing 'git p4 sync' will automatically
116use the "BRANCH DETECTION" algorithm to try to partition new changes
117into the right branch. This can be overridden with the '--branch'
118option to specify just a single branch to update.
119
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120
121Rebase
122~~~~~~
123A common working pattern is to fetch the latest changes from the p4 depot
124and merge them with local uncommitted changes. Often, the p4 repository
125is the ultimate location for all code, thus a rebase workflow makes
126sense. This command does 'git p4 sync' followed by 'git rebase' to move
127local commits on top of updated p4 changes.
128------------
129$ git p4 rebase
130------------
131
132
133Submit
134~~~~~~
2de9b711 135Submitting changes from a Git repository back to the p4 repository
6679c34c 136requires a separate p4 client workspace. This should be specified
2de9b711 137using the 'P4CLIENT' environment variable or the Git configuration
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138variable 'git-p4.client'. The p4 client must exist, but the client root
139will be created and populated if it does not already exist.
140
2de9b711 141To submit all changes that are in the current Git branch but not in
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142the 'p4/master' branch, use:
143------------
144$ git p4 submit
145------------
146
147To specify a branch other than the current one, use:
148------------
149$ git p4 submit topicbranch
150------------
151
152The upstream reference is generally 'refs/remotes/p4/master', but can
153be overridden using the '--origin=' command-line option.
154
155The p4 changes will be created as the user invoking 'git p4 submit'. The
156'--preserve-user' option will cause ownership to be modified
2de9b711 157according to the author of the Git commit. This option requires admin
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158privileges in p4, which can be granted using 'p4 protect'.
159
160
161OPTIONS
162-------
163
164General options
165~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
6a10b6aa 166All commands except clone accept these options.
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167
168--git-dir <dir>::
169 Set the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable. See linkgit:git[1].
170
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171-v::
172--verbose::
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173 Provide more progress information.
174
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175Sync options
176~~~~~~~~~~~~
177These options can be used in the initial 'clone' as well as in
178subsequent 'sync' operations.
179
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180--branch <ref>::
181 Import changes into <ref> instead of refs/remotes/p4/master.
182 If <ref> starts with refs/, it is used as is. Otherwise, if
183 it does not start with p4/, that prefix is added.
184+
185By default a <ref> not starting with refs/ is treated as the
186name of a remote-tracking branch (under refs/remotes/). This
187behavior can be modified using the --import-local option.
188+
189The default <ref> is "master".
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190+
191This example imports a new remote "p4/proj2" into an existing
2de9b711 192Git repository:
41925d58 193+
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194----
195 $ git init
196 $ git p4 sync --branch=refs/remotes/p4/proj2 //depot/proj2
197----
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198
199--detect-branches::
200 Use the branch detection algorithm to find new paths in p4. It is
201 documented below in "BRANCH DETECTION".
202
203--changesfile <file>::
204 Import exactly the p4 change numbers listed in 'file', one per
205 line. Normally, 'git p4' inspects the current p4 repository
206 state and detects the changes it should import.
207
208--silent::
209 Do not print any progress information.
210
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211--detect-labels::
212 Query p4 for labels associated with the depot paths, and add
2de9b711 213 them as tags in Git. Limited usefulness as only imports labels
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214 associated with new changelists. Deprecated.
215
216--import-labels::
2de9b711 217 Import labels from p4 into Git.
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218
219--import-local::
220 By default, p4 branches are stored in 'refs/remotes/p4/',
221 where they will be treated as remote-tracking branches by
222 linkgit:git-branch[1] and other commands. This option instead
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223 puts p4 branches in 'refs/heads/p4/'. Note that future
224 sync operations must specify '--import-local' as well so that
225 they can find the p4 branches in refs/heads.
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226
227--max-changes <n>::
228 Limit the number of imported changes to 'n'. Useful to
229 limit the amount of history when using the '@all' p4 revision
230 specifier.
231
232--keep-path::
2de9b711 233 The mapping of file names from the p4 depot path to Git, by
6679c34c 234 default, involves removing the entire depot path. With this
2de9b711 235 option, the full p4 depot path is retained in Git. For example,
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236 path '//depot/main/foo/bar.c', when imported from
237 '//depot/main/', becomes 'foo/bar.c'. With '--keep-path', the
2de9b711 238 Git path is instead 'depot/main/foo/bar.c'.
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239
240--use-client-spec::
241 Use a client spec to find the list of interesting files in p4.
896a6816 242 See the "CLIENT SPEC" section below.
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243
244Clone options
245~~~~~~~~~~~~~
246These options can be used in an initial 'clone', along with the 'sync'
247options described above.
248
249--destination <directory>::
2de9b711 250 Where to create the Git repository. If not provided, the last
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251 component in the p4 depot path is used to create a new
252 directory.
253
254--bare::
255 Perform a bare clone. See linkgit:git-clone[1].
256
257-/ <path>::
258 Exclude selected depot paths when cloning.
259
260Submit options
261~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
262These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
263
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264--origin <commit>::
265 Upstream location from which commits are identified to submit to
266 p4. By default, this is the most recent p4 commit reachable
267 from 'HEAD'.
268
84cb0003 269-M::
6679c34c 270 Detect renames. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. Renames will be
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271 represented in p4 using explicit 'move' operations. There
272 is no corresponding option to detect copies, but there are
273 variables for both moves and copies.
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274
275--preserve-user::
276 Re-author p4 changes before submitting to p4. This option
277 requires p4 admin privileges.
278
c8942a22 279--export-labels::
2de9b711 280 Export tags from Git as p4 labels. Tags found in Git are applied
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281 to the perforce working directory.
282
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283-n::
284--dry-run::
ef739f08 285 Show just what commits would be submitted to p4; do not change
2de9b711 286 state in Git or p4.
ef739f08 287
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288--prepare-p4-only::
289 Apply a commit to the p4 workspace, opening, adding and deleting
290 files in p4 as for a normal submit operation. Do not issue the
291 final "p4 submit", but instead print a message about how to
292 submit manually or revert. This option always stops after the
293 first (oldest) commit. Git tags are not exported to p4.
294
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295--conflict=(ask|skip|quit)::
296 Conflicts can occur when applying a commit to p4. When this
297 happens, the default behavior ("ask") is to prompt whether to
298 skip this commit and continue, or quit. This option can be used
299 to bypass the prompt, causing conflicting commits to be automatically
300 skipped, or to quit trying to apply commits, without prompting.
301
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302--branch <branch>::
303 After submitting, sync this named branch instead of the default
304 p4/master. See the "Sync options" section above for more
305 information.
306
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307Rebase options
308~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
309These options can be used to modify 'git p4 rebase' behavior.
310
311--import-labels::
312 Import p4 labels.
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313
314DEPOT PATH SYNTAX
315-----------------
316The p4 depot path argument to 'git p4 sync' and 'git p4 clone' can
317be one or more space-separated p4 depot paths, with an optional
318p4 revision specifier on the end:
319
320"//depot/my/project"::
321 Import one commit with all files in the '#head' change under that tree.
322
323"//depot/my/project@all"::
324 Import one commit for each change in the history of that depot path.
325
326"//depot/my/project@1,6"::
327 Import only changes 1 through 6.
328
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329"//depot/proj1@all //depot/proj2@all"::
330 Import all changes from both named depot paths into a single
331 repository. Only files below these directories are included.
2de9b711 332 There is not a subdirectory in Git for each "proj1" and "proj2".
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333 You must use the '--destination' option when specifying more
334 than one depot path. The revision specifier must be specified
335 identically on each depot path. If there are files in the
336 depot paths with the same name, the path with the most recently
2de9b711 337 updated version of the file is the one that appears in Git.
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338
339See 'p4 help revisions' for the full syntax of p4 revision specifiers.
340
341
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342CLIENT SPEC
343-----------
344The p4 client specification is maintained with the 'p4 client' command
345and contains among other fields, a View that specifies how the depot
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346is mapped into the client repository. The 'clone' and 'sync' commands
347can consult the client spec when given the '--use-client-spec' option or
348when the useClientSpec variable is true. After 'git p4 clone', the
349useClientSpec variable is automatically set in the repository
350configuration file. This allows future 'git p4 submit' commands to
351work properly; the submit command looks only at the variable and does
352not have a command-line option.
896a6816 353
2de9b711 354The full syntax for a p4 view is documented in 'p4 help views'. 'git p4'
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355knows only a subset of the view syntax. It understands multi-line
356mappings, overlays with '+', exclusions with '-' and double-quotes
b6f93057 357around whitespace. Of the possible wildcards, 'git p4' only handles
2de9b711 358'...', and only when it is at the end of the path. 'git p4' will complain
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359if it encounters an unhandled wildcard.
360
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361Bugs in the implementation of overlap mappings exist. If multiple depot
362paths map through overlays to the same location in the repository,
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363'git p4' can choose the wrong one. This is hard to solve without
364dedicating a client spec just for 'git p4'.
42d8c279 365
b6f93057 366The name of the client can be given to 'git p4' in multiple ways. The
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367variable 'git-p4.client' takes precedence if it exists. Otherwise,
368normal p4 mechanisms of determining the client are used: environment
369variable P4CLIENT, a file referenced by P4CONFIG, or the local host name.
370
371
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372BRANCH DETECTION
373----------------
2de9b711 374P4 does not have the same concept of a branch as Git. Instead,
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375p4 organizes its content as a directory tree, where by convention
376different logical branches are in different locations in the tree.
377The 'p4 branch' command is used to maintain mappings between
378different areas in the tree, and indicate related content. 'git p4'
379can use these mappings to determine branch relationships.
380
381If you have a repository where all the branches of interest exist as
382subdirectories of a single depot path, you can use '--detect-branches'
383when cloning or syncing to have 'git p4' automatically find
2de9b711 384subdirectories in p4, and to generate these as branches in Git.
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385
386For example, if the P4 repository structure is:
387----
388//depot/main/...
389//depot/branch1/...
390----
391
392And "p4 branch -o branch1" shows a View line that looks like:
393----
394//depot/main/... //depot/branch1/...
395----
396
397Then this 'git p4 clone' command:
398----
399git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all
400----
401produces a separate branch in 'refs/remotes/p4/' for //depot/main,
402called 'master', and one for //depot/branch1 called 'depot/branch1'.
403
404However, it is not necessary to create branches in p4 to be able to use
405them like branches. Because it is difficult to infer branch
2de9b711 406relationships automatically, a Git configuration setting
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407'git-p4.branchList' can be used to explicitly identify branch
408relationships. It is a list of "source:destination" pairs, like a
409simple p4 branch specification, where the "source" and "destination" are
410the path elements in the p4 repository. The example above relied on the
411presence of the p4 branch. Without p4 branches, the same result will
412occur with:
413----
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414git init depot
415cd depot
6679c34c 416git config git-p4.branchList main:branch1
182edef5 417git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all .
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418----
419
420
421PERFORMANCE
422-----------
423The fast-import mechanism used by 'git p4' creates one pack file for
2de9b711 424each invocation of 'git p4 sync'. Normally, Git garbage compression
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425(linkgit:git-gc[1]) automatically compresses these to fewer pack files,
426but explicit invocation of 'git repack -adf' may improve performance.
427
428
429CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
430-----------------------
431The following config settings can be used to modify 'git p4' behavior.
432They all are in the 'git-p4' section.
433
434General variables
435~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
436git-p4.user::
437 User specified as an option to all p4 commands, with '-u <user>'.
438 The environment variable 'P4USER' can be used instead.
439
440git-p4.password::
441 Password specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
442 '-P <password>'.
443 The environment variable 'P4PASS' can be used instead.
444
445git-p4.port::
446 Port specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
447 '-p <port>'.
448 The environment variable 'P4PORT' can be used instead.
449
450git-p4.host::
451 Host specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
452 '-h <host>'.
453 The environment variable 'P4HOST' can be used instead.
454
455git-p4.client::
456 Client specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
896a6816 457 '-c <client>', including the client spec.
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458
459Clone and sync variables
460~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
461git-p4.syncFromOrigin::
2de9b711 462 Because importing commits from other Git repositories is much faster
6679c34c 463 than importing them from p4, a mechanism exists to find p4 changes
2de9b711 464 first in Git remotes. If branches exist under 'refs/remote/origin/p4',
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465 those will be fetched and used when syncing from p4. This
466 variable can be set to 'false' to disable this behavior.
467
468git-p4.branchUser::
469 One phase in branch detection involves looking at p4 branches
470 to find new ones to import. By default, all branches are
471 inspected. This option limits the search to just those owned
472 by the single user named in the variable.
473
474git-p4.branchList::
475 List of branches to be imported when branch detection is
476 enabled. Each entry should be a pair of branch names separated
477 by a colon (:). This example declares that both branchA and
478 branchB were created from main:
41925d58 479+
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480-------------
481git config git-p4.branchList main:branchA
482git config --add git-p4.branchList main:branchB
483-------------
484
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485git-p4.ignoredP4Labels::
486 List of p4 labels to ignore. This is built automatically as
487 unimportable labels are discovered.
488
489git-p4.importLabels::
490 Import p4 labels into git, as per --import-labels.
491
c8942a22 492git-p4.labelImportRegexp::
06804c76 493 Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be imported. The
c8942a22 494 default value is '[a-zA-Z0-9_\-.]+$'.
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495
496git-p4.useClientSpec::
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497 Specify that the p4 client spec should be used to identify p4
498 depot paths of interest. This is equivalent to specifying the
499 option '--use-client-spec'. See the "CLIENT SPEC" section above.
500 This variable is a boolean, not the name of a p4 client.
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501
502Submit variables
503~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
504git-p4.detectRenames::
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505 Detect renames. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. This can be true,
506 false, or a score as expected by 'git diff -M'.
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507
508git-p4.detectCopies::
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509 Detect copies. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. This can be true,
510 false, or a score as expected by 'git diff -C'.
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511
512git-p4.detectCopiesHarder::
84cb0003 513 Detect copies harder. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. A boolean.
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514
515git-p4.preserveUser::
2de9b711 516 On submit, re-author changes to reflect the Git author,
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517 regardless of who invokes 'git p4 submit'.
518
519git-p4.allowMissingP4Users::
520 When 'preserveUser' is true, 'git p4' normally dies if it
521 cannot find an author in the p4 user map. This setting
522 submits the change regardless.
523
524git-p4.skipSubmitEdit::
525 The submit process invokes the editor before each p4 change
526 is submitted. If this setting is true, though, the editing
527 step is skipped.
528
529git-p4.skipSubmitEditCheck::
530 After editing the p4 change message, 'git p4' makes sure that
531 the description really was changed by looking at the file
532 modification time. This option disables that test.
533
534git-p4.allowSubmit::
535 By default, any branch can be used as the source for a 'git p4
536 submit' operation. This configuration variable, if set, permits only
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537 the named branches to be used as submit sources. Branch names
538 must be the short names (no "refs/heads/"), and should be
539 separated by commas (","), with no spaces.
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540
541git-p4.skipUserNameCheck::
542 If the user running 'git p4 submit' does not exist in the p4
543 user map, 'git p4' exits. This option can be used to force
544 submission regardless.
545
41925d58 546git-p4.attemptRCSCleanup::
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547 If enabled, 'git p4 submit' will attempt to cleanup RCS keywords
548 ($Header$, etc). These would otherwise cause merge conflicts and prevent
549 the submit going ahead. This option should be considered experimental at
550 present.
551
552git-p4.exportLabels::
2de9b711 553 Export Git tags to p4 labels, as per --export-labels.
06804c76 554
c8942a22 555git-p4.labelExportRegexp::
06804c76 556 Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be exported. The
c8942a22 557 default value is '[a-zA-Z0-9_\-.]+$'.
6679c34c 558
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559git-p4.conflict::
560 Specify submit behavior when a conflict with p4 is found, as per
561 --conflict. The default behavior is 'ask'.
562
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563IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
564----------------------
2de9b711 565* Changesets from p4 are imported using Git fast-import.
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566* Cloning or syncing does not require a p4 client; file contents are
567 collected using 'p4 print'.
568* Submitting requires a p4 client, which is not in the same location
2de9b711 569 as the Git repository. Patches are applied, one at a time, to
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570 this p4 client and submitted from there.
571* Each commit imported by 'git p4' has a line at the end of the log
572 message indicating the p4 depot location and change number. This
573 line is used by later 'git p4 sync' operations to know which p4
574 changes are new.