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1Core GIT Tests
2==============
3
4This directory holds many test scripts for core GIT tools. The
5first part of this short document describes how to run the tests
6and read their output.
7
8When fixing the tools or adding enhancements, you are strongly
9encouraged to add tests in this directory to cover what you are
10trying to fix or enhance. The later part of this short document
11describes how your test scripts should be organized.
12
13
14Running Tests
15-------------
16
17The easiest way to run tests is to say "make". This runs all
18the tests.
19
20 *** t0000-basic.sh ***
5c94f87e 21 * ok 1: .git/objects should be empty after git-init in an empty repo.
986aa7f1 22 * ok 2: .git/objects should have 256 subdirectories.
215a7ad1 23 * ok 3: git-update-index without --add should fail adding.
986aa7f1 24 ...
215a7ad1 25 * ok 23: no diff after checkout and git-update-index --refresh.
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26 * passed all 23 test(s)
27 *** t0100-environment-names.sh ***
28 * ok 1: using old names should issue warnings.
29 * ok 2: using old names but having new names should not issue warnings.
30 ...
31
32Or you can run each test individually from command line, like
33this:
34
14cd1ff3 35 $ sh ./t3001-ls-files-killed.sh
215a7ad1 36 * ok 1: git-update-index --add to add various paths.
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37 * ok 2: git-ls-files -k to show killed files.
38 * ok 3: validate git-ls-files -k output.
39 * passed all 3 test(s)
40
41You can pass --verbose (or -v), --debug (or -d), and --immediate
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42(or -i) command line argument to the test, or by setting GIT_TEST_OPTS
43appropriately before running "make".
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44
45--verbose::
46 This makes the test more verbose. Specifically, the
47 command being run and their output if any are also
48 output.
49
50--debug::
51 This may help the person who is developing a new test.
52 It causes the command defined with test_debug to run.
53
54--immediate::
55 This causes the test to immediately exit upon the first
56 failed test.
57
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58--long-tests::
59 This causes additional long-running tests to be run (where
60 available), for more exhaustive testing.
61
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62--valgrind::
63 Execute all Git binaries with valgrind and exit with status
64 126 on errors (just like regular tests, this will only stop
65 the test script when running under -i). Valgrind errors
66 go to stderr, so you might want to pass the -v option, too.
986aa7f1 67
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68 Since it makes no sense to run the tests with --valgrind and
69 not see any output, this option implies --verbose. For
70 convenience, it also implies --tee.
71
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72--tee::
73 In addition to printing the test output to the terminal,
74 write it to files named 't/test-results/$TEST_NAME.out'.
75 As the names depend on the tests' file names, it is safe to
76 run the tests with this option in parallel.
77
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78--with-dashes::
79 By default tests are run without dashed forms of
80 commands (like git-commit) in the PATH (it only uses
81 wrappers from ../bin-wrappers). Use this option to include
82 the build directory (..) in the PATH, which contains all
83 the dashed forms of commands. This option is currently
84 implied by other options like --valgrind and
85 GIT_TEST_INSTALLED.
86
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87You can also set the GIT_TEST_INSTALLED environment variable to
88the bindir of an existing git installation to test that installation.
89You still need to have built this git sandbox, from which various
90test-* support programs, templates, and perl libraries are used.
91If your installed git is incomplete, it will silently test parts of
92your built version instead.
93
94When using GIT_TEST_INSTALLED, you can also set GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH to
95override the location of the dashed-form subcommands (what
96GIT_EXEC_PATH would be used for during normal operation).
97GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH defaults to `$GIT_TEST_INSTALLED/git --exec-path`.
98
99
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100Skipping Tests
101--------------
102
103In some environments, certain tests have no way of succeeding
104due to platform limitation, such as lack of 'unzip' program, or
105filesystem that do not allow arbitrary sequence of non-NUL bytes
106as pathnames.
107
108You should be able to say something like
109
110 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS=t9200.8 sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh
111
112and even:
113
114 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS='t[0-4]??? t91?? t9200.8' make
115
116to omit such tests. The value of the environment variable is a
117SP separated list of patterns that tells which tests to skip,
118and either can match the "t[0-9]{4}" part to skip the whole
119test, or t[0-9]{4} followed by ".$number" to say which
120particular test to skip.
121
122Note that some tests in the existing test suite rely on previous
123test item, so you cannot arbitrarily disable one and expect the
124remainder of test to check what the test originally was intended
125to check.
126
127
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128Naming Tests
129------------
130
131The test files are named as:
132
133 tNNNN-commandname-details.sh
134
135where N is a decimal digit.
136
137First digit tells the family:
138
139 0 - the absolute basics and global stuff
140 1 - the basic commands concerning database
141 2 - the basic commands concerning the working tree
142 3 - the other basic commands (e.g. ls-files)
143 4 - the diff commands
144 5 - the pull and exporting commands
145 6 - the revision tree commands (even e.g. merge-base)
8f4a9b62 146 7 - the porcelainish commands concerning the working tree
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147 8 - the porcelainish commands concerning forensics
148 9 - the git tools
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149
150Second digit tells the particular command we are testing.
151
152Third digit (optionally) tells the particular switch or group of switches
153we are testing.
154
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155If you create files under t/ directory (i.e. here) that is not
156the top-level test script, never name the file to match the above
157pattern. The Makefile here considers all such files as the
158top-level test script and tries to run all of them. A care is
159especially needed if you are creating a common test library
160file, similar to test-lib.sh, because such a library file may
161not be suitable for standalone execution.
162
f50c9f76 163
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164Writing Tests
165-------------
166
167The test script is written as a shell script. It should start
168with the standard "#!/bin/sh" with copyright notices, and an
169assignment to variable 'test_description', like this:
170
171 #!/bin/sh
172 #
173 # Copyright (c) 2005 Junio C Hamano
174 #
175
14cd1ff3 176 test_description='xxx test (option --frotz)
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177
178 This test registers the following structure in the cache
179 and tries to run git-ls-files with option --frotz.'
180
f50c9f76 181
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182Source 'test-lib.sh'
183--------------------
184
185After assigning test_description, the test script should source
186test-lib.sh like this:
187
188 . ./test-lib.sh
189
190This test harness library does the following things:
191
192 - If the script is invoked with command line argument --help
193 (or -h), it shows the test_description and exits.
194
195 - Creates an empty test directory with an empty .git/objects
9231e3a9 196 database and chdir(2) into it. This directory is 't/trash directory'
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197 if you must know, but I do not think you care.
198
199 - Defines standard test helper functions for your scripts to
200 use. These functions are designed to make all scripts behave
201 consistently when command line arguments --verbose (or -v),
202 --debug (or -d), and --immediate (or -i) is given.
203
14cd1ff3 204
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205End with test_done
206------------------
207
208Your script will be a sequence of tests, using helper functions
209from the test harness library. At the end of the script, call
210'test_done'.
211
212
213Test harness library
214--------------------
215
216There are a handful helper functions defined in the test harness
217library for your script to use.
218
219 - test_expect_success <message> <script>
220
221 This takes two strings as parameter, and evaluates the
222 <script>. If it yields success, test is considered
223 successful. <message> should state what it is testing.
224
225 Example:
226
227 test_expect_success \
228 'git-write-tree should be able to write an empty tree.' \
229 'tree=$(git-write-tree)'
230
231 - test_expect_failure <message> <script>
232
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233 This is NOT the opposite of test_expect_success, but is used
234 to mark a test that demonstrates a known breakage. Unlike
235 the usual test_expect_success tests, which say "ok" on
236 success and "FAIL" on failure, this will say "FIXED" on
237 success and "still broken" on failure. Failures from these
238 tests won't cause -i (immediate) to stop.
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239
240 - test_debug <script>
241
242 This takes a single argument, <script>, and evaluates it only
243 when the test script is started with --debug command line
244 argument. This is primarily meant for use during the
245 development of a new test script.
246
247 - test_done
248
249 Your test script must have test_done at the end. Its purpose
250 is to summarize successes and failures in the test script and
251 exit with an appropriate error code.
252
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253 - test_tick
254
255 Make commit and tag names consistent by setting the author and
256 committer times to defined stated. Subsequent calls will
257 advance the times by a fixed amount.
258
259 - test_commit <message> [<filename> [<contents>]]
260
261 Creates a commit with the given message, committing the given
262 file with the given contents (default for both is to reuse the
263 message string), and adds a tag (again reusing the message
264 string as name). Calls test_tick to make the SHA-1s
265 reproducible.
266
267 - test_merge <message> <commit-or-tag>
268
269 Merges the given rev using the given message. Like test_commit,
270 creates a tag and calls test_tick before committing.
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271
272Tips for Writing Tests
273----------------------
274
275As with any programming projects, existing programs are the best
276source of the information. However, do _not_ emulate
277t0000-basic.sh when writing your tests. The test is special in
278that it tries to validate the very core of GIT. For example, it
279knows that there will be 256 subdirectories under .git/objects/,
280and it knows that the object ID of an empty tree is a certain
28140-byte string. This is deliberately done so in t0000-basic.sh
282because the things the very basic core test tries to achieve is
283to serve as a basis for people who are changing the GIT internal
284drastically. For these people, after making certain changes,
285not seeing failures from the basic test _is_ a failure. And
286such drastic changes to the core GIT that even changes these
287otherwise supposedly stable object IDs should be accompanied by
288an update to t0000-basic.sh.
289
290However, other tests that simply rely on basic parts of the core
291GIT working properly should not have that level of intimate
292knowledge of the core GIT internals. If all the test scripts
293hardcoded the object IDs like t0000-basic.sh does, that defeats
294the purpose of t0000-basic.sh, which is to isolate that level of
295validation in one place. Your test also ends up needing
296updating when such a change to the internal happens, so do _not_
297do it and leave the low level of validation to t0000-basic.sh.