build dashless "bin-wrappers" directory similar to installed bindir
[git/git.git] / t / README
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1Core GIT Tests
2==============
3
4This directory holds many test scripts for core GIT tools. The
5first part of this short document describes how to run the tests
6and read their output.
7
8When fixing the tools or adding enhancements, you are strongly
9encouraged to add tests in this directory to cover what you are
10trying to fix or enhance. The later part of this short document
11describes how your test scripts should be organized.
12
13
14Running Tests
15-------------
16
17The easiest way to run tests is to say "make". This runs all
18the tests.
19
20 *** t0000-basic.sh ***
5c94f87e 21 * ok 1: .git/objects should be empty after git-init in an empty repo.
986aa7f1 22 * ok 2: .git/objects should have 256 subdirectories.
215a7ad1 23 * ok 3: git-update-index without --add should fail adding.
986aa7f1 24 ...
215a7ad1 25 * ok 23: no diff after checkout and git-update-index --refresh.
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26 * passed all 23 test(s)
27 *** t0100-environment-names.sh ***
28 * ok 1: using old names should issue warnings.
29 * ok 2: using old names but having new names should not issue warnings.
30 ...
31
32Or you can run each test individually from command line, like
33this:
34
14cd1ff3 35 $ sh ./t3001-ls-files-killed.sh
215a7ad1 36 * ok 1: git-update-index --add to add various paths.
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37 * ok 2: git-ls-files -k to show killed files.
38 * ok 3: validate git-ls-files -k output.
39 * passed all 3 test(s)
40
41You can pass --verbose (or -v), --debug (or -d), and --immediate
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42(or -i) command line argument to the test, or by setting GIT_TEST_OPTS
43appropriately before running "make".
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44
45--verbose::
46 This makes the test more verbose. Specifically, the
47 command being run and their output if any are also
48 output.
49
50--debug::
51 This may help the person who is developing a new test.
52 It causes the command defined with test_debug to run.
53
54--immediate::
55 This causes the test to immediately exit upon the first
56 failed test.
57
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58--long-tests::
59 This causes additional long-running tests to be run (where
60 available), for more exhaustive testing.
61
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62--valgrind::
63 Execute all Git binaries with valgrind and exit with status
64 126 on errors (just like regular tests, this will only stop
65 the test script when running under -i). Valgrind errors
66 go to stderr, so you might want to pass the -v option, too.
986aa7f1 67
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68 Since it makes no sense to run the tests with --valgrind and
69 not see any output, this option implies --verbose. For
70 convenience, it also implies --tee.
71
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72--tee::
73 In addition to printing the test output to the terminal,
74 write it to files named 't/test-results/$TEST_NAME.out'.
75 As the names depend on the tests' file names, it is safe to
76 run the tests with this option in parallel.
77
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78You can also set the GIT_TEST_INSTALLED environment variable to
79the bindir of an existing git installation to test that installation.
80You still need to have built this git sandbox, from which various
81test-* support programs, templates, and perl libraries are used.
82If your installed git is incomplete, it will silently test parts of
83your built version instead.
84
85When using GIT_TEST_INSTALLED, you can also set GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH to
86override the location of the dashed-form subcommands (what
87GIT_EXEC_PATH would be used for during normal operation).
88GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH defaults to `$GIT_TEST_INSTALLED/git --exec-path`.
89
90
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91Skipping Tests
92--------------
93
94In some environments, certain tests have no way of succeeding
95due to platform limitation, such as lack of 'unzip' program, or
96filesystem that do not allow arbitrary sequence of non-NUL bytes
97as pathnames.
98
99You should be able to say something like
100
101 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS=t9200.8 sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh
102
103and even:
104
105 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS='t[0-4]??? t91?? t9200.8' make
106
107to omit such tests. The value of the environment variable is a
108SP separated list of patterns that tells which tests to skip,
109and either can match the "t[0-9]{4}" part to skip the whole
110test, or t[0-9]{4} followed by ".$number" to say which
111particular test to skip.
112
113Note that some tests in the existing test suite rely on previous
114test item, so you cannot arbitrarily disable one and expect the
115remainder of test to check what the test originally was intended
116to check.
117
118
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119Naming Tests
120------------
121
122The test files are named as:
123
124 tNNNN-commandname-details.sh
125
126where N is a decimal digit.
127
128First digit tells the family:
129
130 0 - the absolute basics and global stuff
131 1 - the basic commands concerning database
132 2 - the basic commands concerning the working tree
133 3 - the other basic commands (e.g. ls-files)
134 4 - the diff commands
135 5 - the pull and exporting commands
136 6 - the revision tree commands (even e.g. merge-base)
8f4a9b62 137 7 - the porcelainish commands concerning the working tree
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138 8 - the porcelainish commands concerning forensics
139 9 - the git tools
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140
141Second digit tells the particular command we are testing.
142
143Third digit (optionally) tells the particular switch or group of switches
144we are testing.
145
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146If you create files under t/ directory (i.e. here) that is not
147the top-level test script, never name the file to match the above
148pattern. The Makefile here considers all such files as the
149top-level test script and tries to run all of them. A care is
150especially needed if you are creating a common test library
151file, similar to test-lib.sh, because such a library file may
152not be suitable for standalone execution.
153
f50c9f76 154
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155Writing Tests
156-------------
157
158The test script is written as a shell script. It should start
159with the standard "#!/bin/sh" with copyright notices, and an
160assignment to variable 'test_description', like this:
161
162 #!/bin/sh
163 #
164 # Copyright (c) 2005 Junio C Hamano
165 #
166
14cd1ff3 167 test_description='xxx test (option --frotz)
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168
169 This test registers the following structure in the cache
170 and tries to run git-ls-files with option --frotz.'
171
f50c9f76 172
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173Source 'test-lib.sh'
174--------------------
175
176After assigning test_description, the test script should source
177test-lib.sh like this:
178
179 . ./test-lib.sh
180
181This test harness library does the following things:
182
183 - If the script is invoked with command line argument --help
184 (or -h), it shows the test_description and exits.
185
186 - Creates an empty test directory with an empty .git/objects
9231e3a9 187 database and chdir(2) into it. This directory is 't/trash directory'
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188 if you must know, but I do not think you care.
189
190 - Defines standard test helper functions for your scripts to
191 use. These functions are designed to make all scripts behave
192 consistently when command line arguments --verbose (or -v),
193 --debug (or -d), and --immediate (or -i) is given.
194
14cd1ff3 195
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196End with test_done
197------------------
198
199Your script will be a sequence of tests, using helper functions
200from the test harness library. At the end of the script, call
201'test_done'.
202
203
204Test harness library
205--------------------
206
207There are a handful helper functions defined in the test harness
208library for your script to use.
209
210 - test_expect_success <message> <script>
211
212 This takes two strings as parameter, and evaluates the
213 <script>. If it yields success, test is considered
214 successful. <message> should state what it is testing.
215
216 Example:
217
218 test_expect_success \
219 'git-write-tree should be able to write an empty tree.' \
220 'tree=$(git-write-tree)'
221
222 - test_expect_failure <message> <script>
223
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224 This is NOT the opposite of test_expect_success, but is used
225 to mark a test that demonstrates a known breakage. Unlike
226 the usual test_expect_success tests, which say "ok" on
227 success and "FAIL" on failure, this will say "FIXED" on
228 success and "still broken" on failure. Failures from these
229 tests won't cause -i (immediate) to stop.
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230
231 - test_debug <script>
232
233 This takes a single argument, <script>, and evaluates it only
234 when the test script is started with --debug command line
235 argument. This is primarily meant for use during the
236 development of a new test script.
237
238 - test_done
239
240 Your test script must have test_done at the end. Its purpose
241 is to summarize successes and failures in the test script and
242 exit with an appropriate error code.
243
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244 - test_tick
245
246 Make commit and tag names consistent by setting the author and
247 committer times to defined stated. Subsequent calls will
248 advance the times by a fixed amount.
249
250 - test_commit <message> [<filename> [<contents>]]
251
252 Creates a commit with the given message, committing the given
253 file with the given contents (default for both is to reuse the
254 message string), and adds a tag (again reusing the message
255 string as name). Calls test_tick to make the SHA-1s
256 reproducible.
257
258 - test_merge <message> <commit-or-tag>
259
260 Merges the given rev using the given message. Like test_commit,
261 creates a tag and calls test_tick before committing.
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262
263Tips for Writing Tests
264----------------------
265
266As with any programming projects, existing programs are the best
267source of the information. However, do _not_ emulate
268t0000-basic.sh when writing your tests. The test is special in
269that it tries to validate the very core of GIT. For example, it
270knows that there will be 256 subdirectories under .git/objects/,
271and it knows that the object ID of an empty tree is a certain
27240-byte string. This is deliberately done so in t0000-basic.sh
273because the things the very basic core test tries to achieve is
274to serve as a basis for people who are changing the GIT internal
275drastically. For these people, after making certain changes,
276not seeing failures from the basic test _is_ a failure. And
277such drastic changes to the core GIT that even changes these
278otherwise supposedly stable object IDs should be accompanied by
279an update to t0000-basic.sh.
280
281However, other tests that simply rely on basic parts of the core
282GIT working properly should not have that level of intimate
283knowledge of the core GIT internals. If all the test scripts
284hardcoded the object IDs like t0000-basic.sh does, that defeats
285the purpose of t0000-basic.sh, which is to isolate that level of
286validation in one place. Your test also ends up needing
287updating when such a change to the internal happens, so do _not_
288do it and leave the low level of validation to t0000-basic.sh.