GIT 1.6.0
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
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12'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]]
13 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager]
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14 [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--work-tree=GIT_WORK_TREE]
15 [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
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16
17DESCRIPTION
18-----------
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19Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
20unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
21and full access to internals.
22
6998e4db 23See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
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24link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
25"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
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26also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
27the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
a1dc34fa 28introduction.
cb22bc44 29
4514ad4f 30The COMMAND is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
5162e697 31as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
4514ad4f 32
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33Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
34documentation can be viewed at
35`http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
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41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
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46* link:v1.6.0/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0]
47
48* release notes for
49 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
50
781c1834 51* link:v1.5.6.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.5]
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52
53* release notes for
781c1834 54 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
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55 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
56 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
57 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
58 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
e636106c 59 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 60
e636106c 61* link:v1.5.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.4]
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62
63* release notes for
7064ca51 64 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
28bc3022 65 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
2d3922dc 66 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
66aaa2fc 67 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
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68 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
69
803d5158 70* link:v1.5.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.5]
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71
72* release notes for
803d5158 73 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
ad416ed4 74 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
923d44ae 75 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
cf5c51ef 76 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
ecb879f8 77 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
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78 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
79
e708af6e 80* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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81
82* release notes for
e708af6e 83 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
b52e985a 84 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
4a44b9ea 85 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
afc05f9f 86 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
58ba4f6a 87 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
326df26d 88 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
077d6f72 89 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
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90 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
91 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 92
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93* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
94
aba170cd 95* release notes for
da899deb 96 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
baafd6e7 97 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
444649e5 98 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
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99 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
100 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
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101 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
102
103* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
104
105* release notes for
106 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
107 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
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108 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
109 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
110 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
111 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
112 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
113
114* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
115
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116* release notes for
117 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
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118 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
119 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
120 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
121 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
122 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
123 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
124
125* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
126 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
127 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
128 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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129
130============
131
132endif::stalenotes[]
133
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134OPTIONS
135-------
136--version::
a87cd02c 137 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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138
139--help::
a87cd02c 140 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
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141 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
142 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
143 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
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144+
145Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 146displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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147because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
148help ...`.
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149
150--exec-path::
a87cd02c 151 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 152 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 153 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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154 the current setting and then exit.
155
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156-p::
157--paginate::
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158 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER).
159
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160--no-pager::
161 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
162
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163--git-dir=<path>::
164 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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165 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
166 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 167
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168--work-tree=<path>::
169 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
170 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
171 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
172 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
173 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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174 variable. It can be an absolute path or relative path to
175 the directory specified by --git-dir or GIT_DIR.
176 Note: If --git-dir or GIT_DIR are specified but none of
177 --work-tree, GIT_WORK_TREE and core.worktree is specified,
178 the current working directory is regarded as the top directory
179 of your working tree.
892c41b9 180
6acbcb92 181--bare::
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182 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
183 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
184 directory.
185
9755afbd 186
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187FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
188---------------------
9755afbd 189
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190See the references above to get started using git. The following is
191probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 192
40dac517 193The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 194user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
40dac517 195introductions to the underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 196
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197See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
198examples.
9755afbd 199
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200The internals are documented in the
201link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
530e741c 202
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203GIT COMMANDS
204------------
9755afbd 205
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206We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
207("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 208
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209High-level commands (porcelain)
210-------------------------------
211
212We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
213ancillary user utilities.
214
215Main porcelain commands
216~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 217
377e8139 218include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 219
90933efb 220Ancillary Commands
23091e95 221~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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222Manipulators:
223
377e8139 224include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 225
90933efb 226Interrogators:
204ee6a9 227
377e8139 228include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 229
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230
231Interacting with Others
232~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
233
234These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
235people via patch over e-mail.
236
237include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
238
239
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240Low-level commands (plumbing)
241-----------------------------
242
243Although git includes its
244own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
245development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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246might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
247linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 248
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249The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
250to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
251than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
252primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
253on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
254end user experience.
255
256The following description divides
257the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
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258the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
259compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
260repositories.
261
89bf2077 262
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263Manipulation commands
264~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 265
377e8139 266include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
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267
268
269Interrogation commands
270~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
271
377e8139 272include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
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273
274In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
275the working tree.
276
277
278Synching repositories
279~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
280
377e8139 281include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 282
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283The following are helper programs used by the above; end users
284typically do not use them directly.
285
286include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
287
288
289Internal helper commands
290~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
291
292These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
293users typically do not use them directly.
294
295include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
296
b1f33d62 297
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298Configuration Mechanism
299-----------------------
300
2fa090b6 301Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 302is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 303simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
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304people. Here is an example:
305
306------------
307#
2fa090b6 308# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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309#
310
311; core variables
312[core]
313 ; Don't trust file modes
314 filemode = false
315
316; user identity
317[user]
318 name = "Junio C Hamano"
319 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
320
321------------
322
323Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
324their operation accordingly.
325
326
6c84e2e0 327Identifier Terminology
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328----------------------
329<object>::
2fa090b6 330 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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331
332<blob>::
2fa090b6 333 Indicates a blob object name.
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334
335<tree>::
2fa090b6 336 Indicates a tree object name.
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337
338<commit>::
2fa090b6 339 Indicates a commit object name.
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340
341<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 342 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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343 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
344 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
345 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 346
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347<commit-ish>::
348 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
349 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
350 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
351 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
352
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353<type>::
354 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 355 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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356
357<file>::
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358 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
359 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 360
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361Symbolic Identifiers
362--------------------
90933efb 363Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 364symbolic notation:
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365
366HEAD::
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367 indicates the head of the current branch (i.e. the
368 contents of `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`).
369
c1bdacf9 370<tag>::
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371 a valid tag 'name'
372 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`).
373
c1bdacf9 374<head>::
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375 a valid head 'name'
376 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`).
377
d47107d8 378For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
5162e697 379"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
d47107d8 380
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381
382File/Directory Structure
383------------------------
c1bdacf9 384
6998e4db 385Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 386
6998e4db 387Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 388
c1bdacf9 389Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 390`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 391
a1d4aa74 392
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393Terminology
394-----------
6998e4db 395Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
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396
397
398Environment Variables
399---------------------
400Various git commands use the following environment variables:
401
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402The git Repository
403~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
404These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
405is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 406git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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407
408'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
409 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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410 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
411 is used.
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412
413'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
414 If the object storage directory is specified via this
415 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
416 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
417 directory is used.
418
419'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
420 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
421 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
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422 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
423 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
424 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
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425
426'GIT_DIR'::
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427 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
428 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
429 for the base of the repository.
c1bdacf9 430
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431'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
432 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
433 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
434 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
435 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
436 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
437
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438'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
439 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
440 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
441 up into while looking for a repository directory.
442 It will not exclude the current working directory or
443 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
444 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
445
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446git Commits
447~~~~~~~~~~~
448'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
449'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
450'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
451'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
452'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 453'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 454'EMAIL'::
5162e697 455 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
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456
457git Diffs
458~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 459'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
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460 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
461 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
462 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
463 value passed on the git diff command line.
464
d81ed1b5 465'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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466 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
467 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
468 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
469 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
470
471 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
472+
473where:
474
475 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
476 contents of <old|new>,
477 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
478 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
479
480+
481The file parameters can point at the user's working file
482(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
483when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
484index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
485temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
486+
487For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
488parameter, <path>.
2cf565c5 489
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490other
491~~~~~
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492'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
493 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
494 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 495 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 496
c27d205a 497'GIT_PAGER'::
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498 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
499 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
500 a pager.
c27d205a 501
d5538b41 502'GIT_SSH'::
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503 If this environment variable is set then 'git-fetch'
504 and 'git-push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 505 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
483bc4f0 506 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
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507 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
508 shell command to execute on that remote system.
509+
510To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
511you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
512then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
513+
514Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
515personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
516for further details.
517
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518'GIT_FLUSH'::
519 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
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520 as 'git-blame' (in incremental mode), 'git-rev-list', 'git-log',
521 and 'git-whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
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522 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
523 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
524 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
525 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
526 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
527
575ba9d6 528'GIT_TRACE'::
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529 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
530 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
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531 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
532 execution and external command execution.
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533 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
534 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
535 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
536 trace messages into this file descriptor.
537 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
538 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
539 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
540 into it.
575ba9d6 541
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542Discussion[[Discussion]]
543------------------------
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544
545More detail on the following is available from the
546link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 547user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
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548
549A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
550subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
551things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
552of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
553contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
554as tags and branch heads.
555
556The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
557hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 558directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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559and some number of parent commits.
560
561The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
562"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
563represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
564parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
565
566All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
567written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
568The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
569just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
570purpose.
571
572When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
573efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
574
575Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
576may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
577with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
02ff6250 578recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
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579tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
580`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
581
582The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
583path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
584the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
585attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
586corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
587working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
588be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
589content stored in the index.
590
591The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
592for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
593unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 594
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595Authors
596-------
9755afbd 597* git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
947ad2e1 598* The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>.
0240e21a 599* The git potty was written by Andreas Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
9755afbd 600* General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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601
602Documentation
603--------------
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604The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
605<david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
606contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
2cf565c5 607
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608SEE ALSO
609--------
610linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
5cbef01a 611link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 612linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
dc493084 613linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
497c8331 614
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615GIT
616---
9e1f0a85 617Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite