Update 1.7.0.1 release notes
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
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1Commit Formatting
2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4ifdef::git-rev-list[]
5Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
6more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
7linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
8endif::git-rev-list[]
9
10include::pretty-options.txt[]
11
12--relative-date::
13
14 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
15
7dff9b30 16--date={relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short,raw}::
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17
18 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
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19 as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
20 value for log command's --date option.
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21+
22`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
23e.g. "2 hours ago".
24+
25`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
26+
27`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
28+
29`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
30format, often found in E-mail messages.
31+
32`--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
33+
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34`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw git format `%s %z` format.
35+
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36`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
37(either committer's or author's).
38
adf60f14 39ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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40--header::
41
42 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
43 separated with a NUL character.
adf60f14 44endif::git-rev-list[]
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45
46--parents::
47
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48 Print the parents of the commit. Also enables parent
49 rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
fdcf39e5 50
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51--children::
52
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53 Print the children of the commit. Also enables parent
54 rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
72276a3e 55
adf60f14 56ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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57--timestamp::
58 Print the raw commit timestamp.
adf60f14 59endif::git-rev-list[]
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60
61--left-right::
62
63 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
64 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
65 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
66 commits are prefixed with `-`.
67+
68For example, if you have this topology:
69+
70-----------------------------------------------------------------------
71 y---b---b branch B
72 / \ /
73 / .
74 / / \
75 o---x---a---a branch A
76-----------------------------------------------------------------------
77+
d777af86 78you would get an output like this:
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79+
80-----------------------------------------------------------------------
81 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
82
83 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
84 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
85 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
86 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
87 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
88 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
89-----------------------------------------------------------------------
90
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91--graph::
92
93 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
94 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
95 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
96 to be drawn properly.
97+
98This implies the '--topo-order' option by default, but the
99'--date-order' option may also be specified.
100
9612e743 101ifndef::git-rev-list[]
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102Diff Formatting
103~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
104
105Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
106Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
107options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
108
109-c::
110
111 This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed. It shows
112 the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
113 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
114 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
115 which were modified from all parents.
116
117--cc::
118
119 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
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120 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
121 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
122 one of them without modification.
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123
124-r::
125
126 Show recursive diffs.
127
128-t::
129
130 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
9612e743 131endif::git-rev-list[]
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132
133Commit Limiting
134~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
135
136Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
137special notations explained in the description, additional commit
138limiting may be applied.
139
140--
141
3240240f 142-n 'number'::
982962ce 143--max-count=<number>::
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144
145 Limit the number of commits output.
146
982962ce 147--skip=<number>::
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148
149 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
150
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151--since=<date>::
152--after=<date>::
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153
154 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
155
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156--until=<date>::
157--before=<date>::
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158
159 Show commits older than a specific date.
160
56b6d01d 161ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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162--max-age=<timestamp>::
163--min-age=<timestamp>::
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164
165 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
56b6d01d 166endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 167
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168--author=<pattern>::
169--committer=<pattern>::
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170
171 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
172 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
173
982962ce 174--grep=<pattern>::
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175
176 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
177 matches the specified pattern (regular expression).
178
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179--all-match::
180 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
181 --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.
182
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183-i::
184--regexp-ignore-case::
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185
186 Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
187
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188-E::
189--extended-regexp::
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190
191 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
192 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
193
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194-F::
195--fixed-strings::
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196
197 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
198 pattern as a regular expression).
199
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200--remove-empty::
201
202 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
203
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204--merges::
205
206 Print only merge commits.
207
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208--no-merges::
209
210 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
211
212--first-parent::
213 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
214 commit. This option can give a better overview when
215 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
216 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
217 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
218 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
219 brought in to your history by such a merge.
220
221--not::
222
223 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
224 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
225
226--all::
227
228 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/` are listed on the
229 command line as '<commit>'.
c2e6385d 230
b09fe971 231--branches[=pattern]::
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232
233 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` are listed
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234 on the command line as '<commit>'. If `pattern` is given, limit
235 branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?',
6a5d0b0a 236 '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 237
b09fe971 238--tags[=pattern]::
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239
240 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are listed
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241 on the command line as '<commit>'. If `pattern` is given, limit
242 tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
6a5d0b0a 243 or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 244
b09fe971 245--remotes[=pattern]::
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246
247 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes` are listed
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248 on the command line as '<commit>'. If `pattern`is given, limit
249 remote tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
6a5d0b0a 250 If pattern lacks '?', '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
fdcf39e5 251
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252--glob=glob-pattern::
253 Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob `glob-pattern`
254 are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. Leading 'refs/',
255 is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
6a5d0b0a 256 or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
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257
258
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259ifndef::git-rev-list[]
260--bisect::
261
262 Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/bad`
263 was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
264 bisection refs `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
265 line.
266endif::git-rev-list[]
267
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268--stdin::
269
270 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
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271 line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
272 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
273 result.
fdcf39e5 274
8b3dce56 275ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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276--quiet::
277
278 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
279 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
280 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
281 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
282 to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.
adf60f14 283endif::git-rev-list[]
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284
285--cherry-pick::
286
287 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
288 another commit on the "other side" when the set of
289 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
290+
291For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
292to list all commits on only one side of them is with
293`--left-right`, like the example above in the description of
294that option. It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked
295from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked
296from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
297excluded from the output.
298
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299-g::
300--walk-reflogs::
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301
302 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
303 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
304 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
305 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
306 nor 'commit1...commit2' notations cannot be used).
307+
308With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
309this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
310taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
311used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
18a2197e 312'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
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313instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
314prefixed with this information on the same line.
e534735a 315This option cannot be combined with '\--reverse'.
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316See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
317
318--merge::
319
320 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
321 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
322
323--boundary::
324
325 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
326 not shown.
327
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328--
329
330History Simplification
331~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
332
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333Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
334commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
335'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
336is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
337
338The following options select the commits to be shown:
339
340<paths>::
341
342 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
343
344--simplify-by-decoration::
345
346 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
347
348Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
349
350The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
351
352Default mode::
353
354 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
355 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
356 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
357 with the same content)
358
359--full-history::
360
361 As the default mode but does not prune some history.
362
363--dense::
364
365 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
366 meaningful history.
367
368--sparse::
369
370 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
371
372--simplify-merges::
373
374 Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
375 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
376 commits contributing to this merge.
377
378A more detailed explanation follows.
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379
380Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
381that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
382filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
383
384In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
385illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
386that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
387-----------------------------------------------------------------------
388 .-A---M---N---O---P
389 / / / / /
390 I B C D E
391 \ / / / /
392 `-------------'
393-----------------------------------------------------------------------
394The horizontal line of history A--P is taken to be the first parent of
395each merge. The commits are:
396
397* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
398 "asdf", and a file `quux` exists with contents "quux". Initial
399 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
400
401* In `A`, `foo` contains just "foo".
402
403* `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
404 hence TREESAME to all parents.
405
406* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to "foobar",
407 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
408
409* `D` sets `foo` to "baz". Its merge `O` combines the strings from
410 `N` and `D` to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
411
412* `E` changes `quux` to "xyzzy", and its merge `P` combines the
413 strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting, `P` is
414 TREESAME to all parents.
415
416'rev-list' walks backwards through history, including or excluding
417commits based on whether '\--full-history' and/or parent rewriting
418(via '\--parents' or '\--children') are used. The following settings
419are available.
420
421Default mode::
422
423 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
424 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below). If the
425 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
426 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
427 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
428 parents.
429+
430This results in:
431+
432-----------------------------------------------------------------------
433 .-A---N---O
434 / /
435 I---------D
436-----------------------------------------------------------------------
437+
438Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
439available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
440considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
441empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
442+
443Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
444not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
445parent lines.
446
447--full-history without parent rewriting::
448
449 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
450 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
451 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
452 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
453 the example, we get
454+
455-----------------------------------------------------------------------
456 I A B N D O
457-----------------------------------------------------------------------
458+
459`P` and `M` were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent. `E`,
460`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
461do not appear.
462+
463Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
464about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
465them disconnected.
466
467--full-history with parent rewriting::
468
469 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
470 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).
471+
472Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
473Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
474themselves. This results in
475+
476-----------------------------------------------------------------------
477 .-A---M---N---O---P
478 / / / / /
479 I B / D /
480 \ / / / /
481 `-------------'
482-----------------------------------------------------------------------
483+
484Compare to '\--full-history' without rewriting above. Note that `E`
485was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
486rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
487`N`. Note also that `P` was included despite being TREESAME.
488
489In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
490affects inclusion:
491
3240240f 492--dense::
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493
494 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
495 to any parent.
496
3240240f 497--sparse::
fdcf39e5 498
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499 All commits that are walked are included.
500+
501Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
502one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
503sides of the merge are never walked.
fdcf39e5 504
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505Finally, there is a fourth simplification mode available:
506
507--simplify-merges::
508
509 First, build a history graph in the same way that
510 '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
511+
512Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
513history according to the following rules:
514+
515--
516* Set `C'` to `C`.
517+
518* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
519 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
520 remove duplicates.
521+
522* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
523 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
524 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
525--
526+
527The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
528'\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
529+
530-----------------------------------------------------------------------
531 .-A---M---N---O
532 / / /
533 I B D
534 \ / /
535 `---------'
536-----------------------------------------------------------------------
537+
538Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '\--full-history':
539+
540--
541* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
542 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
543+
544* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
545 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
546--
fdcf39e5 547
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548The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
549big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
550that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
551(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
552above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
553contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
554commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
555
fdcf39e5 556ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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557Bisection Helpers
558~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
559
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560--bisect::
561
562Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
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563included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
564`$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
565exists) and the good bisection refs `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/good-*` are
566added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
567are no refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/`, if
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568
569-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6514aa36 570 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
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571-----------------------------------------------------------------------
572
573outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
574
575-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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576 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
577 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
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578-----------------------------------------------------------------------
579
580would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
581introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
582generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
583one.
584
585--bisect-vars::
586
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587This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
588`$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
589text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
590name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
591expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
592to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
593`bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
594number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
595`bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
596`bisect_all`.
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597
598--bisect-all::
599
600This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
601commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
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602commits. Refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
603from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
604`--bisect`.)
3d2d4f96 605+
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606This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
607test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
608may not compile for example).
3d2d4f96 609+
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610This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
611after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
612`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
613endif::git-rev-list[]
614
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615
616Commit Ordering
617~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
618
619By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
620
621--topo-order::
622
623 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
624 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
625
626--date-order::
627
628 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
629 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
630 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
631
632--reverse::
633
634 Output the commits in reverse order.
635 Cannot be combined with '\--walk-reflogs'.
636
637Object Traversal
638~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
639
640These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
641
642--objects::
643
644 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
645 commits. '--objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
646 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
647 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
648
649--objects-edge::
650
651 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
652 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
653 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
654 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
655 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
656
657--unpacked::
658
659 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
660 in packs.
661
662--no-walk::
663
664 Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.
665
666--do-walk::
667
668 Overrides a previous --no-walk.