Merge branch 'tz/doc-git-urls-reference'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-clone.txt
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1git-clone(1)
2============
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3
4NAME
5----
29cf5e12 6git-clone - Clone a repository into a new directory
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
353ce815 11[verse]
b1889c36 12'git clone' [--template=<template_directory>]
bc699afc 13 [-l] [-s] [--no-hardlinks] [-q] [-n] [--bare] [--mirror]
db9bc00e 14 [-o <name>] [-b <name>] [-u <upload-pack>] [--reference <repository>]
fb1d6dab 15 [--dissociate] [--separate-git-dir <git dir>]
0dab2468 16 [--depth <depth>] [--[no-]single-branch] [--no-tags]
bc29b0b9 17 [--recurse-submodules[=<pathspec>]] [--[no-]shallow-submodules]
d22eb044 18 [--jobs <n>] [--] <repository> [<directory>]
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19
20DESCRIPTION
21-----------
4607166d 22
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23Clones a repository into a newly created directory, creates
24remote-tracking branches for each branch in the cloned repository
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25(visible using `git branch -r`), and creates and checks out an
26initial branch that is forked from the cloned repository's
27currently active branch.
4607166d 28
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29After the clone, a plain `git fetch` without arguments will update
30all the remote-tracking branches, and a `git pull` without
31arguments will in addition merge the remote master branch into the
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32current master branch, if any (this is untrue when "--single-branch"
33is given; see below).
4607166d 34
db9819a4 35This default configuration is achieved by creating references to
cc1b8d8b 36the remote branch heads under `refs/remotes/origin` and
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37by initializing `remote.origin.url` and `remote.origin.fetch`
38configuration variables.
6ec311da 39
f4bf2184 40
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41OPTIONS
42-------
a2775c2a 43--local::
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44-l::
45 When the repository to clone from is on a local machine,
2de9b711 46 this flag bypasses the normal "Git aware" transport
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47 mechanism and clones the repository by making a copy of
48 HEAD and everything under objects and refs directories.
3d5c418f 49 The files under `.git/objects/` directory are hardlinked
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50 to save space when possible.
51+
52If the repository is specified as a local path (e.g., `/path/to/repo`),
53this is the default, and --local is essentially a no-op. If the
54repository is specified as a URL, then this flag is ignored (and we
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55never use the local optimizations). Specifying `--no-local` will
56override the default when `/path/to/repo` is given, using the regular
2de9b711 57Git transport instead.
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58
59--no-hardlinks::
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60 Force the cloning process from a repository on a local
61 filesystem to copy the files under the `.git/objects`
62 directory instead of using hardlinks. This may be desirable
63 if you are trying to make a back-up of your repository.
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65--shared::
66-s::
67 When the repository to clone is on the local machine,
4607166d 68 instead of using hard links, automatically setup
550c66f3 69 `.git/objects/info/alternates` to share the objects
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70 with the source repository. The resulting repository
71 starts out without any object of its own.
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72+
73*NOTE*: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do *not* use
74it unless you understand what it does. If you clone your
2498a1ad 75repository using this option and then delete branches (or use any
2de9b711 76other Git command that makes any existing commit unreferenced) in the
2498a1ad 77source repository, some objects may become unreferenced (or dangling).
2de9b711 78These objects may be removed by normal Git operations (such as `git commit`)
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79which automatically call `git gc --auto`. (See linkgit:git-gc[1].)
80If these objects are removed and were referenced by the cloned repository,
81then the cloned repository will become corrupt.
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82+
83Note that running `git repack` without the `-l` option in a repository
84cloned with `-s` will copy objects from the source repository into a pack
85in the cloned repository, removing the disk space savings of `clone -s`.
86It is safe, however, to run `git gc`, which uses the `-l` option by
87default.
88+
89If you want to break the dependency of a repository cloned with `-s` on
90its source repository, you can simply run `git repack -a` to copy all
91objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
a2775c2a 92
f7415b4d 93--reference[-if-able] <repository>::
40592376 94 If the reference repository is on the local machine,
550c66f3 95 automatically setup `.git/objects/info/alternates` to
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96 obtain objects from the reference repository. Using
97 an already existing repository as an alternate will
451e5931 98 require fewer objects to be copied from the repository
23edecbc 99 being cloned, reducing network and local storage costs.
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100 When using the `--reference-if-able`, a non existing
101 directory is skipped with a warning instead of aborting
102 the clone.
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104*NOTE*: see the NOTE for the `--shared` option, and also the
105`--dissociate` option.
106
107--dissociate::
108 Borrow the objects from reference repositories specified
109 with the `--reference` options only to reduce network
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110 transfer, and stop borrowing from them after a clone is made
111 by making necessary local copies of borrowed objects. This
112 option can also be used when cloning locally from a
113 repository that already borrows objects from another
114 repository--the new repository will borrow objects from the
115 same repository, and this option can be used to stop the
116 borrowing.
23edecbc 117
a2775c2a 118--quiet::
6ec311da 119-q::
488c3163 120 Operate quietly. Progress is not reported to the standard
0d0bac67 121 error stream.
6ec311da 122
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123--verbose::
124-v::
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125 Run verbosely. Does not affect the reporting of progress status
126 to the standard error stream.
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127
128--progress::
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129 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
130 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
131 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
132 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
21188b1e 133
fd0368f9 134--no-checkout::
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135-n::
136 No checkout of HEAD is performed after the clone is complete.
137
87e80c4b 138--bare::
48a8c26c 139 Make a 'bare' Git repository. That is, instead of
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140 creating `<directory>` and placing the administrative
141 files in `<directory>/.git`, make the `<directory>`
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142 itself the `$GIT_DIR`. This obviously implies the `-n`
143 because there is nowhere to check out the working tree.
144 Also the branch heads at the remote are copied directly
145 to corresponding local branch heads, without mapping
146 them to `refs/remotes/origin/`. When this option is
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147 used, neither remote-tracking branches nor the related
148 configuration variables are created.
8a1a120c 149
bc699afc 150--mirror::
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151 Set up a mirror of the source repository. This implies `--bare`.
152 Compared to `--bare`, `--mirror` not only maps local branches of the
153 source to local branches of the target, it maps all refs (including
29b9a66f 154 remote-tracking branches, notes etc.) and sets up a refspec configuration such
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155 that all these refs are overwritten by a `git remote update` in the
156 target repository.
bc699afc 157
ba158a32 158--origin <name>::
e6c310fd 159-o <name>::
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160 Instead of using the remote name `origin` to keep track
161 of the upstream repository, use `<name>`.
e6c310fd 162
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163--branch <name>::
164-b <name>::
165 Instead of pointing the newly created HEAD to the branch pointed
550c66f3 166 to by the cloned repository's HEAD, point to `<name>` branch
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167 instead. In a non-bare repository, this is the branch that will
168 be checked out.
169 `--branch` can also take tags and detaches the HEAD at that commit
170 in the resulting repository.
7a4ee28f 171
a2775c2a 172--upload-pack <upload-pack>::
6ec311da 173-u <upload-pack>::
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174 When given, and the repository to clone from is accessed
175 via ssh, this specifies a non-default path for the command
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176 run on the other end.
177
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178--template=<template_directory>::
179 Specify the directory from which templates will be used;
d8a8488d 180 (See the "TEMPLATE DIRECTORY" section of linkgit:git-init[1].)
a57c8bac 181
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182--config <key>=<value>::
183-c <key>=<value>::
184 Set a configuration variable in the newly-created repository;
185 this takes effect immediately after the repository is
186 initialized, but before the remote history is fetched or any
187 files checked out. The key is in the same format as expected by
188 linkgit:git-config[1] (e.g., `core.eol=true`). If multiple
189 values are given for the same key, each value will be written to
190 the config file. This makes it safe, for example, to add
191 additional fetch refspecs to the origin remote.
192
f496454e 193--depth <depth>::
f4bf2184 194 Create a 'shallow' clone with a history truncated to the
fc142811 195 specified number of commits. Implies `--single-branch` unless
28a1b569 196 `--no-single-branch` is given to fetch the histories near the
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197 tips of all branches. If you want to clone submodules shallowly,
198 also pass `--shallow-submodules`.
f4bf2184 199
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200--shallow-since=<date>::
201 Create a shallow clone with a history after the specified time.
202
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203--shallow-exclude=<revision>::
204 Create a shallow clone with a history, excluding commits
205 reachable from a specified remote branch or tag. This option
206 can be specified multiple times.
207
0460ed2c 208--[no-]single-branch::
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209 Clone only the history leading to the tip of a single branch,
210 either specified by the `--branch` option or the primary
28a1b569 211 branch remote's `HEAD` points at.
31b808a0 212 Further fetches into the resulting repository will only update the
a6d3bde5 213 remote-tracking branch for the branch this option was used for the
31b808a0 214 initial cloning. If the HEAD at the remote did not point at any
a6d3bde5 215 branch when `--single-branch` clone was made, no remote-tracking
31b808a0 216 branch is created.
3e6e0edd 217
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218--no-tags::
219 Don't clone any tags, and set
220 `remote.<remote>.tagOpt=--no-tags` in the config, ensuring
221 that future `git pull` and `git fetch` operations won't follow
222 any tags. Subsequent explicit tag fetches will still work,
223 (see linkgit:git-fetch[1]).
224+
225Can be used in conjunction with `--single-branch` to clone and
226maintain a branch with no references other than a single cloned
227branch. This is useful e.g. to maintain minimal clones of the default
228branch of some repository for search indexing.
229
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230--recurse-submodules[=<pathspec]::
231 After the clone is created, initialize and clone submodules
232 within based on the provided pathspec. If no pathspec is
233 provided, all submodules are initialized and cloned.
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234 This option can be given multiple times for pathspecs consisting
235 of multiple entries. The resulting clone has `submodule.active` set to
bb62e0a9 236 the provided pathspec, or "." (meaning all submodules) if no
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237 pathspec is provided.
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239Submodules are initialized and cloned using their default settings. This is
240equivalent to running
241`git submodule update --init --recursive <pathspec>` immediately after
242the clone is finished. This option is ignored if the cloned repository does
243not have a worktree/checkout (i.e. if any of `--no-checkout`/`-n`, `--bare`,
244or `--mirror` is given)
e7fed18a 245
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246--[no-]shallow-submodules::
247 All submodules which are cloned will be shallow with a depth of 1.
248
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249--separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
250 Instead of placing the cloned repository where it is supposed
251 to be, place the cloned repository at the specified directory,
5fe8f49b 252 then make a filesystem-agnostic Git symbolic link to there.
2de9b711 253 The result is Git repository can be separated from working
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254 tree.
255
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256-j <n>::
257--jobs <n>::
258 The number of submodules fetched at the same time.
259 Defaults to the `submodule.fetchJobs` option.
b57fb80a 260
6ec311da 261<repository>::
37ba0561 262 The (possibly remote) repository to clone from. See the
73364e4f 263 <<URLS,GIT URLS>> section below for more information on specifying
37ba0561 264 repositories.
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265
266<directory>::
fb6a9f93 267 The name of a new directory to clone into. The "humanish"
0879aa28 268 part of the source repository is used if no directory is
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269 explicitly given (`repo` for `/path/to/repo.git` and `foo`
270 for `host.xz:foo/.git`). Cloning into an existing directory
ec00d6e0 271 is only allowed if the directory is empty.
4607166d 272
347989f4 273:git-clone: 1
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274include::urls.txt[]
275
1e2ccd3a 276Examples
2b5f3ed3 277--------
1e2ccd3a 278
47638685 279* Clone from upstream:
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280+
281------------
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282$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux.git my-linux
283$ cd my-linux
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284$ make
285------------
286
287
47638685 288* Make a local clone that borrows from the current directory, without checking things out:
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289+
290------------
291$ git clone -l -s -n . ../copy
a6e3768f 292$ cd ../copy
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293$ git show-branch
294------------
295
8a1a120c 296
47638685 297* Clone from upstream while borrowing from an existing local directory:
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298+
299------------
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300$ git clone --reference /git/linux.git \
301 git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux.git \
302 my-linux
303$ cd my-linux
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304------------
305
306
47638685 307* Create a bare repository to publish your changes to the public:
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308+
309------------
87e80c4b 310$ git clone --bare -l /home/proj/.git /pub/scm/proj.git
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311------------
312
313
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314GIT
315---
9e1f0a85 316Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite