checkout -f: allow ignoring unmerged paths when checking out of the index
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-checkout.txt
CommitLineData
215a7ad1
JH
1git-checkout(1)
2===============
7fc9d69f
JH
3
4NAME
5----
76ce9462 6git-checkout - Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree
7fc9d69f
JH
7
8SYNOPSIS
9--------
71bb1033 10[verse]
b1889c36 11'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [[--track | --no-track] -b <new_branch> [-l]] [-m] [<branch>]
db941099 12'git checkout' [-f] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
7fc9d69f
JH
13
14DESCRIPTION
15-----------
4aaa7027 16
71bb1033 17When <paths> are not given, this command switches branches by
4aaa7027
JH
18updating the index and working tree to reflect the specified
19branch, <branch>, and updating HEAD to be <branch> or, if
71bb1033 20specified, <new_branch>. Using -b will cause <new_branch> to
0746d19a
PB
21be created; in this case you can use the --track or --no-track
22options, which will be passed to `git branch`.
4aaa7027
JH
23
24When <paths> are given, this command does *not* switch
25branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree from
db941099
JH
26the index file, or from a named commit. In
27this case, the `-b` options is meaningless and giving
84a978f1
JH
28either of them results in an error. <tree-ish> argument can be
29used to specify a specific tree-ish (i.e. commit, tag or tree)
30to update the index for the given paths before updating the
31working tree.
4aaa7027 32
db941099
JH
33The index may contain unmerged entries after a failed merge. By
34default, if you try to check out such an entry from the index, the
35checkout operation will fail and nothing will be checked out.
36Using -f will ignore these unmerged entries.
7fc9d69f
JH
37
38OPTIONS
39-------
6124aee5 40-q::
2be7fcb4 41 Quiet, suppress feedback messages.
6124aee5 42
0270f7c5 43-f::
db941099
JH
44 When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the
45 working tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away
46 local changes.
47+
48When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged
49entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.
0270f7c5
LAS
50
51-b::
2b1f4247
SP
52 Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
53 <branch>. The new branch name must pass all checks defined
5162e697 54 by linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
2b1f4247 55 may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
7fc9d69f 56
3240240f
SB
57-t::
58--track::
ba020ef5 59 When creating a new branch, set up configuration so that 'git-pull'
572fc81d
JS
60 will automatically retrieve data from the start point, which must be
61 a branch. Use this if you always pull from the same upstream branch
62 into the new branch, and if you don't want to use "git pull
63 <repository> <refspec>" explicitly. This behavior is the default
64 when the start point is a remote branch. Set the
65 branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable to `false` if you want
ba020ef5 66 'git-checkout' and 'git-branch' to always behave as if '--no-track' were
572fc81d
JS
67 given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
68 start-point is either a local or remote branch.
0746d19a
PB
69
70--no-track::
572fc81d 71 Ignore the branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable.
0746d19a 72
969d326d 73-l::
792d2370
JK
74 Create the new branch's reflog. This activates recording of
75 all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
967506bb 76 based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
969d326d 77
1be0659e 78-m::
71bb1033
JL
79 If you have local modifications to one or more files that
80 are different between the current branch and the branch to
81 which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
82 branches in order to preserve your modifications in context.
83 However, with this option, a three-way merge between the current
1be0659e
JH
84 branch, your working tree contents, and the new branch
85 is done, and you will be on the new branch.
86+
87When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting
88paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts
d7f078b8
SP
89and mark the resolved paths with `git add` (or `git rm` if the merge
90should result in deletion of the path).
1be0659e 91
0270f7c5
LAS
92<new_branch>::
93 Name for the new branch.
7fc9d69f 94
0270f7c5
LAS
95<branch>::
96 Branch to checkout; may be any object ID that resolves to a
5e1a2e8c
JH
97 commit. Defaults to HEAD.
98+
99When this parameter names a non-branch (but still a valid commit object),
100your HEAD becomes 'detached'.
101
102
103Detached HEAD
104-------------
105
106It is sometimes useful to be able to 'checkout' a commit that is
107not at the tip of one of your branches. The most obvious
108example is to check out the commit at a tagged official release
109point, like this:
110
111------------
112$ git checkout v2.6.18
113------------
114
115Earlier versions of git did not allow this and asked you to
116create a temporary branch using `-b` option, but starting from
117version 1.5.0, the above command 'detaches' your HEAD from the
118current branch and directly point at the commit named by the tag
119(`v2.6.18` in the above example).
120
121You can use usual git commands while in this state. You can use
b1889c36 122`git reset --hard $othercommit` to further move around, for
5e1a2e8c
JH
123example. You can make changes and create a new commit on top of
124a detached HEAD. You can even create a merge by using `git
125merge $othercommit`.
126
127The state you are in while your HEAD is detached is not recorded
128by any branch (which is natural --- you are not on any branch).
129What this means is that you can discard your temporary commits
130and merges by switching back to an existing branch (e.g. `git
131checkout master`), and a later `git prune` or `git gc` would
cec8d146
JH
132garbage-collect them. If you did this by mistake, you can ask
133the reflog for HEAD where you were, e.g.
134
135------------
136$ git log -g -2 HEAD
137------------
7fc9d69f 138
4aaa7027 139
1be0659e
JH
140EXAMPLES
141--------
4aaa7027 142
1be0659e 143. The following sequence checks out the `master` branch, reverts
4aaa7027
JH
144the `Makefile` to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by
145mistake, and gets it back from the index.
1be0659e 146+
4aaa7027 147------------
48aeecdc
SE
148$ git checkout master <1>
149$ git checkout master~2 Makefile <2>
4aaa7027 150$ rm -f hello.c
48aeecdc
SE
151$ git checkout hello.c <3>
152------------
153+
1e2ccd3a
JH
154<1> switch branch
155<2> take out a file out of other commit
48aeecdc 156<3> restore hello.c from HEAD of current branch
1be0659e 157+
48aeecdc
SE
158If you have an unfortunate branch that is named `hello.c`, this
159step would be confused as an instruction to switch to that branch.
160You should instead write:
1be0659e 161+
4aaa7027
JH
162------------
163$ git checkout -- hello.c
164------------
165
1be0659e 166. After working in a wrong branch, switching to the correct
71bb1033 167branch would be done using:
1be0659e
JH
168+
169------------
170$ git checkout mytopic
171------------
172+
173However, your "wrong" branch and correct "mytopic" branch may
174differ in files that you have locally modified, in which case,
175the above checkout would fail like this:
176+
177------------
178$ git checkout mytopic
179fatal: Entry 'frotz' not uptodate. Cannot merge.
180------------
181+
182You can give the `-m` flag to the command, which would try a
183three-way merge:
184+
185------------
186$ git checkout -m mytopic
187Auto-merging frotz
188------------
189+
190After this three-way merge, the local modifications are _not_
191registered in your index file, so `git diff` would show you what
192changes you made since the tip of the new branch.
193
194. When a merge conflict happens during switching branches with
195the `-m` option, you would see something like this:
196+
197------------
198$ git checkout -m mytopic
199Auto-merging frotz
200merge: warning: conflicts during merge
201ERROR: Merge conflict in frotz
202fatal: merge program failed
203------------
204+
205At this point, `git diff` shows the changes cleanly merged as in
206the previous example, as well as the changes in the conflicted
207files. Edit and resolve the conflict and mark it resolved with
d7f078b8 208`git add` as usual:
1be0659e
JH
209+
210------------
211$ edit frotz
d7f078b8 212$ git add frotz
1be0659e
JH
213------------
214
4aaa7027 215
7fc9d69f
JH
216Author
217------
218Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
219
220Documentation
221--------------
222Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
223
224GIT
225---
9e1f0a85 226Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite