pkt-line: tighten sideband PACK check when tracing
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
2cf565c5
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
44e1e4d6 12'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
68e4b552 13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
673151a9 25linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
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26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
06ab60c0 32manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
2de9b711 34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
7687ae98 35can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
06ab60c0 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
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47
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52 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
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359 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
360 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
361 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
362 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
363 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
364 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
365 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 366
efe05b01 367* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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368
369* release notes for
761e742d
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370 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
371 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
374 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
375 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
376 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 377
efe05b01 378* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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379
380* release notes for
761e742d
NP
381 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
382 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
386 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
387 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 388
efe05b01 389* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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390
391* release notes for
761e742d
NP
392 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
393 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
394 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
396 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
397 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
398 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 400
e708af6e 401* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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402
403* release notes for
761e742d
NP
404 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
405 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
406 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
407 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
410 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
411 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
412 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 413
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414* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
415
aba170cd 416* release notes for
761e742d
NP
417 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
418 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
421 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
422 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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423
424* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
425
426* release notes for
761e742d
NP
427 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
428 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
429 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
431 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
432 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
433 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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434
435* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
436
aba170cd 437* release notes for
761e742d
NP
438 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
439 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
443 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
444 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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445
446* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
447 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
448 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
449 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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450
451============
452
453endif::stalenotes[]
454
cb22bc44
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455OPTIONS
456-------
457--version::
2de9b711 458 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
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459
460--help::
a87cd02c 461 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b 462 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
2de9b711 463 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 464 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
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465+
466Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 467displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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468because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
469help ...`.
cb22bc44 470
44e1e4d6
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471-C <path>::
472 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
473 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
474 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
475 <path>`.
476+
477This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
478`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
479made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
480example the following invocations are equivalent:
481
482 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
483 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
484
8b1fa778
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485-c <name>=<value>::
486 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
487 given will override values from configuration files.
488 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
489 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
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490+
491Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
492`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
493config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
494foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
8b1fa778 495
62b4698e 496--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 497 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 498 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 499 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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AE
500 the current setting and then exit.
501
89a56bfb 502--html-path::
2de9b711 503 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 504 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 505
f2dd8c37 506--man-path::
239b5ed9 507 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 508 this version of Git and exit.
f2dd8c37
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509
510--info-path::
239b5ed9 511 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 512 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 513
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514-p::
515--paginate::
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516 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
517 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
518 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
519 below).
6acbcb92 520
463a849d 521--no-pager::
2de9b711 522 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 523
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524--git-dir=<path>::
525 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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526 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
527 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 528
892c41b9 529--work-tree=<path>::
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530 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
531 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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532 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
533 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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534 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
535 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 536
d49483f0 537--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 538 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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539 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
540 variable.
541
6acbcb92 542--bare::
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543 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
544 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
545 directory.
546
b0fa7ab5 547--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 548 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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549 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
550
823ab40f 551--literal-pathspecs::
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552 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
553 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
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554 variable to `1`.
555
6fb02165 556--glob-pathspecs::
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557 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
558 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
559 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
560 magic ":(literal)"
561
6fb02165 562--noglob-pathspecs::
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563 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
564 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
565 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
566 magic ":(glob)"
9755afbd 567
6fb02165 568--icase-pathspecs::
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569 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
570 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
9755afbd 571
23091e95
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572GIT COMMANDS
573------------
9755afbd 574
2de9b711 575We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 576("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 577
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578High-level commands (porcelain)
579-------------------------------
580
581We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
582ancillary user utilities.
583
584Main porcelain commands
585~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 586
377e8139 587include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 588
90933efb 589Ancillary Commands
23091e95 590~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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591Manipulators:
592
377e8139 593include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 594
90933efb 595Interrogators:
204ee6a9 596
377e8139 597include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 598
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599
600Interacting with Others
601~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
602
603These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
604people via patch over e-mail.
605
606include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
607
608
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609Low-level commands (plumbing)
610-----------------------------
611
2de9b711 612Although Git includes its
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613own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
614development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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615might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
616linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 617
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618The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
619to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
620than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
621primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
622on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
623end user experience.
624
625The following description divides
626the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
b1f33d62
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627the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
628compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
629repositories.
630
89bf2077 631
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632Manipulation commands
633~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 634
377e8139 635include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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636
637
638Interrogation commands
639~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
640
377e8139 641include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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642
643In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
644the working tree.
645
646
647Synching repositories
648~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
649
377e8139 650include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 651
57f6ec02 652The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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653typically do not use them directly.
654
655include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
656
657
658Internal helper commands
659~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
660
661These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
662users typically do not use them directly.
663
664include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
665
b1f33d62 666
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667Configuration Mechanism
668-----------------------
669
c0179c0d
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670Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
671repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
672like this:
5773c9f2
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673
674------------
675#
2fa090b6 676# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
5773c9f2
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677#
678
679; core variables
680[core]
681 ; Don't trust file modes
682 filemode = false
683
684; user identity
685[user]
686 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 687 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
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688
689------------
690
691Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 692their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 693list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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694
695
6c84e2e0 696Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
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697----------------------
698<object>::
2fa090b6 699 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
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700
701<blob>::
2fa090b6 702 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
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703
704<tree>::
2fa090b6 705 Indicates a tree object name.
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706
707<commit>::
2fa090b6 708 Indicates a commit object name.
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709
710<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 711 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
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712 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
713 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
714 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 715
043d7605
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716<commit-ish>::
717 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
718 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
719 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
720 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
721
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722<type>::
723 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 724 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
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725
726<file>::
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727 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
728 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 729
c1bdacf9
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730Symbolic Identifiers
731--------------------
2de9b711 732Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 733symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
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734
735HEAD::
0abcfbff 736 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 737
c1bdacf9 738<tag>::
2fa090b6 739 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 740 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 741
c1bdacf9 742<head>::
2fa090b6 743 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 744 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 745
d47107d8 746For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 747"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 748
c1bdacf9
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749
750File/Directory Structure
751------------------------
c1bdacf9 752
6998e4db 753Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 754
6998e4db 755Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 756
c1bdacf9 757Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 758`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 759
a1d4aa74 760
2cf565c5
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761Terminology
762-----------
6998e4db 763Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
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764
765
766Environment Variables
767---------------------
2de9b711 768Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 769
2de9b711 770The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 771~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 772These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 773is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2de9b711 774Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
c1bdacf9
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775
776'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
777 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
LS
778 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
779 is used.
c1bdacf9 780
136347d7
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781'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
782 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
783 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
70320541
NTND
784 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
785 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
136347d7 786
c1bdacf9
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787'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
788 If the object storage directory is specified via this
789 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
790 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
791 directory is used.
792
793'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
2de9b711 794 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 795 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 796 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 797 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 798 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9
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799
800'GIT_DIR'::
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801 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
802 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
803 for the base of the repository.
75940a00 804 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 805
892c41b9 806'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
a758a349 807 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
06ab60c0 808 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
892c41b9
ML
809 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
810
d49483f0 811'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
2de9b711 812 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
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813 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
814
0454dd93 815'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
7ec30aaa 816 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 817 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
7ec30aaa
MH
818 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
819 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
820 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
821 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
822 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
823 might be present in order to compare them with the current
824 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
825 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
826 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
827 e.g.,
828 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
0454dd93 829
cf87463e 830'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
e6405517 831 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 832 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
e6405517
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833 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
834 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 835 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
cf87463e
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836 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
837 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
838 command line.
8030e442 839
c7b3a3d2
NTND
840'GIT_COMMON_DIR'::
841 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
842 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
843 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
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NTND
844 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
845 the section 'MULTIPLE CHECKOUT MODE' in linkgit:checkout[1]
c7b3a3d2
NTND
846 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
847 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
848
2de9b711 849Git Commits
c1bdacf9
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850~~~~~~~~~~~
851'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
852'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
853'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
854'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
855'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 856'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 857'EMAIL'::
5162e697 858 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 859
2de9b711 860Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 861~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 862'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
fde97d8a
SE
863 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
864 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
865 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 866 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 867
d81ed1b5 868'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
fde97d8a
SE
869 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
870 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
871 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
872 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
873
874 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
875+
876where:
877
878 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
879 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 880 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 881 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
SE
882+
883The file parameters can point at the user's working file
884(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
885when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
886index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
887temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
888+
889For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
890parameter, <path>.
ee7fb0b1
ZK
891+
892For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
893'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
894
895'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
896 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
897
898'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
899 The total number of paths.
2cf565c5 900
575ba9d6
ML
901other
902~~~~~
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903'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
904 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
905 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 906 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 907
c27d205a 908'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77 909 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 910 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
ab54cd6c
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911 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
912 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 913
36384c97
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914'GIT_EDITOR'::
915 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 916 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
36384c97
RSM
917 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
918 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
919
d5538b41 920'GIT_SSH'::
39942766
TQ
921'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
922 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
923 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
924 when they need to connect to a remote system.
925 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
926 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
927 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
928 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
929 something other than the default SSH port.
d5538b41 930+
39942766
TQ
931`$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
932by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
933`$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
934(which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
935needed).
d5538b41
SP
936+
937Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
938personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
939for further details.
940
453842c9 941'GIT_ASKPASS'::
2de9b711 942 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
453842c9 943 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
06ab60c0 944 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
da0005b8 945 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
453842c9
KF
946 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
947
e652c0eb
JK
948'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
949 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
950 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
951
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952'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
953 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
954 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
955 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
956 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
957 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
958 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
959
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TT
960'GIT_FLUSH'::
961 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb 962 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
627a8b8d 963 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
f1ed7fea
AS
964 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
965 flushed. If this
06f59e9f
TT
966 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
967 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 968 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
06f59e9f
TT
969 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
970
575ba9d6 971'GIT_TRACE'::
eb9250df
KB
972 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
973 command execution and external command execution.
974+
975If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
976is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
977stderr.
978+
979If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
980and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
981value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
982trace messages into this file descriptor.
983+
984Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
985(starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
986as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
987into it.
988+
989Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
990"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
575ba9d6 991
b12ca963 992'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
67dc598e 993 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
b12ca963
NTND
994 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
995 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
996 pack-related performance problems.
67dc598e 997 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
b12ca963 998
1dd278ce 999'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
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KB
1000 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1001 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1002 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1003 starting with "PACK".
1004 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1005
578da039
KB
1006'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1007 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1008 time of each Git command.
1009 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1010
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KB
1011'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1012 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1013 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1014 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1015
1016'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1017 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1018 cloning of shallow repositories.
1019 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1dd278ce 1020
823ab40f 1021GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
2de9b711 1022 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
823ab40f
JK
1023 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1024 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1025 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1026 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 1027 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
823ab40f
JK
1028 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1029
bd30c2e4
NTND
1030GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1031 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1032 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1033
1034GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1035 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1036 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1037
93d93537
NTND
1038GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1039 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1040 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1041
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1042'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1043 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1044 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1045 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1046 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1047 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1048 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1049 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1050 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1051
49672f26
JK
1052`GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1053 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1054 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1055 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1056 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1057 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1058 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1059 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1060 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1061 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1062
823ab40f 1063
8db9307c
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1064Discussion[[Discussion]]
1065------------------------
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BF
1066
1067More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 1068link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 1069user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 1070
2de9b711 1071A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
40dac517
BF
1072subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1073things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1074of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1075contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1076as tags and branch heads.
1077
1078The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1079hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 1080directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
40dac517
BF
1081and some number of parent commits.
1082
1083The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1084"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1085represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1086parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1087
d5fa1f1a 1088All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
40dac517
BF
1089written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1090The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1091just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1092purpose.
1093
1094When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1095efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1096
1097Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
d5fa1f1a
TA
1098may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1099with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1100recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
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BF
1101tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1102`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1103
1104The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1105path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1106the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1107attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1108corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1109working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1110be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1111content stored in the index.
1112
1113The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1114for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1115unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 1116
7687ae98
JH
1117FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1118---------------------
1119
1120See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 1121using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
7687ae98
JH
1122for a first-time user.
1123
2de9b711 1124The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 1125user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 1126introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
7687ae98
JH
1127
1128See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1129
1130See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1131examples.
1132
1133The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 1134link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
7687ae98
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1135
1136Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1137read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1138
1139
cb22bc44
AE
1140Authors
1141-------
48bb914e 1142Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 1143C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
405869d0 1144<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
6ecc01f2
JH
1145gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1146
1147If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
d8f708f8
JK
1148output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1149the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 1150
c97ca277
JH
1151Reporting Bugs
1152--------------
1153
1154Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1155development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1156subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1157
497c8331
CC
1158SEE ALSO
1159--------
1160linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
673151a9 1161linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 1162linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
801a011d
TR
1163linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1164linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 1165
2cf565c5
DG
1166GIT
1167---
9e1f0a85 1168Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite