Change "remote tracking" to "remote-tracking"
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-p4.txt
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1git-p4(1)
2=========
3
4NAME
5----
6git-p4 - Import from and submit to Perforce repositories
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
11[verse]
12'git p4 clone' [<sync options>] [<clone options>] <p4 depot path>...
13'git p4 sync' [<sync options>] [<p4 depot path>...]
14'git p4 rebase'
15'git p4 submit' [<submit options>] [<master branch name>]
16
17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
20This command provides a way to interact with p4 repositories
2de9b711 21using Git.
6679c34c 22
2de9b711 23Create a new Git repository from an existing p4 repository using
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24'git p4 clone', giving it one or more p4 depot paths. Incorporate
25new commits from p4 changes with 'git p4 sync'. The 'sync' command
26is also used to include new branches from other p4 depot paths.
2de9b711 27Submit Git changes back to p4 using 'git p4 submit'. The command
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28'git p4 rebase' does a sync plus rebases the current branch onto
29the updated p4 remote branch.
30
31
32EXAMPLE
33-------
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34* Clone a repository:
35+
36------------
37$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
38------------
39
2de9b711 40* Do some work in the newly created Git repository:
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41+
42------------
43$ cd project
44$ vi foo.h
45$ git commit -a -m "edited foo.h"
46------------
47
2de9b711 48* Update the Git repository with recent changes from p4, rebasing your
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49 work on top:
50+
51------------
52$ git p4 rebase
53------------
54
55* Submit your commits back to p4:
56+
57------------
58$ git p4 submit
59------------
60
61
62COMMANDS
63--------
64
65Clone
66~~~~~
2de9b711 67Generally, 'git p4 clone' is used to create a new Git directory
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68from an existing p4 repository:
69------------
70$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
71------------
72This:
73
2de9b711 741. Creates an empty Git repository in a subdirectory called 'project'.
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75+
762. Imports the full contents of the head revision from the given p4
2de9b711 77depot path into a single commit in the Git branch 'refs/remotes/p4/master'.
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78+
793. Creates a local branch, 'master' from this remote and checks it out.
80
2de9b711 81To reproduce the entire p4 history in Git, use the '@all' modifier on
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82the depot path:
83------------
84$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project@all
85------------
86
87
88Sync
89~~~~
90As development continues in the p4 repository, those changes can
2de9b711 91be included in the Git repository using:
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92------------
93$ git p4 sync
94------------
2de9b711 95This command finds new changes in p4 and imports them as Git commits.
6679c34c 96
2de9b711 97P4 repositories can be added to an existing Git repository using
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98'git p4 sync' too:
99------------
100$ mkdir repo-git
101$ cd repo-git
102$ git init
103$ git p4 sync //path/in/your/perforce/depot
104------------
105This imports the specified depot into
2de9b711 106'refs/remotes/p4/master' in an existing Git repository. The
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107'--branch' option can be used to specify a different branch to
108be used for the p4 content.
109
2de9b711 110If a Git repository includes branches 'refs/remotes/origin/p4', these
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111will be fetched and consulted first during a 'git p4 sync'. Since
112importing directly from p4 is considerably slower than pulling changes
2de9b711 113from a Git remote, this can be useful in a multi-developer environment.
6679c34c 114
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115If there are multiple branches, doing 'git p4 sync' will automatically
116use the "BRANCH DETECTION" algorithm to try to partition new changes
117into the right branch. This can be overridden with the '--branch'
118option to specify just a single branch to update.
119
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120
121Rebase
122~~~~~~
123A common working pattern is to fetch the latest changes from the p4 depot
124and merge them with local uncommitted changes. Often, the p4 repository
125is the ultimate location for all code, thus a rebase workflow makes
126sense. This command does 'git p4 sync' followed by 'git rebase' to move
127local commits on top of updated p4 changes.
128------------
129$ git p4 rebase
130------------
131
132
133Submit
134~~~~~~
2de9b711 135Submitting changes from a Git repository back to the p4 repository
6679c34c 136requires a separate p4 client workspace. This should be specified
2de9b711 137using the 'P4CLIENT' environment variable or the Git configuration
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138variable 'git-p4.client'. The p4 client must exist, but the client root
139will be created and populated if it does not already exist.
140
2de9b711 141To submit all changes that are in the current Git branch but not in
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142the 'p4/master' branch, use:
143------------
144$ git p4 submit
145------------
146
147To specify a branch other than the current one, use:
148------------
149$ git p4 submit topicbranch
150------------
151
152The upstream reference is generally 'refs/remotes/p4/master', but can
153be overridden using the '--origin=' command-line option.
154
155The p4 changes will be created as the user invoking 'git p4 submit'. The
156'--preserve-user' option will cause ownership to be modified
2de9b711 157according to the author of the Git commit. This option requires admin
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158privileges in p4, which can be granted using 'p4 protect'.
159
160
161OPTIONS
162-------
163
164General options
165~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
6a10b6aa 166All commands except clone accept these options.
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167
168--git-dir <dir>::
169 Set the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable. See linkgit:git[1].
170
b0ccc80d 171--verbose, -v::
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172 Provide more progress information.
173
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174Sync options
175~~~~~~~~~~~~
176These options can be used in the initial 'clone' as well as in
177subsequent 'sync' operations.
178
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179--branch <ref>::
180 Import changes into <ref> instead of refs/remotes/p4/master.
181 If <ref> starts with refs/, it is used as is. Otherwise, if
182 it does not start with p4/, that prefix is added.
183+
184By default a <ref> not starting with refs/ is treated as the
185name of a remote-tracking branch (under refs/remotes/). This
186behavior can be modified using the --import-local option.
187+
188The default <ref> is "master".
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189+
190This example imports a new remote "p4/proj2" into an existing
2de9b711 191Git repository:
41925d58 192+
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193----
194 $ git init
195 $ git p4 sync --branch=refs/remotes/p4/proj2 //depot/proj2
196----
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197
198--detect-branches::
199 Use the branch detection algorithm to find new paths in p4. It is
200 documented below in "BRANCH DETECTION".
201
202--changesfile <file>::
203 Import exactly the p4 change numbers listed in 'file', one per
204 line. Normally, 'git p4' inspects the current p4 repository
205 state and detects the changes it should import.
206
207--silent::
208 Do not print any progress information.
209
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210--detect-labels::
211 Query p4 for labels associated with the depot paths, and add
2de9b711 212 them as tags in Git. Limited usefulness as only imports labels
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213 associated with new changelists. Deprecated.
214
215--import-labels::
2de9b711 216 Import labels from p4 into Git.
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217
218--import-local::
219 By default, p4 branches are stored in 'refs/remotes/p4/',
220 where they will be treated as remote-tracking branches by
221 linkgit:git-branch[1] and other commands. This option instead
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222 puts p4 branches in 'refs/heads/p4/'. Note that future
223 sync operations must specify '--import-local' as well so that
224 they can find the p4 branches in refs/heads.
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225
226--max-changes <n>::
227 Limit the number of imported changes to 'n'. Useful to
228 limit the amount of history when using the '@all' p4 revision
229 specifier.
230
231--keep-path::
2de9b711 232 The mapping of file names from the p4 depot path to Git, by
6679c34c 233 default, involves removing the entire depot path. With this
2de9b711 234 option, the full p4 depot path is retained in Git. For example,
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235 path '//depot/main/foo/bar.c', when imported from
236 '//depot/main/', becomes 'foo/bar.c'. With '--keep-path', the
2de9b711 237 Git path is instead 'depot/main/foo/bar.c'.
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238
239--use-client-spec::
240 Use a client spec to find the list of interesting files in p4.
896a6816 241 See the "CLIENT SPEC" section below.
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242
243Clone options
244~~~~~~~~~~~~~
245These options can be used in an initial 'clone', along with the 'sync'
246options described above.
247
248--destination <directory>::
2de9b711 249 Where to create the Git repository. If not provided, the last
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250 component in the p4 depot path is used to create a new
251 directory.
252
253--bare::
254 Perform a bare clone. See linkgit:git-clone[1].
255
256-/ <path>::
257 Exclude selected depot paths when cloning.
258
259Submit options
260~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
261These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
262
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263--origin <commit>::
264 Upstream location from which commits are identified to submit to
265 p4. By default, this is the most recent p4 commit reachable
266 from 'HEAD'.
267
84cb0003 268-M::
6679c34c 269 Detect renames. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. Renames will be
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270 represented in p4 using explicit 'move' operations. There
271 is no corresponding option to detect copies, but there are
272 variables for both moves and copies.
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273
274--preserve-user::
275 Re-author p4 changes before submitting to p4. This option
276 requires p4 admin privileges.
277
c8942a22 278--export-labels::
2de9b711 279 Export tags from Git as p4 labels. Tags found in Git are applied
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280 to the perforce working directory.
281
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282--dry-run, -n::
283 Show just what commits would be submitted to p4; do not change
2de9b711 284 state in Git or p4.
ef739f08 285
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286--prepare-p4-only::
287 Apply a commit to the p4 workspace, opening, adding and deleting
288 files in p4 as for a normal submit operation. Do not issue the
289 final "p4 submit", but instead print a message about how to
290 submit manually or revert. This option always stops after the
291 first (oldest) commit. Git tags are not exported to p4.
292
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293--conflict=(ask|skip|quit)::
294 Conflicts can occur when applying a commit to p4. When this
295 happens, the default behavior ("ask") is to prompt whether to
296 skip this commit and continue, or quit. This option can be used
297 to bypass the prompt, causing conflicting commits to be automatically
298 skipped, or to quit trying to apply commits, without prompting.
299
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300--branch <branch>::
301 After submitting, sync this named branch instead of the default
302 p4/master. See the "Sync options" section above for more
303 information.
304
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305Rebase options
306~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
307These options can be used to modify 'git p4 rebase' behavior.
308
309--import-labels::
310 Import p4 labels.
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311
312DEPOT PATH SYNTAX
313-----------------
314The p4 depot path argument to 'git p4 sync' and 'git p4 clone' can
315be one or more space-separated p4 depot paths, with an optional
316p4 revision specifier on the end:
317
318"//depot/my/project"::
319 Import one commit with all files in the '#head' change under that tree.
320
321"//depot/my/project@all"::
322 Import one commit for each change in the history of that depot path.
323
324"//depot/my/project@1,6"::
325 Import only changes 1 through 6.
326
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327"//depot/proj1@all //depot/proj2@all"::
328 Import all changes from both named depot paths into a single
329 repository. Only files below these directories are included.
2de9b711 330 There is not a subdirectory in Git for each "proj1" and "proj2".
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331 You must use the '--destination' option when specifying more
332 than one depot path. The revision specifier must be specified
333 identically on each depot path. If there are files in the
334 depot paths with the same name, the path with the most recently
2de9b711 335 updated version of the file is the one that appears in Git.
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336
337See 'p4 help revisions' for the full syntax of p4 revision specifiers.
338
339
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340CLIENT SPEC
341-----------
342The p4 client specification is maintained with the 'p4 client' command
343and contains among other fields, a View that specifies how the depot
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344is mapped into the client repository. The 'clone' and 'sync' commands
345can consult the client spec when given the '--use-client-spec' option or
346when the useClientSpec variable is true. After 'git p4 clone', the
347useClientSpec variable is automatically set in the repository
348configuration file. This allows future 'git p4 submit' commands to
349work properly; the submit command looks only at the variable and does
350not have a command-line option.
896a6816 351
2de9b711 352The full syntax for a p4 view is documented in 'p4 help views'. 'git p4'
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353knows only a subset of the view syntax. It understands multi-line
354mappings, overlays with '+', exclusions with '-' and double-quotes
b6f93057 355around whitespace. Of the possible wildcards, 'git p4' only handles
2de9b711 356'...', and only when it is at the end of the path. 'git p4' will complain
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357if it encounters an unhandled wildcard.
358
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359Bugs in the implementation of overlap mappings exist. If multiple depot
360paths map through overlays to the same location in the repository,
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361'git p4' can choose the wrong one. This is hard to solve without
362dedicating a client spec just for 'git p4'.
42d8c279 363
b6f93057 364The name of the client can be given to 'git p4' in multiple ways. The
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365variable 'git-p4.client' takes precedence if it exists. Otherwise,
366normal p4 mechanisms of determining the client are used: environment
367variable P4CLIENT, a file referenced by P4CONFIG, or the local host name.
368
369
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370BRANCH DETECTION
371----------------
2de9b711 372P4 does not have the same concept of a branch as Git. Instead,
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373p4 organizes its content as a directory tree, where by convention
374different logical branches are in different locations in the tree.
375The 'p4 branch' command is used to maintain mappings between
376different areas in the tree, and indicate related content. 'git p4'
377can use these mappings to determine branch relationships.
378
379If you have a repository where all the branches of interest exist as
380subdirectories of a single depot path, you can use '--detect-branches'
381when cloning or syncing to have 'git p4' automatically find
2de9b711 382subdirectories in p4, and to generate these as branches in Git.
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383
384For example, if the P4 repository structure is:
385----
386//depot/main/...
387//depot/branch1/...
388----
389
390And "p4 branch -o branch1" shows a View line that looks like:
391----
392//depot/main/... //depot/branch1/...
393----
394
395Then this 'git p4 clone' command:
396----
397git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all
398----
399produces a separate branch in 'refs/remotes/p4/' for //depot/main,
400called 'master', and one for //depot/branch1 called 'depot/branch1'.
401
402However, it is not necessary to create branches in p4 to be able to use
403them like branches. Because it is difficult to infer branch
2de9b711 404relationships automatically, a Git configuration setting
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405'git-p4.branchList' can be used to explicitly identify branch
406relationships. It is a list of "source:destination" pairs, like a
407simple p4 branch specification, where the "source" and "destination" are
408the path elements in the p4 repository. The example above relied on the
409presence of the p4 branch. Without p4 branches, the same result will
410occur with:
411----
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412git init depot
413cd depot
6679c34c 414git config git-p4.branchList main:branch1
182edef5 415git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all .
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416----
417
418
419PERFORMANCE
420-----------
421The fast-import mechanism used by 'git p4' creates one pack file for
2de9b711 422each invocation of 'git p4 sync'. Normally, Git garbage compression
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423(linkgit:git-gc[1]) automatically compresses these to fewer pack files,
424but explicit invocation of 'git repack -adf' may improve performance.
425
426
427CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
428-----------------------
429The following config settings can be used to modify 'git p4' behavior.
430They all are in the 'git-p4' section.
431
432General variables
433~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
434git-p4.user::
435 User specified as an option to all p4 commands, with '-u <user>'.
436 The environment variable 'P4USER' can be used instead.
437
438git-p4.password::
439 Password specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
440 '-P <password>'.
441 The environment variable 'P4PASS' can be used instead.
442
443git-p4.port::
444 Port specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
445 '-p <port>'.
446 The environment variable 'P4PORT' can be used instead.
447
448git-p4.host::
449 Host specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
450 '-h <host>'.
451 The environment variable 'P4HOST' can be used instead.
452
453git-p4.client::
454 Client specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
896a6816 455 '-c <client>', including the client spec.
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456
457Clone and sync variables
458~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
459git-p4.syncFromOrigin::
2de9b711 460 Because importing commits from other Git repositories is much faster
6679c34c 461 than importing them from p4, a mechanism exists to find p4 changes
2de9b711 462 first in Git remotes. If branches exist under 'refs/remote/origin/p4',
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463 those will be fetched and used when syncing from p4. This
464 variable can be set to 'false' to disable this behavior.
465
466git-p4.branchUser::
467 One phase in branch detection involves looking at p4 branches
468 to find new ones to import. By default, all branches are
469 inspected. This option limits the search to just those owned
470 by the single user named in the variable.
471
472git-p4.branchList::
473 List of branches to be imported when branch detection is
474 enabled. Each entry should be a pair of branch names separated
475 by a colon (:). This example declares that both branchA and
476 branchB were created from main:
41925d58 477+
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478-------------
479git config git-p4.branchList main:branchA
480git config --add git-p4.branchList main:branchB
481-------------
482
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483git-p4.ignoredP4Labels::
484 List of p4 labels to ignore. This is built automatically as
485 unimportable labels are discovered.
486
487git-p4.importLabels::
488 Import p4 labels into git, as per --import-labels.
489
c8942a22 490git-p4.labelImportRegexp::
06804c76 491 Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be imported. The
c8942a22 492 default value is '[a-zA-Z0-9_\-.]+$'.
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493
494git-p4.useClientSpec::
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495 Specify that the p4 client spec should be used to identify p4
496 depot paths of interest. This is equivalent to specifying the
497 option '--use-client-spec'. See the "CLIENT SPEC" section above.
498 This variable is a boolean, not the name of a p4 client.
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499
500Submit variables
501~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
502git-p4.detectRenames::
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503 Detect renames. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. This can be true,
504 false, or a score as expected by 'git diff -M'.
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505
506git-p4.detectCopies::
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507 Detect copies. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. This can be true,
508 false, or a score as expected by 'git diff -C'.
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509
510git-p4.detectCopiesHarder::
84cb0003 511 Detect copies harder. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. A boolean.
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512
513git-p4.preserveUser::
2de9b711 514 On submit, re-author changes to reflect the Git author,
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515 regardless of who invokes 'git p4 submit'.
516
517git-p4.allowMissingP4Users::
518 When 'preserveUser' is true, 'git p4' normally dies if it
519 cannot find an author in the p4 user map. This setting
520 submits the change regardless.
521
522git-p4.skipSubmitEdit::
523 The submit process invokes the editor before each p4 change
524 is submitted. If this setting is true, though, the editing
525 step is skipped.
526
527git-p4.skipSubmitEditCheck::
528 After editing the p4 change message, 'git p4' makes sure that
529 the description really was changed by looking at the file
530 modification time. This option disables that test.
531
532git-p4.allowSubmit::
533 By default, any branch can be used as the source for a 'git p4
534 submit' operation. This configuration variable, if set, permits only
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535 the named branches to be used as submit sources. Branch names
536 must be the short names (no "refs/heads/"), and should be
537 separated by commas (","), with no spaces.
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538
539git-p4.skipUserNameCheck::
540 If the user running 'git p4 submit' does not exist in the p4
541 user map, 'git p4' exits. This option can be used to force
542 submission regardless.
543
41925d58 544git-p4.attemptRCSCleanup::
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545 If enabled, 'git p4 submit' will attempt to cleanup RCS keywords
546 ($Header$, etc). These would otherwise cause merge conflicts and prevent
547 the submit going ahead. This option should be considered experimental at
548 present.
549
550git-p4.exportLabels::
2de9b711 551 Export Git tags to p4 labels, as per --export-labels.
06804c76 552
c8942a22 553git-p4.labelExportRegexp::
06804c76 554 Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be exported. The
c8942a22 555 default value is '[a-zA-Z0-9_\-.]+$'.
6679c34c 556
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557git-p4.conflict::
558 Specify submit behavior when a conflict with p4 is found, as per
559 --conflict. The default behavior is 'ask'.
560
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561IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
562----------------------
2de9b711 563* Changesets from p4 are imported using Git fast-import.
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564* Cloning or syncing does not require a p4 client; file contents are
565 collected using 'p4 print'.
566* Submitting requires a p4 client, which is not in the same location
2de9b711 567 as the Git repository. Patches are applied, one at a time, to
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568 this p4 client and submitted from there.
569* Each commit imported by 'git p4' has a line at the end of the log
570 message indicating the p4 depot location and change number. This
571 line is used by later 'git p4 sync' operations to know which p4
572 changes are new.