Git 2.9.4
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
44e1e4d6 12'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
68e4b552 13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
673151a9 25linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
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26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
06ab60c0 32manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
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34A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation
35can be viewed at `https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
06ab60c0 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
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46
47* link:v2.9.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.9.4]
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48
49* release notes for
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54 link:RelNotes/2.9.0.txt[2.9].
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67
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78* release notes for
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100
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114 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
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359 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
360 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
361 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
362 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
e923eaeb 363
1b974346 364* link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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365
366* release notes for
1b974346 367 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
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368 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
369 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
370 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
902f2353 371
1b974346 372* link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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373
374* release notes for
1b974346 375 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
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376 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
377 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
378 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
379 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
380 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
381 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
382 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
383 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
384 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
78d553b7 385
1b974346 386* link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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387
388* release notes for
1b974346 389 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
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390 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
391 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
392 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
393 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
394 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
0a53e9dd 395
441b40d8 396* link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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397
398* release notes for
761e742d
NP
399 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
400 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
401 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
402 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
403 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
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404
405* release notes for
761e742d
NP
406 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
407 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
408 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
409 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
410 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
411 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
a95148de 412
621f1b4b 413* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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414
415* release notes for
761e742d
NP
416 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
417 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
418 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
419 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
8104ebfe 420
efe05b01 421* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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422
423* release notes for
761e742d
NP
424 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
425 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
426 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
427 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
428 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
429 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
430 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 431
efe05b01 432* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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433
434* release notes for
761e742d
NP
435 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
436 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
437 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
438 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
439 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 442
efe05b01 443* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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444
445* release notes for
761e742d
NP
446 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
452 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 453
efe05b01 454* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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455
456* release notes for
761e742d
NP
457 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
458 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
459 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
460 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
461 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
462 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
463 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
464 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 465
e708af6e 466* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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467
468* release notes for
761e742d
NP
469 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
470 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
471 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
472 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
473 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
474 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
475 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
476 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
477 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 478
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479* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
480
aba170cd 481* release notes for
761e742d
NP
482 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
483 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
484 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
485 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
486 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
487 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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488
489* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
490
491* release notes for
761e742d
NP
492 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
493 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
494 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
495 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
496 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
497 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
498 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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499
500* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
501
aba170cd 502* release notes for
761e742d
NP
503 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
504 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
505 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
506 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
507 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
508 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
509 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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510
511* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
512 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
513 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
514 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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515
516============
517
518endif::stalenotes[]
519
cb22bc44
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520OPTIONS
521-------
522--version::
2de9b711 523 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
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524
525--help::
a87cd02c 526 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
bcf9626a 527 commands. If the option `--all` or `-a` is given then all
2de9b711 528 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 529 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
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530+
531Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 532displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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533because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
534help ...`.
cb22bc44 535
44e1e4d6
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536-C <path>::
537 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
538 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
539 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
540 <path>`.
541+
542This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
543`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
544made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
545example the following invocations are equivalent:
546
547 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
548 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
549
8b1fa778
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550-c <name>=<value>::
551 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
552 given will override values from configuration files.
553 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
554 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
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555+
556Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
557`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
558config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
559foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
8b1fa778 560
62b4698e 561--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 562 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 563 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 564 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
cb22bc44
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565 the current setting and then exit.
566
89a56bfb 567--html-path::
2de9b711 568 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 569 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 570
f2dd8c37 571--man-path::
239b5ed9 572 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 573 this version of Git and exit.
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574
575--info-path::
239b5ed9 576 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 577 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 578
3240240f
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579-p::
580--paginate::
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581 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
582 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
583 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
584 below).
6acbcb92 585
463a849d 586--no-pager::
2de9b711 587 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 588
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589--git-dir=<path>::
590 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
47d81b5c 591 setting the `GIT_DIR` environment variable. It can be an absolute
302cc11a 592 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 593
892c41b9 594--work-tree=<path>::
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595 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
596 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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597 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
598 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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599 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
600 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 601
d49483f0 602--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 603 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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604 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
605 variable.
606
6acbcb92 607--bare::
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608 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
609 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
610 directory.
611
b0fa7ab5 612--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 613 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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614 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
615
823ab40f 616--literal-pathspecs::
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617 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
618 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
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619 variable to `1`.
620
6fb02165 621--glob-pathspecs::
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622 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
623 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
624 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
625 magic ":(literal)"
626
6fb02165 627--noglob-pathspecs::
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628 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
629 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
630 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
631 magic ":(glob)"
9755afbd 632
6fb02165 633--icase-pathspecs::
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634 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
635 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
9755afbd 636
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637GIT COMMANDS
638------------
9755afbd 639
2de9b711 640We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 641("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 642
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643High-level commands (porcelain)
644-------------------------------
645
646We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
647ancillary user utilities.
648
649Main porcelain commands
650~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 651
377e8139 652include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 653
90933efb 654Ancillary Commands
23091e95 655~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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656Manipulators:
657
377e8139 658include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 659
90933efb 660Interrogators:
204ee6a9 661
377e8139 662include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 663
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664
665Interacting with Others
666~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
667
668These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
669people via patch over e-mail.
670
671include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
672
673
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674Low-level commands (plumbing)
675-----------------------------
676
2de9b711 677Although Git includes its
b1f33d62
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678own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
679development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
5162e697
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680might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
681linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 682
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683The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
684to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
685than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
686primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
687on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
688end user experience.
689
690The following description divides
691the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
b1f33d62
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692the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
693compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
694repositories.
695
89bf2077 696
b1f33d62
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697Manipulation commands
698~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 699
377e8139 700include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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701
702
703Interrogation commands
704~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
705
377e8139 706include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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707
708In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
709the working tree.
710
711
712Synching repositories
713~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
714
377e8139 715include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 716
57f6ec02 717The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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718typically do not use them directly.
719
720include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
721
722
723Internal helper commands
724~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
725
726These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
727users typically do not use them directly.
728
729include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
730
b1f33d62 731
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732Configuration Mechanism
733-----------------------
734
c0179c0d
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735Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
736repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
737like this:
5773c9f2
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738
739------------
740#
2fa090b6 741# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
5773c9f2
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742#
743
744; core variables
745[core]
746 ; Don't trust file modes
747 filemode = false
748
749; user identity
750[user]
751 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 752 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
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753
754------------
755
756Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 757their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 758list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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759
760
6c84e2e0 761Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
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762----------------------
763<object>::
2fa090b6 764 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
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765
766<blob>::
2fa090b6 767 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
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768
769<tree>::
2fa090b6 770 Indicates a tree object name.
2cf565c5
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771
772<commit>::
2fa090b6 773 Indicates a commit object name.
2cf565c5
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774
775<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 776 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
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777 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
778 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
779 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 780
043d7605
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781<commit-ish>::
782 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
783 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
784 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
785 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
786
2cf565c5
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787<type>::
788 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 789 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
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790
791<file>::
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792 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
793 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 794
c1bdacf9
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795Symbolic Identifiers
796--------------------
2de9b711 797Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 798symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
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799
800HEAD::
0abcfbff 801 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 802
c1bdacf9 803<tag>::
2fa090b6 804 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 805 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 806
c1bdacf9 807<head>::
2fa090b6 808 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 809 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 810
d47107d8 811For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 812"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 813
c1bdacf9
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814
815File/Directory Structure
816------------------------
c1bdacf9 817
6998e4db 818Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 819
6998e4db 820Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 821
c1bdacf9 822Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 823`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 824
a1d4aa74 825
2cf565c5
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826Terminology
827-----------
6998e4db 828Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
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829
830
831Environment Variables
832---------------------
2de9b711 833Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 834
2de9b711 835The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 836~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 837These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 838is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
f25b98e6 839Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
c1bdacf9 840
eee7f4a2 841`GIT_INDEX_FILE`::
c1bdacf9 842 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
LS
843 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
844 is used.
c1bdacf9 845
eee7f4a2 846`GIT_INDEX_VERSION`::
136347d7
TG
847 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
848 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
70320541
NTND
849 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
850 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
136347d7 851
eee7f4a2 852`GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY`::
c1bdacf9
DG
853 If the object storage directory is specified via this
854 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
855 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
856 directory is used.
857
eee7f4a2 858`GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES`::
2de9b711 859 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 860 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 861 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 862 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 863 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9 864
eee7f4a2
TR
865`GIT_DIR`::
866 If the `GIT_DIR` environment variable is set then it
2fa090b6
JH
867 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
868 for the base of the repository.
bcf9626a 869 The `--git-dir` command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 870
eee7f4a2 871`GIT_WORK_TREE`::
a758a349 872 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
bcf9626a 873 This can also be controlled by the `--work-tree` command-line
892c41b9
ML
874 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
875
eee7f4a2 876`GIT_NAMESPACE`::
2de9b711 877 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
bcf9626a 878 The `--namespace` command-line option also sets this value.
d49483f0 879
eee7f4a2 880`GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES`::
7ec30aaa 881 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 882 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
7ec30aaa
MH
883 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
884 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
885 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
886 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
887 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
888 might be present in order to compare them with the current
889 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
890 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
891 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
892 e.g.,
eee7f4a2 893 `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink`.
0454dd93 894
eee7f4a2 895`GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM`::
e6405517 896 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 897 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
e6405517
JH
898 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
899 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 900 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
eee7f4a2
TR
901 boundaries. Like `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES`, this will not affect
902 an explicit repository directory set via `GIT_DIR` or on the
cf87463e 903 command line.
8030e442 904
eee7f4a2 905`GIT_COMMON_DIR`::
c7b3a3d2
NTND
906 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
907 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
908 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
529fef20 909 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
1eaca7a5 910 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
c7b3a3d2
NTND
911 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
912 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
913
2de9b711 914Git Commits
c1bdacf9 915~~~~~~~~~~~
eee7f4a2
TR
916`GIT_AUTHOR_NAME`::
917`GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL`::
918`GIT_AUTHOR_DATE`::
919`GIT_COMMITTER_NAME`::
920`GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL`::
921`GIT_COMMITTER_DATE`::
28a94f88 922'EMAIL'::
5162e697 923 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 924
2de9b711 925Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 926~~~~~~~~~
eee7f4a2 927`GIT_DIFF_OPTS`::
fde97d8a
SE
928 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
929 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
930 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 931 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 932
eee7f4a2
TR
933`GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF`::
934 When the environment variable `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is set, the
fde97d8a
SE
935 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
936 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
eee7f4a2 937 `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called with 7 parameters:
fde97d8a
SE
938
939 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
940+
941where:
942
943 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
944 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 945 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 946 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
SE
947+
948The file parameters can point at the user's working file
949(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
950when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
eee7f4a2
TR
951index). `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` should not worry about unlinking the
952temporary file --- it is removed when `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` exits.
fde97d8a 953+
eee7f4a2 954For a path that is unmerged, `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called with 1
fde97d8a 955parameter, <path>.
ee7fb0b1 956+
eee7f4a2
TR
957For each path `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called, two environment variables,
958`GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER` and `GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL` are set.
ee7fb0b1 959
eee7f4a2 960`GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER`::
ee7fb0b1
ZK
961 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
962
eee7f4a2 963`GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL`::
ee7fb0b1 964 The total number of paths.
2cf565c5 965
575ba9d6
ML
966other
967~~~~~
eee7f4a2 968`GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY`::
dbddb714
JN
969 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
970 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 971 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 972
eee7f4a2 973`GIT_PAGER`::
a7738c77 974 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 975 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
ab54cd6c
JN
976 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
977 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 978
eee7f4a2 979`GIT_EDITOR`::
36384c97 980 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 981 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
36384c97
RSM
982 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
983 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
984
eee7f4a2
TR
985`GIT_SSH`::
986`GIT_SSH_COMMAND`::
39942766
TQ
987 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
988 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
989 when they need to connect to a remote system.
990 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
991 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
992 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
23f8239b 993 `-p` (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
39942766 994 something other than the default SSH port.
d5538b41 995+
39942766
TQ
996`$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
997by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
998`$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
999(which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
1000needed).
d5538b41
SP
1001+
1002Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
1003personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
1004for further details.
1005
eee7f4a2 1006`GIT_ASKPASS`::
2de9b711 1007 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
453842c9 1008 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
06ab60c0 1009 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
ae9f6311 1010 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the `core.askPass`
453842c9
KF
1011 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
1012
eee7f4a2 1013`GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT`::
e652c0eb
JK
1014 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
1015 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
1016
eee7f4a2 1017`GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM`::
e8ef401c
JN
1018 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
1019 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
1020 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
1021 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
1022 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
1023 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
1024
eee7f4a2 1025`GIT_FLUSH`::
06f59e9f 1026 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb 1027 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
627a8b8d 1028 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
f1ed7fea
AS
1029 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
1030 flushed. If this
06f59e9f
TT
1031 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
1032 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 1033 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
06f59e9f
TT
1034 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
1035
eee7f4a2 1036`GIT_TRACE`::
eb9250df
KB
1037 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
1038 command execution and external command execution.
1039+
1040If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
1041is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
1042stderr.
1043+
1044If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
1045and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
1046value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
1047trace messages into this file descriptor.
1048+
1049Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
1050(starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
1051as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
1052into it.
1053+
1054Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1055"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
575ba9d6 1056
eee7f4a2 1057`GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS`::
67dc598e 1058 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
b12ca963
NTND
1059 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1060 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1061 pack-related performance problems.
eee7f4a2 1062 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
b12ca963 1063
eee7f4a2 1064`GIT_TRACE_PACKET`::
eb9250df
KB
1065 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1066 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1067 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
eee7f4a2
TR
1068 starting with "PACK" (but see `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE` below).
1069 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
eb9250df 1070
eee7f4a2 1071`GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE`::
32359838
JK
1072 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1073 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1074 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1075 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1076 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1077 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1078+
1079Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1080of clones and fetches.
1081
eee7f4a2 1082`GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE`::
578da039
KB
1083 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1084 time of each Git command.
eee7f4a2 1085 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
578da039 1086
eee7f4a2 1087`GIT_TRACE_SETUP`::
eb9250df
KB
1088 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1089 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
eee7f4a2 1090 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
eb9250df 1091
eee7f4a2 1092`GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW`::
eb9250df
KB
1093 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1094 cloning of shallow repositories.
eee7f4a2 1095 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1dd278ce 1096
eee7f4a2 1097`GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS`::
2de9b711 1098 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
823ab40f
JK
1099 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1100 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1101 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1102 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 1103 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
823ab40f
JK
1104 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1105
eee7f4a2 1106`GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS`::
bd30c2e4
NTND
1107 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1108 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1109
eee7f4a2 1110`GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS`::
bd30c2e4
NTND
1111 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1112 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1113
eee7f4a2 1114`GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS`::
93d93537
NTND
1115 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1116 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1117
eee7f4a2 1118`GIT_REFLOG_ACTION`::
c3e2d189
JH
1119 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1120 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1121 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1122 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1123 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1124 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1125 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1126 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1127
eee7f4a2 1128`GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
49672f26
JK
1129 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1130 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1131 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1132 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1133 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1134 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1135 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1136 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1137 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1138
eee7f4a2 1139`GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL`::
a5adaced
JK
1140 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1141 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1142 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1143 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1144 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1145 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1146 currently used by git are:
1147
1148 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1149 or local paths)
1150
1151 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1152 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1153
1154 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
07c7782c 1155 `ssh://`, etc).
a5adaced 1156
a5adaced
JK
1157 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1158 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1159 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1160
1161 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1162 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
a5adaced 1163
823ab40f 1164
8db9307c
JH
1165Discussion[[Discussion]]
1166------------------------
40dac517
BF
1167
1168More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 1169link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 1170user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 1171
2de9b711 1172A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
40dac517
BF
1173subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1174things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1175of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1176contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1177as tags and branch heads.
1178
1179The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1180hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 1181directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
40dac517
BF
1182and some number of parent commits.
1183
1184The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1185"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1186represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1187parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1188
d5fa1f1a 1189All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
40dac517
BF
1190written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1191The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1192just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1193purpose.
1194
1195When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1196efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1197
1198Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
d5fa1f1a
TA
1199may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1200with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1201recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
40dac517
BF
1202tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1203`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1204
1205The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1206path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1207the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1208attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1209corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1210working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1211be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1212content stored in the index.
1213
1214The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1215for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1216unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 1217
7687ae98
JH
1218FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1219---------------------
1220
1221See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 1222using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
7687ae98
JH
1223for a first-time user.
1224
2de9b711 1225The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 1226user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 1227introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
7687ae98
JH
1228
1229See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1230
1231See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1232examples.
1233
1234The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 1235link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
7687ae98
JH
1236
1237Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1238read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1239
1240
cb22bc44
AE
1241Authors
1242-------
48bb914e 1243Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 1244C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
405869d0 1245<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
6ecc01f2
JH
1246gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1247
1248If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
d8f708f8
JK
1249output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1250the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 1251
c97ca277
JH
1252Reporting Bugs
1253--------------
1254
1255Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1256development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1257subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1258
497c8331
CC
1259SEE ALSO
1260--------
1261linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
673151a9 1262linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 1263linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
801a011d
TR
1264linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1265linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 1266
2cf565c5
DG
1267GIT
1268---
9e1f0a85 1269Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite