git-repack-script: Add option to repack all objects.
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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7984eabe 1git(7)
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905197de 3v0.99.5, Aug 2005
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4
5NAME
6----
7git - the stupid content tracker
8
9
10SYNOPSIS
11--------
12'git-<command>' <args>
13
14DESCRIPTION
15-----------
16
17This is reference information for the core git commands.
18
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19Before reading this cover to cover, you may want to take a look
20at the link:tutorial.html[tutorial] document.
21
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22The Discussion section below contains much useful definition and
23clarification info - read that first. And of the commands, I suggest
24reading link:git-update-cache.html[git-update-cache] and
25link:git-read-tree.html[git-read-tree] first - I wish I had!
2cf565c5 26
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27After you get the general feel from the tutorial and this
28overview page, you may want to take a look at the
29link:howto-index.html[howto] documents.
30
31
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32David Greaves <david@dgreaves.com>
3308/05/05
34
35Updated by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> on 2005-05-05 to
36reflect recent changes.
37
38Commands Overview
39-----------------
40The git commands can helpfully be split into those that manipulate
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41the repository, the cache and the working fileset, those that
42interrogate and compare them, and those that moves objects and
43references between repositories.
2cf565c5 44
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45In addition, git itself comes with a spartan set of porcelain
46commands. They are usable but are not meant to compete with real
47Porcelains.
48
90933efb 49There are also some ancillary programs that can be viewed as useful
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50aids for using the core commands but which are unlikely to be used by
51SCMs layered over git.
52
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53Manipulation commands
54~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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55link:git-checkout-cache.html[git-checkout-cache]::
56 Copy files from the cache to the working directory
57
58link:git-commit-tree.html[git-commit-tree]::
59 Creates a new commit object
60
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61link:git-init-db.html[git-init-db]::
62 Creates an empty git object database
63
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64link:git-merge-base.html[git-merge-base]::
65 Finds as good a common ancestor as possible for a merge
66
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67link:git-mktag.html[git-mktag]::
68 Creates a tag object
69
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70link:git-read-tree.html[git-read-tree]::
71 Reads tree information into the directory cache
72
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73link:git-update-cache.html[git-update-cache]::
74 Modifies the index or directory cache
75
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76link:git-hash-object.html[git-hash-object]::
77 Computes the object ID from a file.
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78
79link:git-write-tree.html[git-write-tree]::
80 Creates a tree from the current cache
81
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82link:git-pack-objects.html[git-pack-objects]::
83 Creates a packed archive of objects.
84
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85link:git-unpack-objects.html[git-unpack-objects]::
86 Unpacks objects out of a packed archive.
87
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88link:git-prune-packed.html[git-prune-packed]::
89 Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
90
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91link:git-apply.html[git-apply]::
92 Reads a "diff -up1" or git generated patch file and
93 applies it to the working tree.
94
e31bb3bb 95
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96Interrogation commands
97~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
98link:git-cat-file.html[git-cat-file]::
99 Provide content or type information for repository objects
100
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101link:git-diff-cache.html[git-diff-cache]::
102 Compares content and mode of blobs between the cache and repository
103
104link:git-diff-files.html[git-diff-files]::
105 Compares files in the working tree and the cache
106
107link:git-diff-tree.html[git-diff-tree]::
108 Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects
109
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110link:git-diff-stages.html[git-diff-stages]::
111 Compares two "merge stages" in the index file.
112
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113link:git-export.html[git-export]::
114 Exports each commit and a diff against each of its parents
115
116link:git-fsck-cache.html[git-fsck-cache]::
117 Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database
118
119link:git-ls-files.html[git-ls-files]::
120 Information about files in the cache/working directory
121
122link:git-ls-tree.html[git-ls-tree]::
123 Displays a tree object in human readable form
124
125link:git-merge-cache.html[git-merge-cache]::
126 Runs a merge for files needing merging
127
128link:git-rev-list.html[git-rev-list]::
129 Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order
130
131link:git-rev-tree.html[git-rev-tree]::
132 Provides the revision tree for one or more commits
133
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134link:git-tar-tree.html[git-tar-tree]::
135 Creates a tar archive of the files in the named tree
136
137link:git-unpack-file.html[git-unpack-file]::
138 Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents
139
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140link:git-var.html[git-var]::
141 Displays a git logical variable
142
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143link:git-show-index.html[git-show-index]::
144 Displays contents of a pack idx file.
145
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146link:git-verify-pack.html[git-verify-pack]::
147 Validates packed GIT archive files
148
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149The interrogate commands may create files - and you can force them to
150touch the working file set - but in general they don't
151
152
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153Synching repositories
154~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
155
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156link:git-clone-script.html[git-clone-script]::
157 Clones a repository into the current repository (user interface)
158
159link:git-clone-pack.html[git-clone-pack]::
160 Clones a repository into the current repository (engine
161 for ssh and local transport)
162
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163link:git-http-pull.html[git-http-pull]::
164 Downloads a remote GIT repository via HTTP
165
166link:git-local-pull.html[git-local-pull]::
167 Duplicates another GIT repository on a local system
168
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169link:git-ssh-pull.html[git-ssh-pull]::
170 Pulls from a remote repository over ssh connection
171
172link:git-send-pack.html[git-send-pack]::
173 Pushes to a remote repository, intelligently.
174
175link:git-receive-pack.html[git-receive-pack]::
176 Invoked by 'git-send-pack' to receive what is pushed to it.
177
178link:git-clone-pack.html[git-clone-pack]::
179 Clones from a remote repository.
180
181link:git-fetch-pack.html[git-fetch-pack]::
182 Updates from a remote repository.
183
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184link:git-peek-remote.html[git-peek-remote]::
185 Lists references on a remote repository using upload-pack protocol.
186
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187link:git-upload-pack.html[git-upload-pack]::
188 Invoked by 'git-clone-pack' and 'git-fetch-pack' to push
189 what are asked for.
190
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191link:git-update-server-info.html[git-update-server-info]::
192 Updates auxiliary information on a dumb server to help
193 clients discover references and packs on it.
194
2f2de9b4 195
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196Porcelain-ish Commands
197----------------------
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198link:git-revert-script.html[git-revert-script]::
199 Revert an existing commit.
200
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201link:git-cherry-pick-script.html[git-cherry-pick-script]::
202 Cherry-pick the effect of an existing commit.
203
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204link:git-rebase-script.html[git-rebase-script]::
205 Rebase local commits to new upstream head.
206
207link:git-add-script.html[git-add-script]::
208 Add paths to the index file.
209
210link:git-branch-script.html[git-branch-script]::
211 Create and Show branches.
212
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213link:git-whatchanged.html[git-whatchanged]::
214 Shows commit logs and differences they introduce.
215
216link:git-log-script.html[git-log-script]::
217 Shows commit logs.
218
219link:git-shortlog.html[git-shortlog]::
220 Summarizes 'git log' output.
221
222link:git-status-script.html[git-status-script]::
223 Shows the working tree status.
224
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225link:git-fetch-script.html[git-fetch-script]::
226 Download from a remote repository via various protocols.
227
228link:git-pull-script.html[git-pull-script]::
229 Fetch from and merge with a remote repository.
230
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231link:git-resolve-script.html[git-resolve-script]::
232 Merge two commits.
233
234link:git-octopus-script.html[git-octopus-script]::
235 Merge more than two commits.
236
237link:git-push-script.html[git-push-script]::
238 Update remote refs along with associated objects.
239
240link:git-commit-script.html[git-commit-script]::
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241 Record changes to the repository.
242
f5e375c9 243link:git-show-branch.html[git-show-branch]::
7c27558c 244 Show branches and their commits.
62033318 245
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246link:git-repack-script.html[git-repack-script]::
247 Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
248
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249link:git-rename-script.html[git-rename]::
250 Rename files and directories.
251
252link:git-ls-remote-script.html[git-ls-remote-script]::
253 Shows references in a remote or local repository.
254
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255link:git-verify-tag-script.html[git-verify-tag-script]::
256 Check the GPG signature of tag.
257
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259Ancillary Commands
260------------------
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261Manipulators:
262
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263link:git-relink-script.html[git-relink-script]::
264 Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
265
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266link:git-convert-cache.html[git-convert-cache]::
267 Converts old-style GIT repository
268
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269link:git-merge-one-file-script.html[git-merge-one-file-script]::
270 The standard helper program to use with "git-merge-cache"
271
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272link:git-prune-script.html[git-prune-script]::
273 Prunes all unreachable objects from the object database
274
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275link:git-tag-script.html[git-tag-script]::
276 An example script to create a tag object signed with GPG
277
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278link:git-cvsimport-script.html[git-cvsimport-script]::
279 Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
280
204ee6a9 281
90933efb 282Interrogators:
204ee6a9 283
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284link:git-patch-id.html[git-patch-id]::
285 Compute unique ID for a patch.
286
287link:git-count-objects-script.html[git-count-objects-script]::
288 Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
289
290link:git-cherry.html[git-cherry]::
291 Find commits not merged upstream.
292
99665af5 293link:git-diff-helper.html[git-diff-helper]::
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294 Generates patch format output for git-diff-*
295
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296link:git-ssh-push.html[git-ssh-push]::
297 Helper "server-side" program used by git-ssh-pull
204ee6a9 298
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299link:git-send-email-script.html[git-send-email]::
300 Send patch e-mails out of "format-patch --mbox" output.
204ee6a9 301
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302link:git-sh-setup-script.html[git-sh-setup-script]::
303 Common git shell script setup code.
304
204ee6a9 305
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306Commands not yet documented
307---------------------------
308
309link:git-applymbox.html[git-applymbox]::
310 git-applymbox.
311
312link:git-applypatch.html[git-applypatch]::
313 git-applypatch.
314
315link:git-mailinfo.html[git-mailinfo]::
316 git-mailinfo.
317
318link:git-mailsplit.html[git-mailsplit]::
319 git-mailsplit.
320
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321link:git-bisect-script.html[git-bisect-script]::
322 git-bisect-script.
323
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324link:git-build-rev-cache.html[git-build-rev-cache]::
325 git-build-rev-cache.
326
327link:git-checkout-script.html[git-checkout-script]::
328 git-checkout-script.
329
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330link:git-clone-dumb-http.html[git-clone-dumb-http]::
331 git-clone-dumb-http.
332
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333link:git-daemon.html[git-daemon]::
334 git-daemon.
335
336link:git-diff-script.html[git-diff-script]::
337 git-diff-script.
338
339link:git-format-patch-script.html[git-format-patch-script]::
340 git-format-patch-script.
341
342link:git-get-tar-commit-id.html[git-get-tar-commit-id]::
343 git-get-tar-commit-id.
344
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345link:git-request-pull-script.html[git-request-pull-script]::
346 git-request-pull-script.
347
348link:git-reset-script.html[git-reset-script]::
349 git-reset-script.
350
351link:git-rev-parse.html[git-rev-parse]::
352 git-rev-parse.
353
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354link:git-show-rev-cache.html[git-show-rev-cache]::
355 git-show-rev-cache.
356
357link:git-stripspace.html[git-stripspace]::
358 git-stripspace.
359
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360link:gitk.html[gitk]::
361 gitk.
362
363
6c84e2e0 364Identifier Terminology
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365----------------------
366<object>::
6c84e2e0 367 Indicates the sha1 identifier for any type of object
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368
369<blob>::
370 Indicates a blob object sha1 identifier
371
372<tree>::
373 Indicates a tree object sha1 identifier
374
375<commit>::
376 Indicates a commit object sha1 identifier
377
378<tree-ish>::
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379 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object sha1 identifier. A
380 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
381 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
382 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
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383
384<type>::
385 Indicates that an object type is required.
386 Currently one of: blob/tree/commit/tag
387
388<file>::
389 Indicates a filename - always relative to the root of
390 the tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.
391
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392Symbolic Identifiers
393--------------------
90933efb 394Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 395symbolic notation:
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396
397HEAD::
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398 indicates the head of the repository (ie the contents of
399 `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`)
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400<tag>::
401 a valid tag 'name'+
402 (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`)
403<head>::
404 a valid head 'name'+
405 (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`)
406<snap>::
407 a valid snapshot 'name'+
408 (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/snap/<snap>`)
409
410
411File/Directory Structure
412------------------------
413The git-core manipulates the following areas in the directory:
414
415 .git/ The base (overridden with $GIT_DIR)
416 objects/ The object base (overridden with $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY)
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417 ??/ 'First 2 chars of object' directories.
418 pack/ Packed archives.
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419
420 refs/ Directories containing symbolic names for objects
421 (each file contains the hex SHA1 + newline)
422 heads/ Commits which are heads of various sorts
423 tags/ Tags, by the tag name (or some local renaming of it)
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424 */ Any other subdirectory of refs/ can be used to store
425 files similar to what are under refs/heads/.
426 HEAD Symlink to refs/heads/<current-branch-name>
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427
428Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
429GIT_DIR.
430
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431Terminology
432-----------
1bff6490 433Please see link:glossary.html[glossary] document.
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434
435
436Environment Variables
437---------------------
438Various git commands use the following environment variables:
439
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440The git Repository
441~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
442These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
443is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
444git so take care if using Cogito etc
445
446'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
447 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
448 cache/index file. If not specified, the default of
449 `$GIT_DIR/index` is used.
450
451'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
452 If the object storage directory is specified via this
453 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
454 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
455 directory is used.
456
457'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
458 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
459 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
90933efb 460 specifies a ":" separated list of git object directories which
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461 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
462 written to these directories.
463
464'GIT_DIR'::
465 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it specifies
466 a path to use instead of `./.git` for the base of the
467 repository.
468
469git Commits
470~~~~~~~~~~~
471'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
472'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
473'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
474'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
475'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
476 see link:git-commit-tree.html[git-commit-tree]
477
478git Diffs
479~~~~~~~~~
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480'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
481'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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482 see the "generating patches" section in :
483 link:git-diff-cache.html[git-diff-cache];
484 link:git-diff-files.html[git-diff-files];
485 link:git-diff-tree.html[git-diff-tree]
2cf565c5 486
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487Discussion
488----------
489include::../README[]
490
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491Author
492------
6c84e2e0 493Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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494
495Documentation
496--------------
497Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
498
499GIT
500---
501Part of the link:git.html[git] suite
502