Replace filepattern with pathspec for consistency
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-add.txt
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1git-add(1)
2==========
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3
4NAME
5----
5f42ac92 6git-add - Add file contents to the index
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7
8SYNOPSIS
9--------
480611d1 10[verse]
b1889c36 11'git add' [-n] [-v] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
c59cb03a 12 [--edit | -e] [--all | [--update | -u]] [--intent-to-add | -N]
f0e5a4b7 13 [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--]
d32805dc 14 [<pathspec>...]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
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18This command updates the index using the current content found in
19the working tree, to prepare the content staged for the next commit.
20It typically adds the current content of existing paths as a whole,
21but with some options it can also be used to add content with
22only part of the changes made to the working tree files applied, or
23remove paths that do not exist in the working tree anymore.
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24
25The "index" holds a snapshot of the content of the working tree, and it
26is this snapshot that is taken as the contents of the next commit. Thus
27after making any changes to the working directory, and before running
441947f6 28the commit command, you must use the `add` command to add any new or
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29modified files to the index.
30
31This command can be performed multiple times before a commit. It only
32adds the content of the specified file(s) at the time the add command is
33run; if you want subsequent changes included in the next commit, then
441947f6 34you must run `git add` again to add the new content to the index.
5f42ac92 35
441947f6 36The `git status` command can be used to obtain a summary of which
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37files have changes that are staged for the next commit.
38
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39The `git add` command will not add ignored files by default. If any
40ignored files were explicitly specified on the command line, `git add`
d1d028ea 41will fail with a list of ignored files. Ignored files reached by
9d5fc59d 42directory recursion or filename globbing performed by Git (quote your
ca768288 43globs before the shell) will be silently ignored. The 'git add' command can
9d5fc59d 44be used to add ignored files with the `-f` (force) option.
7fc9d69f 45
5162e697 46Please see linkgit:git-commit[1] for alternative ways to add content to a
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47commit.
48
49
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50OPTIONS
51-------
d32805dc 52<pathspec>...::
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53 Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g. `*.c`) can
54 be given to add all matching files. Also a
55 leading directory name (e.g. `dir` to add `dir/file1`
56 and `dir/file2`) can be given to add all files in the
57 directory, recursively.
7fc9d69f 58
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59-n::
60--dry-run::
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61 Don't actually add the file(s), just show if they exist and/or will
62 be ignored.
918db541 63
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64-v::
65--verbose::
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66 Be verbose.
67
6a1ad325 68-f::
69c61c4f 69--force::
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70 Allow adding otherwise ignored files.
71
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72-i::
73--interactive::
6a5ad23d 74 Add modified contents in the working tree interactively to
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75 the index. Optional path arguments may be supplied to limit
76 operation to a subset of the working tree. See ``Interactive
77 mode'' for details.
78
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79-p::
80--patch::
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81 Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index and the
82 work tree and add them to the index. This gives the user a chance
83 to review the difference before adding modified contents to the
84 index.
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85+
86This effectively runs `add --interactive`, but bypasses the
87initial command menu and directly jumps to the `patch` subcommand.
88See ``Interactive mode'' for details.
6a5ad23d 89
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90-e, \--edit::
91 Open the diff vs. the index in an editor and let the user
92 edit it. After the editor was closed, adjust the hunk headers
93 and apply the patch to the index.
94+
5df4d67d 95The intent of this option is to pick and choose lines of the patch to
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96apply, or even to modify the contents of lines to be staged. This can be
97quicker and more flexible than using the interactive hunk selector.
98However, it is easy to confuse oneself and create a patch that does not
99apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.
c59cb03a 100
bc3561f3 101-u::
69c61c4f 102--update::
d32805dc 103 Only match <pathspec> against already tracked files in
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104 the index rather than the working tree. That means that it
105 will never stage new files, but that it will stage modified
106 new contents of tracked files and that it will remove files
107 from the index if the corresponding files in the working tree
108 have been removed.
109+
d32805dc 110If no <pathspec> is given, default to "."; in other words,
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111update all tracked files in the current directory and its
112subdirectories.
bc3561f3 113
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114-A::
115--all::
d32805dc 116 Like `-u`, but match <pathspec> against files in the
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117 working tree in addition to the index. That means that it
118 will find new files as well as staging modified content and
119 removing files that are no longer in the working tree.
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120
121-N::
122--intent-to-add::
123 Record only the fact that the path will be added later. An entry
124 for the path is placed in the index with no content. This is
125 useful for, among other things, showing the unstaged content of
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126 such files with `git diff` and committing them with `git commit
127 -a`.
8776f5d3 128
3240240f 129--refresh::
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130 Don't add the file(s), but only refresh their stat()
131 information in the index.
132
3240240f 133--ignore-errors::
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134 If some files could not be added because of errors indexing
135 them, do not abort the operation, but continue adding the
136 others. The command shall still exit with non-zero status.
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137 The configuration variable `add.ignoreErrors` can be set to
138 true to make this the default behaviour.
984b83ef 139
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140--ignore-missing::
141 This option can only be used together with --dry-run. By using
142 this option the user can check if any of the given files would
143 be ignored, no matter if they are already present in the work
144 tree or not.
145
e994004f 146\--::
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147 This option can be used to separate command-line options from
148 the list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken
149 for command-line options).
150
918db541 151
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152Configuration
153-------------
154
441947f6 155The optional configuration variable `core.excludesfile` indicates a path to a
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156file containing patterns of file names to exclude from git-add, similar to
157$GIT_DIR/info/exclude. Patterns in the exclude file are used in addition to
a73d3790 158those in info/exclude. See linkgit:gitignore[5].
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159
160
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161EXAMPLES
162--------
810bf1f9 163
1b6c6cf0 164* Adds content from all `*.txt` files under `Documentation` directory
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165and its subdirectories:
166+
167------------
bf7cbb2f 168$ git add Documentation/\*.txt
921177f5 169------------
810bf1f9 170+
1b6c6cf0 171Note that the asterisk `*` is quoted from the shell in this
dcc901bc 172example; this lets the command include the files from
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173subdirectories of `Documentation/` directory.
174
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175* Considers adding content from all git-*.sh scripts:
176+
177------------
178$ git add git-*.sh
179------------
180+
dcc901bc 181Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you are
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182listing the files explicitly), it does not consider
183`subdir/git-foo.sh`.
810bf1f9 184
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185Interactive mode
186----------------
187When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the
23bfbb81 188output of the 'status' subcommand, and then goes into its
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189interactive command loop.
190
191The command loop shows the list of subcommands available, and
192gives a prompt "What now> ". In general, when the prompt ends
193with a single '>', you can pick only one of the choices given
194and type return, like this:
195
196------------
197 *** Commands ***
198 1: status 2: update 3: revert 4: add untracked
199 5: patch 6: diff 7: quit 8: help
200 What now> 1
201------------
202
441947f6 203You also could say `s` or `sta` or `status` above as long as the
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204choice is unique.
205
206The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and quit).
207
208status::
209
210 This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what will be
441947f6 211 committed if you say `git commit`), and between index and
6a5ad23d 212 working tree files (i.e. what you could stage further before
441947f6 213 `git commit` using `git add`) for each path. A sample output
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214 looks like this:
215+
216------------
217 staged unstaged path
218 1: binary nothing foo.png
219 2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
220------------
221+
222It shows that foo.png has differences from HEAD (but that is
223binary so line count cannot be shown) and there is no
224difference between indexed copy and the working tree
225version (if the working tree version were also different,
226'binary' would have been shown in place of 'nothing'). The
28394787 227other file, git-add{litdd}interactive.perl, has 403 lines added
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228and 35 lines deleted if you commit what is in the index, but
229working tree file has further modifications (one addition and
230one deletion).
231
232update::
233
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234 This shows the status information and issues an "Update>>"
235 prompt. When the prompt ends with double '>>', you can
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236 make more than one selection, concatenated with whitespace or
237 comma. Also you can say ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9" to choose
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238 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. If the second number in a range is
239 omitted, all remaining patches are taken. E.g. "7-" to choose
240 7,8,9 from the list. You can say '*' to choose everything.
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241+
242What you chose are then highlighted with '*',
243like this:
244+
245------------
246 staged unstaged path
247 1: binary nothing foo.png
248* 2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
249------------
250+
251To remove selection, prefix the input with `-`
252like this:
253+
254------------
255Update>> -2
256------------
257+
258After making the selection, answer with an empty line to stage the
259contents of working tree files for selected paths in the index.
260
261revert::
262
263 This has a very similar UI to 'update', and the staged
264 information for selected paths are reverted to that of the
265 HEAD version. Reverting new paths makes them untracked.
266
267add untracked::
268
269 This has a very similar UI to 'update' and
270 'revert', and lets you add untracked paths to the index.
271
272patch::
273
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274 This lets you choose one path out of a 'status' like selection.
275 After choosing the path, it presents the diff between the index
6a5ad23d 276 and the working tree file and asks you if you want to stage
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277 the change of each hunk. You can select one of the following
278 options and type return:
6a5ad23d 279
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280 y - stage this hunk
281 n - do not stage this hunk
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282 q - quit; do not stage this hunk nor any of the remaining ones
283 a - stage this hunk and all later hunks in the file
284 d - do not stage this hunk nor any of the later hunks in the file
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285 g - select a hunk to go to
286 / - search for a hunk matching the given regex
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287 j - leave this hunk undecided, see next undecided hunk
288 J - leave this hunk undecided, see next hunk
289 k - leave this hunk undecided, see previous undecided hunk
290 K - leave this hunk undecided, see previous hunk
280e50c7 291 s - split the current hunk into smaller hunks
ac083c47 292 e - manually edit the current hunk
280e50c7 293 ? - print help
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294+
295After deciding the fate for all hunks, if there is any hunk
296that was chosen, the index is updated with the selected hunks.
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297+
298You can omit having to type return here, by setting the configuration
299variable `interactive.singlekey` to `true`.
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300
301diff::
302
303 This lets you review what will be committed (i.e. between
304 HEAD and index).
305
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306
307EDITING PATCHES
308---------------
309
310Invoking `git add -e` or selecting `e` from the interactive hunk
311selector will open a patch in your editor; after the editor exits, the
312result is applied to the index. You are free to make arbitrary changes
313to the patch, but note that some changes may have confusing results, or
314even result in a patch that cannot be applied. If you want to abort the
315operation entirely (i.e., stage nothing new in the index), simply delete
316all lines of the patch. The list below describes some common things you
317may see in a patch, and which editing operations make sense on them.
318
319--
320added content::
321
322Added content is represented by lines beginning with "{plus}". You can
323prevent staging any addition lines by deleting them.
324
325removed content::
326
327Removed content is represented by lines beginning with "-". You can
328prevent staging their removal by converting the "-" to a " " (space).
329
330modified content::
331
332Modified content is represented by "-" lines (removing the old content)
333followed by "{plus}" lines (adding the replacement content). You can
334prevent staging the modification by converting "-" lines to " ", and
335removing "{plus}" lines. Beware that modifying only half of the pair is
336likely to introduce confusing changes to the index.
337--
338
339There are also more complex operations that can be performed. But beware
340that because the patch is applied only to the index and not the working
341tree, the working tree will appear to "undo" the change in the index.
469bfc96 342For example, introducing a new line into the index that is in neither
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343the HEAD nor the working tree will stage the new line for commit, but
344the line will appear to be reverted in the working tree.
345
346Avoid using these constructs, or do so with extreme caution.
347
348--
349removing untouched content::
350
351Content which does not differ between the index and working tree may be
352shown on context lines, beginning with a " " (space). You can stage
353context lines for removal by converting the space to a "-". The
354resulting working tree file will appear to re-add the content.
355
356modifying existing content::
357
358One can also modify context lines by staging them for removal (by
359converting " " to "-") and adding a "{plus}" line with the new content.
360Similarly, one can modify "{plus}" lines for existing additions or
361modifications. In all cases, the new modification will appear reverted
362in the working tree.
363
364new content::
365
366You may also add new content that does not exist in the patch; simply
367add new lines, each starting with "{plus}". The addition will appear
368reverted in the working tree.
369--
370
371There are also several operations which should be avoided entirely, as
372they will make the patch impossible to apply:
373
374* adding context (" ") or removal ("-") lines
375* deleting context or removal lines
376* modifying the contents of context or removal lines
377
56ae8df5 378SEE ALSO
872d001f 379--------
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380linkgit:git-status[1]
381linkgit:git-rm[1]
382linkgit:git-reset[1]
383linkgit:git-mv[1]
384linkgit:git-commit[1]
385linkgit:git-update-index[1]
810bf1f9 386
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387GIT
388---
9e1f0a85 389Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite