Git 1.7.9.7
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
CommitLineData
9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
2cf565c5
DG
3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
68e4b552
ZJS
12'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
d49483f0
JT
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
2cf565c5
DG
17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
23091e95
BF
20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
23091e95
BF
25link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
26"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
6998e4db
JN
27also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
28the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
a1dc34fa 29introduction.
cb22bc44 30
62b4698e 31The '<command>' is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
5162e697 32as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
4514ad4f 33
34b604af
JA
34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
35documentation can be viewed at
36`http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
37
26cfcfbf
JH
38ifdef::stalenotes[]
39[NOTE]
40============
26cfcfbf 41
2ff3f61a
JH
42You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
44branch of the `git.git` repository.
45Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 46
d0f1ea60 47* link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
828ea97d
JH
48
49* release notes for
d0f1ea60 50 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
cb2ed324 51 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
8ced9c90 52 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
a4603481 53 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
69f4e08f 54 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
78f4c9f6 55 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
90020e3b 56 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
828ea97d
JH
57 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
58
d9f5ef7a 59* link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
406da780
JH
60
61* release notes for
d9f5ef7a 62 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
cb2ed324 63 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
c572f491 64 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
5f4d133f
JH
65 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
66 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
67 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
406da780
JH
68 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
69
82588584 70* link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
703f05ad
JH
71
72* release notes for
82588584 73 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
c572f491 74 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
66c11f02
JH
75 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
76 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
77 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
78 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
f7d958df 79 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
703f05ad
JH
80 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
81
f174a258 82* link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
f696543d
JH
83
84* release notes for
f174a258 85 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
15b7898c 86 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
63205264 87 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
740a8fc2 88 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
509d5970
JH
89 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
90 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
f696543d
JH
91 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
92
e5af0de2 93* link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
ec014eac
JH
94
95* release notes for
e5af0de2 96 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
3c3e0b3c 97 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
3d5ae435 98 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
2f312e88 99 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
ec014eac
JH
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
101
6ceb270c 102* link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
7ed863a8
JH
103
104* release notes for
6ceb270c 105 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
6be05591 106 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
cb35c064
JH
107 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
108 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
9971d6d5 109 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
7ed863a8
JH
110 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
111
685e9d91 112* link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
87b50542
JH
113
114* release notes for
685e9d91 115 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
15368e18 116 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
ed94cc76 117 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
8a904385 118 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
92c1e717 119 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
87b50542
JH
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
121
1b974346 122* link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
64fdc08d
JH
123
124* release notes for
1b974346 125 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
ed94cc76 126 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
761e742d
NP
127 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
129 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
64fdc08d 131
1b974346 132* link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
d599e048
JH
133
134* release notes for
1b974346 135 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
ed94cc76 136 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
761e742d
NP
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
138 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
d599e048 140
1b974346 141* link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
e923eaeb
JH
142
143* release notes for
1b974346 144 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
ed94cc76 145 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
761e742d
NP
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
147 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
148 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
149 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
e923eaeb 154
1b974346 155* link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
902f2353
JH
156
157* release notes for
1b974346 158 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
761e742d
NP
159 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
160 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
161 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
902f2353 162
1b974346 163* link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
78d553b7
JH
164
165* release notes for
1b974346 166 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
761e742d
NP
167 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
168 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
169 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
170 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
171 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
172 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
173 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
174 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
175 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
78d553b7 176
1b974346 177* link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
0a53e9dd
JH
178
179* release notes for
1b974346 180 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
761e742d
NP
181 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
182 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
183 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
184 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
185 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
0a53e9dd 186
441b40d8 187* link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
6096d759
JH
188
189* release notes for
761e742d
NP
190 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
191 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
192 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
193 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
194 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
a95148de
JH
195
196* release notes for
761e742d
NP
197 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
198 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
199 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
200 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
201 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
202 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
a95148de 203
621f1b4b 204* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
8104ebfe
JH
205
206* release notes for
761e742d
NP
207 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
208 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
8104ebfe 211
efe05b01 212* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
ea02eef0
JH
213
214* release notes for
761e742d
NP
215 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
216 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
217 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
218 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
219 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
220 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
221 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 222
efe05b01 223* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
e449f105
JH
224
225* release notes for
761e742d
NP
226 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
227 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
228 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
229 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
230 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
231 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
232 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 233
efe05b01 234* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
1d2375dd
JH
235
236* release notes for
761e742d
NP
237 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
238 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
239 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
240 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
241 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
242 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
243 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 244
efe05b01 245* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
6ce8e44a
JH
246
247* release notes for
761e742d
NP
248 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
249 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
250 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
251 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
252 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
253 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
254 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
255 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 256
e708af6e 257* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
5587cac2
JH
258
259* release notes for
761e742d
NP
260 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
261 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
262 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
263 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
264 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
265 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
266 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
268 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 269
e636106c
JH
270* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
271
aba170cd 272* release notes for
761e742d
NP
273 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
274 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
275 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
276 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
277 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
aba170cd
JH
279
280* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
281
282* release notes for
761e742d
NP
283 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
284 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
285 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
287 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
289 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
2ff3f61a
JH
290
291* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
292
aba170cd 293* release notes for
761e742d
NP
294 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
295 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
296 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
297 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
298 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
299 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
300 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
2ff3f61a
JH
301
302* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
303 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
304 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
305 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
26cfcfbf
JH
306
307============
308
309endif::stalenotes[]
310
cb22bc44
AE
311OPTIONS
312-------
313--version::
a87cd02c 314 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
AE
315
316--help::
a87cd02c 317 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b
CC
318 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
319 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
320 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
CC
321+
322Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 323displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
db5d6666
JN
324because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
325help ...`.
cb22bc44 326
8b1fa778
AR
327-c <name>=<value>::
328 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
329 given will override values from configuration files.
330 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
331 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
332
62b4698e 333--exec-path[=<path>]::
a87cd02c 334 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 335 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 336 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
cb22bc44
AE
337 the current setting and then exit.
338
89a56bfb 339--html-path::
239b5ed9
JN
340 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
341 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 342
f2dd8c37 343--man-path::
239b5ed9
JN
344 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
345 this version of git and exit.
f2dd8c37
JS
346
347--info-path::
239b5ed9
JN
348 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
349 version of git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 350
3240240f
SB
351-p::
352--paginate::
06300d97
JN
353 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
354 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
355 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
356 below).
6acbcb92 357
463a849d
MM
358--no-pager::
359 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
360
6acbcb92
JS
361--git-dir=<path>::
362 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
302cc11a
LY
363 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
364 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 365
892c41b9 366--work-tree=<path>::
ea472c1e
JH
367 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
368 or a path relative to the current working directory.
892c41b9
ML
369 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
370 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
ea472c1e
JH
371 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
372 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 373
d49483f0
JT
374--namespace=<path>::
375 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
376 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
377 variable.
378
6acbcb92 379--bare::
9277d602
JH
380 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
381 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
382 directory.
383
b0fa7ab5
CC
384--no-replace-objects::
385 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
386 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
387
9755afbd 388
23091e95
BF
389FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
390---------------------
9755afbd 391
23091e95
BF
392See the references above to get started using git. The following is
393probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 394
40dac517 395The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 396user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
40dac517 397introductions to the underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 398
801a011d
TR
399See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
400
23091e95
BF
401See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
402examples.
9755afbd 403
6998e4db
JN
404The internals are documented in the
405link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
530e741c 406
23091e95
BF
407GIT COMMANDS
408------------
9755afbd 409
23091e95
BF
410We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
411("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 412
23091e95
BF
413High-level commands (porcelain)
414-------------------------------
415
416We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
417ancillary user utilities.
418
419Main porcelain commands
420~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 421
377e8139 422include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 423
90933efb 424Ancillary Commands
23091e95 425~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2f2de9b4
JH
426Manipulators:
427
377e8139 428include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 429
90933efb 430Interrogators:
204ee6a9 431
377e8139 432include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 433
89bf2077
JH
434
435Interacting with Others
436~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
437
438These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
439people via patch over e-mail.
440
441include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
442
443
b1f33d62
RR
444Low-level commands (plumbing)
445-----------------------------
446
447Although git includes its
448own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
449development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
5162e697
DM
450might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
451linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 452
89bf2077
JH
453The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
454to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
455than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
456primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
457on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
458end user experience.
459
460The following description divides
461the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
b1f33d62
RR
462the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
463compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
464repositories.
465
89bf2077 466
b1f33d62
RR
467Manipulation commands
468~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 469
377e8139 470include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
RR
471
472
473Interrogation commands
474~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
475
377e8139 476include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
b1f33d62
RR
477
478In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
479the working tree.
480
481
482Synching repositories
483~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
484
377e8139 485include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 486
57f6ec02 487The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
89bf2077
JH
488typically do not use them directly.
489
490include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
491
492
493Internal helper commands
494~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
495
496These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
497users typically do not use them directly.
498
499include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
500
b1f33d62 501
5773c9f2
JH
502Configuration Mechanism
503-----------------------
504
2fa090b6 505Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 506is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 507simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
5773c9f2
JH
508people. Here is an example:
509
510------------
511#
2fa090b6 512# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
5773c9f2
JH
513#
514
515; core variables
516[core]
517 ; Don't trust file modes
518 filemode = false
519
520; user identity
521[user]
522 name = "Junio C Hamano"
523 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
524
525------------
526
527Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97
JN
528their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
529list.
5773c9f2
JH
530
531
6c84e2e0 532Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
DG
533----------------------
534<object>::
2fa090b6 535 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
DG
536
537<blob>::
2fa090b6 538 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
DG
539
540<tree>::
2fa090b6 541 Indicates a tree object name.
2cf565c5
DG
542
543<commit>::
2fa090b6 544 Indicates a commit object name.
2cf565c5
DG
545
546<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 547 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
DG
548 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
549 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
550 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 551
043d7605
TT
552<commit-ish>::
553 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
554 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
555 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
556 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
557
2cf565c5
DG
558<type>::
559 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 560 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
DG
561
562<file>::
2fa090b6
JH
563 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
564 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 565
c1bdacf9
DG
566Symbolic Identifiers
567--------------------
90933efb 568Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 569symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
DG
570
571HEAD::
0abcfbff 572 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 573
c1bdacf9 574<tag>::
2fa090b6 575 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 576 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 577
c1bdacf9 578<head>::
2fa090b6 579 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 580 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 581
d47107d8 582For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 583"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 584
c1bdacf9
DG
585
586File/Directory Structure
587------------------------
c1bdacf9 588
6998e4db 589Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 590
6998e4db 591Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 592
c1bdacf9 593Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 594`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 595
a1d4aa74 596
2cf565c5
DG
597Terminology
598-----------
6998e4db 599Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
DG
600
601
602Environment Variables
603---------------------
604Various git commands use the following environment variables:
605
c1bdacf9
DG
606The git Repository
607~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
608These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
609is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 610git so take care if using Cogito etc.
c1bdacf9
DG
611
612'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
613 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
LS
614 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
615 is used.
c1bdacf9
DG
616
617'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
618 If the object storage directory is specified via this
619 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
620 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
621 directory is used.
622
623'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
624 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
625 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f
JS
626 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
627 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
628 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9
DG
629
630'GIT_DIR'::
2fa090b6
JH
631 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
632 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
633 for the base of the repository.
c1bdacf9 634
892c41b9
ML
635'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
636 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
637 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
638 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
639 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
640 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
641
d49483f0
JT
642'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
643 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
644 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
645
0454dd93
DR
646'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
647 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
648 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
649 up into while looking for a repository directory.
650 It will not exclude the current working directory or
651 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
652 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
653
cf87463e 654'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
e6405517
JH
655 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
656 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
657 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
658 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
cf87463e
JH
659 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
660 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
661 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
662 command line.
8030e442 663
c1bdacf9
DG
664git Commits
665~~~~~~~~~~~
666'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
667'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
668'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
669'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
670'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 671'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 672'EMAIL'::
5162e697 673 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9
DG
674
675git Diffs
676~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 677'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
fde97d8a
SE
678 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
679 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
680 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
681 value passed on the git diff command line.
682
d81ed1b5 683'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
fde97d8a
SE
684 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
685 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
686 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
687 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
688
689 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
690+
691where:
692
693 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
694 contents of <old|new>,
695 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
696 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
SE
697+
698The file parameters can point at the user's working file
699(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
700when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
701index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
702temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
703+
704For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
705parameter, <path>.
2cf565c5 706
575ba9d6
ML
707other
708~~~~~
dbddb714
JN
709'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
710 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
711 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 712 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 713
c27d205a 714'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77
SG
715 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
716 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
ab54cd6c
JN
717 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
718 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 719
36384c97
RSM
720'GIT_EDITOR'::
721 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
722 It is used by several git comands when, on interactive mode,
723 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
724 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
725
d5538b41 726'GIT_SSH'::
0b444cdb
TR
727 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
728 and 'git push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 729 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
483bc4f0 730 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
d5538b41
SP
731 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
732 shell command to execute on that remote system.
733+
734To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
735you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
736then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
737+
738Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
739personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
740for further details.
741
453842c9
KF
742'GIT_ASKPASS'::
743 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
744 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
745 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
746 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
747 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
748
06f59e9f
TT
749'GIT_FLUSH'::
750 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb
TR
751 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
752 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
06f59e9f
TT
753 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
754 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
755 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
756 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
757 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
758
575ba9d6 759'GIT_TRACE'::
2886bdb1
CC
760 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
761 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
575ba9d6
ML
762 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
763 execution and external command execution.
2886bdb1
CC
764 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
765 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
766 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
767 trace messages into this file descriptor.
768 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
769 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
770 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
771 into it.
575ba9d6 772
8db9307c
JH
773Discussion[[Discussion]]
774------------------------
40dac517
BF
775
776More detail on the following is available from the
777link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 778user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517
BF
779
780A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
781subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
782things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
783of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
784contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
785as tags and branch heads.
786
787The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
788hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 789directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
40dac517
BF
790and some number of parent commits.
791
792The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
793"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
794represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
795parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
796
797All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
798written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
799The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
800just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
801purpose.
802
803When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
804efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
805
806Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
807may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
808with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
02ff6250 809recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
40dac517
BF
810tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
811`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
812
813The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
814path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
815the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
816attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
817corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
818working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
819be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
820content stored in the index.
821
822The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
823for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
824unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 825
cb22bc44
AE
826Authors
827-------
48bb914e
JK
828Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
829C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
d8f708f8
JK
830<git@vger.kernel.org>. For a more complete list of contributors, see
831http://git-scm.com/about. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
832output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
833the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 834
c97ca277
JH
835Reporting Bugs
836--------------
837
838Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
839development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
840subscribed to the list to send a message there.
841
497c8331
CC
842SEE ALSO
843--------
844linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
5cbef01a 845link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 846linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
801a011d
TR
847linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
848linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 849
2cf565c5
DG
850GIT
851---
9e1f0a85 852Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite