rev-parse --glob
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-rev-parse.txt
CommitLineData
7fc9d69f
JH
1git-rev-parse(1)
2================
3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-rev-parse - Pick out and massage parameters
7fc9d69f
JH
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
b1889c36 11'git rev-parse' [ --option ] <args>...
7fc9d69f
JH
12
13DESCRIPTION
14-----------
5077fa9c 15
abda1ef5 16Many git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags
5077fa9c 17(i.e. parameters that begin with a dash '-') and parameters
ba020ef5 18meant for the underlying 'git-rev-list' command they use internally
483bc4f0 19and flags and parameters for the other commands they use
ba020ef5 20downstream of 'git-rev-list'. This command is used to
5077fa9c 21distinguish between them.
7fc9d69f
JH
22
23
24OPTIONS
25-------
21d47835 26--parseopt::
ba020ef5 27 Use 'git-rev-parse' in option parsing mode (see PARSEOPT section below).
21d47835 28
2163e3f7 29--keep-dashdash::
21d47835
PH
30 Only meaningful in `--parseopt` mode. Tells the option parser to echo
31 out the first `--` met instead of skipping it.
32
6e0800ef
UKK
33--stop-at-non-option::
34 Only meaningful in `--parseopt` mode. Lets the option parser stop at
35 the first non-option argument. This can be used to parse sub-commands
36 that take options themself.
37
50325377
CC
38--sq-quote::
39 Use 'git-rev-parse' in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE
40 section below). In contrast to the `--sq` option below, this
41 mode does only quoting. Nothing else is done to command input.
42
5077fa9c
JH
43--revs-only::
44 Do not output flags and parameters not meant for
ba020ef5 45 'git-rev-list' command.
5077fa9c
JH
46
47--no-revs::
48 Do not output flags and parameters meant for
ba020ef5 49 'git-rev-list' command.
5077fa9c
JH
50
51--flags::
52 Do not output non-flag parameters.
53
54--no-flags::
55 Do not output flag parameters.
56
57--default <arg>::
58 If there is no parameter given by the user, use `<arg>`
59 instead.
60
61--verify::
62 The parameter given must be usable as a single, valid
63 object name. Otherwise barf and abort.
64
3240240f
SB
65-q::
66--quiet::
b1b35969
CC
67 Only meaningful in `--verify` mode. Do not output an error
68 message if the first argument is not a valid object name;
69 instead exit with non-zero status silently.
70
5077fa9c
JH
71--sq::
72 Usually the output is made one line per flag and
73 parameter. This option makes output a single line,
74 properly quoted for consumption by shell. Useful when
75 you expect your parameter to contain whitespaces and
76 newlines (e.g. when using pickaxe `-S` with
50325377
CC
77 'git-diff-\*'). In contrast to the `--sq-quote` option,
78 the command input is still interpreted as usual.
5077fa9c
JH
79
80--not::
babfaba2
JF
81 When showing object names, prefix them with '{caret}' and
82 strip '{caret}' prefix from the object names that already have
5077fa9c
JH
83 one.
84
85--symbolic::
86 Usually the object names are output in SHA1 form (with
babfaba2 87 possible '{caret}' prefix); this option makes them output in a
5077fa9c
JH
88 form as close to the original input as possible.
89
a6d97d49
JH
90--symbolic-full-name::
91 This is similar to \--symbolic, but it omits input that
92 are not refs (i.e. branch or tag names; or more
93 explicitly disambiguating "heads/master" form, when you
94 want to name the "master" branch when there is an
95 unfortunately named tag "master"), and show them as full
96 refnames (e.g. "refs/heads/master").
5077fa9c 97
a45d3469
BW
98--abbrev-ref[={strict|loose}]::
99 A non-ambiguous short name of the objects name.
100 The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
101 abbreviation mode.
102
5077fa9c
JH
103--all::
104 Show all refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs`.
105
a62be77f
SE
106--branches::
107 Show branch refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads`.
108
109--tags::
110 Show tag refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags`.
111
112--remotes::
113 Show tag refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes`.
114
d08bae7e
IL
115--glob=glob-pattern::
116 Show refs matching shell glob pattern `glob-pattern`. If pattern
117 specified lacks leading 'refs/', it is automatically prepended.
118 If pattern lacks '?', '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is impiled.
119
5077fa9c 120--show-prefix::
5f94c730 121 When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
5077fa9c
JH
122 path of the current directory relative to the top-level
123 directory.
7fc9d69f 124
5f94c730
JH
125--show-cdup::
126 When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
127 path of the top-level directory relative to the current
128 directory (typically a sequence of "../", or an empty string).
129
735d80b3
JF
130--git-dir::
131 Show `$GIT_DIR` if defined else show the path to the .git directory.
132
c9bf7be2 133--is-inside-git-dir::
4faac246
ML
134 When the current working directory is below the repository
135 directory print "true", otherwise "false".
136
892c41b9
ML
137--is-inside-work-tree::
138 When the current working directory is inside the work tree of the
139 repository print "true", otherwise "false".
140
493c774e
ML
141--is-bare-repository::
142 When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".
c9bf7be2 143
3240240f
SB
144--short::
145--short=number::
735d80b3 146 Instead of outputting the full SHA1 values of object names try to
abda1ef5 147 abbreviate them to a shorter unique name. When no length is specified
735d80b3
JF
148 7 is used. The minimum length is 4.
149
3240240f
SB
150--since=datestring::
151--after=datestring::
483bc4f0 152 Parse the date string, and output the corresponding
ba020ef5 153 --max-age= parameter for 'git-rev-list'.
a3114b34 154
3240240f
SB
155--until=datestring::
156--before=datestring::
483bc4f0 157 Parse the date string, and output the corresponding
ba020ef5 158 --min-age= parameter for 'git-rev-list'.
a3114b34 159
7fc9d69f 160<args>...::
5077fa9c 161 Flags and parameters to be parsed.
7fc9d69f
JH
162
163
3a45f625
JH
164SPECIFYING REVISIONS
165--------------------
166
622ef9df
JH
167A revision parameter typically, but not necessarily, names a
168commit object. They use what is called an 'extended SHA1'
6b09c788
NTND
169syntax. Here are various ways to spell object names. The
170ones listed near the end of this list are to name trees and
171blobs contained in a commit.
3a45f625
JH
172
173* The full SHA1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or
174 a substring of such that is unique within the repository.
175 E.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both
176 name the same commit object if there are no other object in
177 your repository whose object name starts with dae86e.
178
81b237d5
CEB
179* An output from 'git-describe'; i.e. a closest tag, optionally
180 followed by a dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a
181 `g`, and an abbreviated object name.
6b09c788 182
3a45f625
JH
183* A symbolic ref name. E.g. 'master' typically means the commit
184 object referenced by $GIT_DIR/refs/heads/master. If you
185 happen to have both heads/master and tags/master, you can
72e9340c 186 explicitly say 'heads/master' to tell git which one you mean.
0ac30568
JH
187 When ambiguous, a `<name>` is disambiguated by taking the
188 first match in the following rules:
3a45f625 189
0ac30568 190 . if `$GIT_DIR/<name>` exists, that is what you mean (this is usually
fd11ae0b 191 useful only for `HEAD`, `FETCH_HEAD`, `ORIG_HEAD` and `MERGE_HEAD`);
0ac30568
JH
192
193 . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/<name>` if exists;
194
195 . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<name>` if exists;
196
197 . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<name>` if exists;
198
199 . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes/<name>` if exists;
200
201 . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD` if exists.
fd11ae0b
JH
202+
203HEAD names the commit your changes in the working tree is based on.
204FETCH_HEAD records the branch you fetched from a remote repository
205with your last 'git-fetch' invocation.
206ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that moves your HEAD in a drastic
207way, to record the position of the HEAD before their operation, so that
208you can change the tip of the branch back to the state before you ran
209them easily.
210MERGE_HEAD records the commit(s) you are merging into your branch
211when you run 'git-merge'.
0ac30568
JH
212
213* A ref followed by the suffix '@' with a date specification
214 enclosed in a brace
cce91a2c
SP
215 pair (e.g. '\{yesterday\}', '\{1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour 1
216 second ago\}' or '\{1979-02-26 18:30:00\}') to specify the value
217 of the ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may only be
218 used immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an
a0d2ceb2
JK
219 existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the state
220 of your *local* ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local
221 `master` branch last week. If you want to look at commits made during
222 certain times, see `--since` and `--until`.
d556fae2 223
ee53aff4
SP
224* A ref followed by the suffix '@' with an ordinal specification
225 enclosed in a brace pair (e.g. '\{1\}', '\{15\}') to specify
226 the n-th prior value of that ref. For example 'master@\{1\}'
227 is the immediate prior value of 'master' while 'master@\{5\}'
228 is the 5th prior value of 'master'. This suffix may only be used
229 immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing
230 log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>).
231
1e5db307
JS
232* You can use the '@' construct with an empty ref part to get at a
233 reflog of the current branch. For example, if you are on the
234 branch 'blabla', then '@\{1\}' means the same as 'blabla@\{1\}'.
235
d18ba221
TR
236* The special construct '@\{-<n>\}' means the <n>th branch checked out
237 before the current one.
238
babfaba2
JF
239* A suffix '{caret}' to a revision parameter means the first parent of
240 that commit object. '{caret}<n>' means the <n>th parent (i.e.
241 'rev{caret}'
242 is equivalent to 'rev{caret}1'). As a special rule,
243 'rev{caret}0' means the commit itself and is used when 'rev' is the
3a45f625
JH
244 object name of a tag object that refers to a commit object.
245
54bd2558 246* A suffix '{tilde}<n>' to a revision parameter means the commit
3a45f625
JH
247 object that is the <n>th generation grand-parent of the named
248 commit object, following only the first parent. I.e. rev~3 is
0ac30568
JH
249 equivalent to rev{caret}{caret}{caret} which is equivalent to
250 rev{caret}1{caret}1{caret}1. See below for a illustration of
251 the usage of this form.
3a45f625 252
622ef9df
JH
253* A suffix '{caret}' followed by an object type name enclosed in
254 brace pair (e.g. `v0.99.8{caret}\{commit\}`) means the object
255 could be a tag, and dereference the tag recursively until an
256 object of that type is found or the object cannot be
257 dereferenced anymore (in which case, barf). `rev{caret}0`
258 introduced earlier is a short-hand for `rev{caret}\{commit\}`.
259
260* A suffix '{caret}' followed by an empty brace pair
261 (e.g. `v0.99.8{caret}\{\}`) means the object could be a tag,
262 and dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag object is
263 found.
264
28a4d940
JS
265* A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text: this names
266 a commit whose commit message starts with the specified text.
267 This name returns the youngest matching commit which is
268 reachable from any ref. If the commit message starts with a
269 '!', you have to repeat that; the special sequence ':/!',
270 followed by something else than '!' is reserved for now.
271
6b09c788
NTND
272* A suffix ':' followed by a path; this names the blob or tree
273 at the given path in the tree-ish object named by the part
274 before the colon.
275
276* A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a
277 colon, followed by a path; this names a blob object in the
278 index at the given path. Missing stage number (and the colon
a5d86f74 279 that follows it) names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage
257a84d9
SG
280 1 is the common ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch's version
281 (typically the current branch), and stage 3 is the version from
282 the branch being merged.
6b09c788 283
da101b82
MV
284Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B
285and C are parents of commit node A. Parent commits are ordered
2be8fd08
JH
286left-to-right.
287
df2740b0
MB
288........................................
289G H I J
290 \ / \ /
291 D E F
292 \ | / \
293 \ | / |
294 \|/ |
295 B C
296 \ /
297 \ /
298 A
299........................................
2be8fd08
JH
300
301 A = = A^0
302 B = A^ = A^1 = A~1
303 C = A^2 = A^2
304 D = A^^ = A^1^1 = A~2
305 E = B^2 = A^^2
306 F = B^3 = A^^3
307 G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
308 H = D^2 = B^^2 = A^^^2 = A~2^2
309 I = F^ = B^3^ = A^^3^
310 J = F^2 = B^3^2 = A^^3^2
311
3a45f625 312
be4c7014
JH
313SPECIFYING RANGES
314-----------------
315
ba020ef5 316History traversing commands such as 'git-log' operate on a set
be4c7014
JH
317of commits, not just a single commit. To these commands,
318specifying a single revision with the notation described in the
319previous section means the set of commits reachable from that
320commit, following the commit ancestry chain.
321
322To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix `{caret}`
dcb11263 323notation is used. E.g. `{caret}r1 r2` means commits reachable
be4c7014
JH
324from `r2` but exclude the ones reachable from `r1`.
325
326This set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand
fd11ae0b
JH
327for it. When you have two commits `r1` and `r2` (named according
328to the syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask
329for commits that are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable
dcb11263 330from r1 by `{caret}r1 r2` and it can be written as `r1..r2`.
be4c7014 331
dcb11263 332A similar notation `r1\...r2` is called symmetric difference
be4c7014 333of `r1` and `r2` and is defined as
dcb11263 334`r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2)`.
e18ee576 335It is the set of commits that are reachable from either one of
be4c7014
JH
336`r1` or `r2` but not from both.
337
62476c8e 338Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit
faf466ff 339and its parent commits exist. The `r1{caret}@` notation means all
62476c8e 340parents of `r1`. `r1{caret}!` includes commit `r1` but excludes
faf466ff 341all of its parents.
62476c8e 342
a5d86f74 343Here are a handful of examples:
be4c7014 344
c2c6d930
GP
345 D G H D
346 D F G H I J D F
347 ^G D H D
348 ^D B E I J F B
349 B...C G H D E B C
350 ^D B C E I J F B C
351 C^@ I J F
352 F^! D G H D F
be4c7014 353
21d47835
PH
354PARSEOPT
355--------
356
ba020ef5 357In `--parseopt` mode, 'git-rev-parse' helps massaging options to bring to shell
21d47835
PH
358scripts the same facilities C builtins have. It works as an option normalizer
359(e.g. splits single switches aggregate values), a bit like `getopt(1)` does.
360
361It takes on the standard input the specification of the options to parse and
362understand, and echoes on the standard output a line suitable for `sh(1)` `eval`
363to replace the arguments with normalized ones. In case of error, it outputs
364usage on the standard error stream, and exits with code 129.
365
366Input Format
367~~~~~~~~~~~~
368
ba020ef5 369'git-rev-parse --parseopt' input format is fully text based. It has two parts,
21d47835
PH
370separated by a line that contains only `--`. The lines before the separator
371(should be more than one) are used for the usage.
372The lines after the separator describe the options.
373
374Each line of options has this format:
375
376------------
ff962a3f 377<opt_spec><flags>* SP+ help LF
21d47835
PH
378------------
379
380`<opt_spec>`::
381 its format is the short option character, then the long option name
382 separated by a comma. Both parts are not required, though at least one
383 is necessary. `h,help`, `dry-run` and `f` are all three correct
384 `<opt_spec>`.
385
ff962a3f
PH
386`<flags>`::
387 `<flags>` are of `*`, `=`, `?` or `!`.
388 * Use `=` if the option takes an argument.
389
390 * Use `?` to mean that the option is optional (though its use is discouraged).
391
392 * Use `*` to mean that this option should not be listed in the usage
393 generated for the `-h` argument. It's shown for `--help-all` as
a5af0e2c 394 documented in linkgit:gitcli[7].
ff962a3f
PH
395
396 * Use `!` to not make the corresponding negated long option available.
21d47835
PH
397
398The remainder of the line, after stripping the spaces, is used
399as the help associated to the option.
400
401Blank lines are ignored, and lines that don't match this specification are used
402as option group headers (start the line with a space to create such
403lines on purpose).
404
405Example
406~~~~~~~
407
408------------
409OPTS_SPEC="\
410some-command [options] <args>...
411
412some-command does foo and bar!
413--
414h,help show the help
415
416foo some nifty option --foo
417bar= some cool option --bar with an argument
418
419 An option group Header
420C? option C with an optional argument"
421
b1889c36 422eval `echo "$OPTS_SPEC" | git rev-parse --parseopt -- "$@" || echo exit $?`
21d47835
PH
423------------
424
50325377
CC
425SQ-QUOTE
426--------
427
428In `--sq-quote` mode, 'git-rev-parse' echoes on the standard output a
429single line suitable for `sh(1)` `eval`. This line is made by
430normalizing the arguments following `--sq-quote`. Nothing other than
431quoting the arguments is done.
432
433If you want command input to still be interpreted as usual by
434'git-rev-parse' before the output is shell quoted, see the `--sq`
435option.
436
437Example
438~~~~~~~
439
440------------
441$ cat >your-git-script.sh <<\EOF
442#!/bin/sh
443args=$(git rev-parse --sq-quote "$@") # quote user-supplied arguments
444command="git frotz -n24 $args" # and use it inside a handcrafted
445 # command line
446eval "$command"
447EOF
448
449$ sh your-git-script.sh "a b'c"
450------------
451
824b5dc2
CC
452EXAMPLES
453--------
454
455* Print the object name of the current commit:
456+
457------------
458$ git rev-parse --verify HEAD
459------------
460
461* Print the commit object name from the revision in the $REV shell variable:
462+
463------------
464$ git rev-parse --verify $REV
465------------
466+
467This will error out if $REV is empty or not a valid revision.
468
469* Same as above:
470+
471------------
472$ git rev-parse --default master --verify $REV
473------------
474+
475but if $REV is empty, the commit object name from master will be printed.
476
21d47835 477
7fc9d69f
JH
478Author
479------
21d47835 480Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> .
59eb68aa 481Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> and Pierre Habouzit <madcoder@debian.org>
7fc9d69f
JH
482
483Documentation
484--------------
485Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
486
487GIT
488---
9e1f0a85 489Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite