transport->progress: use flag authoritatively
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
9f67fee2 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
e9fcd1e2 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
2c9693bd 14 [<repository> <refspec>...]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
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18
19Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 21
cc55aaec 22You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 23every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 24documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 25
7fc9d69f 26
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27OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
28------------------
3598a308 29<repository>::
85a97d4e 30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 34
2c9693bd 35<refspec>...::
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36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
37 `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
40 in the remote repository is to be updated.
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42The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
43it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
44`HEAD` (see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]).
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46The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
47push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
48be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
49updated.
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51The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
52on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
a75d7b54 53update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
149f6ddf 54you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
a75d7b54 55fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
149f6ddf 56EXAMPLES below for details.
3598a308 57+
80391846 58`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
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59+
60Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
61the remote repository.
a83619d6 62+
a75d7b54 63The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
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64directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
65the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
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66already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
67if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
68nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
7fc9d69f 69
3240240f 70--all::
cc55aaec 71 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
5c633a4c 72 refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 73
3240240f 74--mirror::
ff206748 75 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
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76 refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/` (which includes but is not
77 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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78 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
79 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
80 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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81 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
82 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
83 set.
ff206748 84
9f67fee2 85-n::
3240240f 86--dry-run::
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87 Do everything except actually send the updates.
88
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89--porcelain::
90 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
91 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
92 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
93
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94--delete::
95 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
96 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
97
3240240f 98--tags::
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99 All refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are pushed, in
100 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
101 line.
102
3240240f 103--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 104--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 105 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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106 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
107 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
108 a directory on the default $PATH.
109
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110-f::
111--force::
f0fff36e 112 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 113 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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114 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
115 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
7fc9d69f 116
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117--repo=<repository>::
118 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
0b444cdb 119 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
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120 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
121 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
122 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
123 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
124 the difference between these two commands
125+
126--------------------------
127git push public #1
128git push --repo=public #2
129--------------------------
130+
131is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
132only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
0b444cdb 133useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
dc36f265 134
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135-u::
136--set-upstream::
137 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
138 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
139 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
140 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
141
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142--thin::
143--no-thin::
0b444cdb 144 These options are passed to 'git send-pack'. Thin
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145 transfer spends extra cycles to minimize the number of
146 objects to be sent and meant to be used on slower connection.
147
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148-q::
149--quiet::
150 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
151 unless an error occurs.
152
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153-v::
154--verbose::
155 Run verbosely.
156
37ba0561 157include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 158
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159OUTPUT
160------
161
162The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
163section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
164locally or via ssh).
165
166The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
167representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
168
169-------------------------------
170 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
171-------------------------------
172
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173If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
174
175-------------------------------
176 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
177-------------------------------
178
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179The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
180option is used.
181
066a5268 182flag::
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183 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
184(space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
185`{plus}`;; for a successful forced update;
186`-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
187`*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
188`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
189`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
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190
191summary::
192 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
193 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
194 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
a75d7b54 195 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates). For a
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196 failed update, more details are given for the failure.
197 The string `rejected` indicates that git did not try to send the
a75d7b54 198 ref at all (typically because it is not a fast-forward). The
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199 string `remote rejected` indicates that the remote end refused
200 the update; this rejection is typically caused by a hook on the
201 remote side. The string `remote failure` indicates that the
202 remote end did not report the successful update of the ref
203 (perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
204 break in the network connection, or other transient error).
205
206from::
207 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
208 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
209 name of the local ref is omitted.
210
211to::
212 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
213 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
214
215reason::
216 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
217 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
218 failure is described.
bb9fca80 219
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220Note about fast-forwards
221------------------------
222
223When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
224point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
225fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
226
227In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
228commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
229builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
230
231In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
232suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
233a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
234leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
235
236----------------
237
238 B
239 /
240 ---X---A
241
242----------------
243
244Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
245back to the original repository you two obtained the original commit X.
246
247The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
248commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
249
250But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
251now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
252so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
253will now start building on top of B.
254
255The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
256to prevent such loss of history.
257
258If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
259the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
260history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
261by both parties, and push the result back.
262
263You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
264the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
265and B.
266
267----------------
268
269 B---C
270 / /
271 ---X---A
272
273----------------
274
275Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
276push will be accepted.
277
278Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
279with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
280create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
281A.
282
283----------------
284
285 B D
286 / /
287 ---X---A
288
289----------------
290
291Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
292accepted.
293
294There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
295rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
296pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
297A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
298commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
299forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
300you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
301(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
302overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
303a case where you do mean to lose history.
304
305
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306Examples
307--------
308
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309git push::
310 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
311 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
312 configured for the current branch).
313
314git push origin::
315 Without additional configuration, works like
316 `git push origin :`.
317+
318The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
319configured by setting the `push` option of the remote.
320+
321For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
322use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
323the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
324`git push origin`.
325
326git push origin :::
327 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
328 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
329 description of "matching" branches.
330
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331git push origin master::
332 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
333 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
334 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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335 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
336 created.
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338git push origin HEAD::
339 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
340 remote.
bb9fca80 341
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342git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev::
343 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
344 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
345 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
346 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
bb9fca80 347
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348git push origin HEAD:master::
349 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
350 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
351 branch without thinking about its local name.
352
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353git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental::
354 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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355 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
356 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
357 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
358 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 359
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360git push origin :experimental::
361 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
362 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
363
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364git push origin {plus}dev:master::
365 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
a75d7b54 366 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
149f6ddf 367 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
a75d7b54 368 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
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369+
370----
371 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
372 \
373 X---Y---Z dev
374----
375+
376The above command would change the origin repository to
377+
378----
379 A---B (unnamed branch)
380 /
381 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
382----
383+
384Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
385and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
386a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
387
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389Author
390------
59eb68aa 391Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>, later rewritten in C
25fb6290 392by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
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393
394Documentation
395--------------
396Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
397
398GIT
399---
9e1f0a85 400Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite