Mention that pull can work locally in the synopsis
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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7984eabe 1git(7)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
6acbcb92 12'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]] [-p|--paginate]
8b70004b 13 [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
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14
15DESCRIPTION
16-----------
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17Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
18unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
19and full access to internals.
20
21See this link:tutorial.html[tutorial] to get started, then see
22link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
23"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
24also want to read link:cvs-migration.html[CVS migration].
cb22bc44 25
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26The COMMAND is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
27as defined in the configuration file (see gitlink:git-repo-config[1]).
28
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29OPTIONS
30-------
31--version::
a87cd02c 32 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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33
34--help::
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35 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
36 commands. If a git command is named this option will bring up
37 the man-page for that command. If the option '--all' or '-a' is
38 given then all available commands are printed.
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39
40--exec-path::
a87cd02c 41 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
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42 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
43 environment variable. If no path is given 'git' will print
44 the current setting and then exit.
45
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46-p|--paginate::
47 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER).
48
49--git-dir=<path>::
50 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
51 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable.
52
53--bare::
54 Same as --git-dir=`pwd`.
9755afbd 55
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56FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
57---------------------
9755afbd 58
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59See the references above to get started using git. The following is
60probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 61
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62The <<Discussion,Discussion>> section below and the
63link:core-tutorial.html[Core tutorial] both provide introductions to the
64underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 65
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66See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
67examples.
9755afbd 68
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69GIT COMMANDS
70------------
9755afbd 71
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72We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
73("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 74
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75Low-level commands (plumbing)
76-----------------------------
e6fc2346 77
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78Although git includes its
79own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
80development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
81might start by reading about gitlink:git-update-index[1] and
82gitlink:git-read-tree[1].
2cf565c5 83
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84We divide the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
85the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
86compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
87repositories.
204ee6a9 88
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89Manipulation commands
90~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
a7154e91 91gitlink:git-apply[1]::
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92 Reads a "diff -up1" or git generated patch file and
93 applies it to the working tree.
94
a7154e91 95gitlink:git-checkout-index[1]::
2fa090b6 96 Copy files from the index to the working tree.
2cf565c5 97
a7154e91 98gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 99 Creates a new commit object.
2cf565c5 100
a7154e91 101gitlink:git-hash-object[1]::
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102 Computes the object ID from a file.
103
a52e4ef8 104gitlink:git-index-pack[1]::
2fa090b6 105 Build pack idx file for an existing packed archive.
9cf6d335 106
a7154e91 107gitlink:git-init-db[1]::
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108 Creates an empty git object database, or reinitialize an
109 existing one.
2cf565c5 110
a7154e91 111gitlink:git-merge-index[1]::
2fa090b6 112 Runs a merge for files needing merging.
2cf565c5 113
a7154e91 114gitlink:git-mktag[1]::
2fa090b6 115 Creates a tag object.
2cf565c5 116
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117gitlink:git-mktree[1]::
118 Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
119
a7154e91 120gitlink:git-pack-objects[1]::
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121 Creates a packed archive of objects.
122
a7154e91 123gitlink:git-prune-packed[1]::
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124 Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
125
a7154e91 126gitlink:git-read-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 127 Reads tree information into the index.
2cf565c5 128
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129gitlink:git-repo-config[1]::
130 Get and set options in .git/config.
131
a7154e91 132gitlink:git-unpack-objects[1]::
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133 Unpacks objects out of a packed archive.
134
a7154e91 135gitlink:git-update-index[1]::
2fa090b6 136 Registers files in the working tree to the index.
2cf565c5 137
a7154e91 138gitlink:git-write-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 139 Creates a tree from the index.
2cf565c5 140
e31bb3bb 141
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142Interrogation commands
143~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
f85a4191 144
a7154e91 145gitlink:git-cat-file[1]::
2fa090b6 146 Provide content or type/size information for repository objects.
2cf565c5 147
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148gitlink:git-describe[1]::
149 Show the most recent tag that is reachable from a commit.
150
a7154e91 151gitlink:git-diff-index[1]::
2fa090b6 152 Compares content and mode of blobs between the index and repository.
2cf565c5 153
a7154e91 154gitlink:git-diff-files[1]::
2fa090b6 155 Compares files in the working tree and the index.
2cf565c5 156
a7154e91 157gitlink:git-diff-stages[1]::
2fa090b6 158 Compares two "merge stages" in the index.
83db04ff 159
a7154e91 160gitlink:git-diff-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 161 Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
f85a4191 162
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163gitlink:git-for-each-ref[1]::
164 Output information on each ref.
165
a7154e91 166gitlink:git-fsck-objects[1]::
2fa090b6 167 Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database.
2cf565c5 168
a7154e91 169gitlink:git-ls-files[1]::
2fa090b6 170 Information about files in the index and the working tree.
2cf565c5 171
a7154e91 172gitlink:git-ls-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 173 Displays a tree object in human readable form.
2cf565c5 174
a7154e91 175gitlink:git-merge-base[1]::
2fa090b6 176 Finds as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
2cf565c5 177
a60d2d8f 178gitlink:git-name-rev[1]::
2fa090b6 179 Find symbolic names for given revs.
a60d2d8f 180
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181gitlink:git-pack-redundant[1]::
182 Find redundant pack files.
183
a7154e91 184gitlink:git-rev-list[1]::
2fa090b6 185 Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
2cf565c5 186
a7154e91 187gitlink:git-show-index[1]::
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188 Displays contents of a pack idx file.
189
a7154e91 190gitlink:git-tar-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 191 Creates a tar archive of the files in the named tree object.
2cf565c5 192
a7154e91 193gitlink:git-unpack-file[1]::
2fa090b6 194 Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
2cf565c5 195
a7154e91 196gitlink:git-var[1]::
2fa090b6 197 Displays a git logical variable.
aed022ab 198
a7154e91 199gitlink:git-verify-pack[1]::
2fa090b6 200 Validates packed git archive files.
f9253394 201
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202In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
203the working tree.
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204
205
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206Synching repositories
207~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
208
a7154e91 209gitlink:git-fetch-pack[1]::
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210 Updates from a remote repository (engine for ssh and
211 local transport).
f85a4191 212
a7154e91 213gitlink:git-http-fetch[1]::
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214 Downloads a remote git repository via HTTP by walking
215 commit chain.
204ee6a9 216
a7154e91 217gitlink:git-local-fetch[1]::
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218 Duplicates another git repository on a local system by
219 walking commit chain.
204ee6a9 220
a7154e91 221gitlink:git-peek-remote[1]::
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222 Lists references on a remote repository using
223 upload-pack protocol (engine for ssh and local
224 transport).
2f2de9b4 225
a7154e91 226gitlink:git-receive-pack[1]::
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227 Invoked by 'git-send-pack' to receive what is pushed to it.
228
a7154e91 229gitlink:git-send-pack[1]::
f85a4191 230 Pushes to a remote repository, intelligently.
2f2de9b4 231
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232gitlink:git-http-push[1]::
233 Push missing objects using HTTP/DAV.
234
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235gitlink:git-shell[1]::
236 Restricted shell for GIT-only SSH access.
237
a7154e91 238gitlink:git-ssh-fetch[1]::
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239 Pulls from a remote repository over ssh connection by
240 walking commit chain.
508e67ab 241
a7154e91 242gitlink:git-ssh-upload[1]::
2fa090b6 243 Helper "server-side" program used by git-ssh-fetch.
2f2de9b4 244
a7154e91 245gitlink:git-update-server-info[1]::
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246 Updates auxiliary information on a dumb server to help
247 clients discover references and packs on it.
248
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249gitlink:git-upload-archive[1]::
250 Invoked by 'git-archive' to send a generated archive.
251
a7154e91 252gitlink:git-upload-pack[1]::
efc7fa53 253 Invoked by 'git-fetch-pack' to push
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254 what are asked for.
255
2f2de9b4 256
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257High-level commands (porcelain)
258-------------------------------
259
260We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
261ancillary user utilities.
262
263Main porcelain commands
264~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 265
a7154e91 266gitlink:git-add[1]::
2fa090b6 267 Add paths to the index.
905197de 268
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269gitlink:git-am[1]::
270 Apply patches from a mailbox, but cooler.
271
a7154e91 272gitlink:git-applymbox[1]::
2fa090b6 273 Apply patches from a mailbox, original version by Linus.
f85a4191 274
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275gitlink:git-archive[1]::
276 Creates an archive of files from a named tree.
277
a7154e91 278gitlink:git-bisect[1]::
2fa090b6 279 Find the change that introduced a bug by binary search.
f85a4191 280
a7154e91 281gitlink:git-branch[1]::
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282 Create and Show branches.
283
a7154e91 284gitlink:git-checkout[1]::
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285 Checkout and switch to a branch.
286
a7154e91 287gitlink:git-cherry-pick[1]::
f85a4191 288 Cherry-pick the effect of an existing commit.
3f971fc4 289
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290gitlink:git-clean[1]::
291 Remove untracked files from the working tree.
292
a7154e91 293gitlink:git-clone[1]::
f85a4191 294 Clones a repository into a new directory.
3f971fc4 295
a7154e91 296gitlink:git-commit[1]::
f85a4191 297 Record changes to the repository.
3f971fc4 298
a7154e91 299gitlink:git-diff[1]::
2aba319a 300 Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
35ef3a4c 301
a7154e91 302gitlink:git-fetch[1]::
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303 Download from a remote repository via various protocols.
304
a7154e91 305gitlink:git-format-patch[1]::
2aba319a 306 Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
35ef3a4c 307
a7154e91 308gitlink:git-grep[1]::
2fa090b6 309 Print lines matching a pattern.
2aba319a 310
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311gitlink:gitk[1]::
312 The git repository browser.
313
a7154e91 314gitlink:git-log[1]::
f85a4191 315 Shows commit logs.
62033318 316
a7154e91 317gitlink:git-ls-remote[1]::
f85a4191 318 Shows references in a remote or local repository.
ab9b3138 319
a7154e91 320gitlink:git-merge[1]::
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321 Grand unified merge driver.
322
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323gitlink:git-mv[1]::
324 Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
325
a7154e91 326gitlink:git-pull[1]::
ce4231ff 327 Fetch from and merge with a remote repository or a local branch.
f85a4191 328
a7154e91 329gitlink:git-push[1]::
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330 Update remote refs along with associated objects.
331
a7154e91 332gitlink:git-rebase[1]::
2fa090b6 333 Rebase local commits to the updated upstream head.
62033318 334
a7154e91 335gitlink:git-repack[1]::
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336 Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
337
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338gitlink:git-rerere[1]::
339 Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
340
a7154e91 341gitlink:git-reset[1]::
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342 Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
343
a7154e91 344gitlink:git-resolve[1]::
f85a4191 345 Merge two commits.
83db04ff 346
a7154e91 347gitlink:git-revert[1]::
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348 Revert an existing commit.
349
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350gitlink:git-rm[1]::
351 Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
352
a7154e91 353gitlink:git-shortlog[1]::
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354 Summarizes 'git log' output.
355
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356gitlink:git-show[1]::
357 Show one commit log and its diff.
358
a7154e91 359gitlink:git-show-branch[1]::
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360 Show branches and their commits.
361
a7154e91 362gitlink:git-status[1]::
f85a4191 363 Shows the working tree status.
83db04ff 364
a7154e91 365gitlink:git-verify-tag[1]::
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366 Check the GPG signature of tag.
367
a7154e91 368gitlink:git-whatchanged[1]::
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369 Shows commit logs and differences they introduce.
370
e31bb3bb 371
90933efb 372Ancillary Commands
23091e95 373~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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374Manipulators:
375
a7154e91 376gitlink:git-applypatch[1]::
f85a4191 377 Apply one patch extracted from an e-mail.
905197de 378
a7154e91 379gitlink:git-archimport[1]::
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380 Import an arch repository into git.
381
a7154e91 382gitlink:git-convert-objects[1]::
2fa090b6 383 Converts old-style git repository.
2f2de9b4 384
a7154e91 385gitlink:git-cvsimport[1]::
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386 Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
387
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388gitlink:git-cvsexportcommit[1]::
389 Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
390
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391gitlink:git-cvsserver[1]::
392 A CVS server emulator for git.
393
0086e2c8 394gitlink:git-lost-found[1]::
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395 Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been pruned.
396
a7154e91 397gitlink:git-merge-one-file[1]::
2fa090b6 398 The standard helper program to use with `git-merge-index`.
204ee6a9 399
a7154e91 400gitlink:git-prune[1]::
2fa090b6 401 Prunes all unreachable objects from the object database.
204ee6a9 402
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403gitlink:git-quiltimport[1]::
404 Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
405
a7154e91 406gitlink:git-relink[1]::
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407 Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
408
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409gitlink:git-svn[1]::
410 Bidirectional operation between a single Subversion branch and git.
411
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412gitlink:git-svnimport[1]::
413 Import a SVN repository into git.
414
a7154e91 415gitlink:git-sh-setup[1]::
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416 Common git shell script setup code.
417
a60d2d8f 418gitlink:git-symbolic-ref[1]::
2fa090b6 419 Read and modify symbolic refs.
a60d2d8f 420
a7154e91 421gitlink:git-tag[1]::
2fa090b6 422 An example script to create a tag object signed with GPG.
204ee6a9 423
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424gitlink:git-update-ref[1]::
425 Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
426
204ee6a9 427
90933efb 428Interrogators:
204ee6a9 429
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430gitlink:git-annotate[1]::
431 Annotate file lines with commit info.
432
433gitlink:git-blame[1]::
434 Blame file lines on commits.
435
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436gitlink:git-check-ref-format[1]::
437 Make sure ref name is well formed.
438
a7154e91 439gitlink:git-cherry[1]::
f85a4191 440 Find commits not merged upstream.
905197de 441
a7154e91 442gitlink:git-count-objects[1]::
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443 Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
444
a7154e91 445gitlink:git-daemon[1]::
72e9340c 446 A really simple server for git repositories.
5077fa9c 447
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448gitlink:git-fmt-merge-msg[1]::
449 Produce a merge commit message.
450
a7154e91 451gitlink:git-get-tar-commit-id[1]::
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452 Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-tar-tree.
453
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454gitlink:git-imap-send[1]::
455 Dump a mailbox from stdin into an imap folder.
456
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457gitlink:git-instaweb[1]::
458 Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.
459
a7154e91 460gitlink:git-mailinfo[1]::
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461 Extracts patch and authorship information from a single
462 e-mail message, optionally transliterating the commit
463 message into utf-8.
f85a4191 464
a7154e91 465gitlink:git-mailsplit[1]::
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466 A stupid program to split UNIX mbox format mailbox into
467 individual pieces of e-mail.
f85a4191 468
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469gitlink:git-merge-tree[1]::
470 Show three-way merge without touching index.
471
a7154e91 472gitlink:git-patch-id[1]::
f85a4191 473 Compute unique ID for a patch.
204ee6a9 474
a7154e91 475gitlink:git-parse-remote[1]::
2fa090b6 476 Routines to help parsing `$GIT_DIR/remotes/` files.
5077fa9c 477
a7154e91 478gitlink:git-request-pull[1]::
215a7ad1 479 git-request-pull.
5077fa9c 480
a7154e91 481gitlink:git-rev-parse[1]::
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482 Pick out and massage parameters.
483
a7154e91 484gitlink:git-send-email[1]::
83db04ff 485 Send patch e-mails out of "format-patch --mbox" output.
204ee6a9 486
c1fe2fe4 487gitlink:git-symbolic-ref[1]::
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488 Read and modify symbolic refs.
489
a7154e91 490gitlink:git-stripspace[1]::
35ef3a4c 491 Filter out empty lines.
7fc9d69f 492
7fc9d69f 493
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494Configuration Mechanism
495-----------------------
496
2fa090b6 497Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 498is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 499simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
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500people. Here is an example:
501
502------------
503#
2fa090b6 504# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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505#
506
507; core variables
508[core]
509 ; Don't trust file modes
510 filemode = false
511
512; user identity
513[user]
514 name = "Junio C Hamano"
515 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
516
517------------
518
519Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
520their operation accordingly.
521
522
6c84e2e0 523Identifier Terminology
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524----------------------
525<object>::
2fa090b6 526 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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527
528<blob>::
2fa090b6 529 Indicates a blob object name.
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530
531<tree>::
2fa090b6 532 Indicates a tree object name.
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533
534<commit>::
2fa090b6 535 Indicates a commit object name.
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536
537<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 538 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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539 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
540 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
541 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
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542
543<type>::
544 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 545 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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546
547<file>::
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548 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
549 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 550
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551Symbolic Identifiers
552--------------------
90933efb 553Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 554symbolic notation:
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555
556HEAD::
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557 indicates the head of the current branch (i.e. the
558 contents of `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`).
559
c1bdacf9 560<tag>::
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561 a valid tag 'name'
562 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`).
563
c1bdacf9 564<head>::
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565 a valid head 'name'
566 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`).
567
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568For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
569"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitlink:git-rev-parse[1].
570
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571
572File/Directory Structure
573------------------------
c1bdacf9 574
a1d4aa74 575Please see link:repository-layout.html[repository layout] document.
c1bdacf9 576
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577Read link:hooks.html[hooks] for more details about each hook.
578
c1bdacf9 579Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 580`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 581
a1d4aa74 582
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583Terminology
584-----------
1bff6490 585Please see link:glossary.html[glossary] document.
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586
587
588Environment Variables
589---------------------
590Various git commands use the following environment variables:
591
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592The git Repository
593~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
594These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
595is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 596git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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597
598'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
599 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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600 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
601 is used.
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602
603'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
604 If the object storage directory is specified via this
605 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
606 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
607 directory is used.
608
609'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
610 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
611 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
90933efb 612 specifies a ":" separated list of git object directories which
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613 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
614 written to these directories.
615
616'GIT_DIR'::
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617 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
618 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
619 for the base of the repository.
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620
621git Commits
622~~~~~~~~~~~
623'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
624'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
625'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
626'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
627'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
a7154e91 628 see gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]
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629
630git Diffs
631~~~~~~~~~
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632'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
633'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
c1bdacf9 634 see the "generating patches" section in :
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635 gitlink:git-diff-index[1];
636 gitlink:git-diff-files[1];
637 gitlink:git-diff-tree[1]
2cf565c5 638
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639other
640~~~~~
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641'GIT_PAGER'::
642 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`.
643
575ba9d6 644'GIT_TRACE'::
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645 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
646 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
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647 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
648 execution and external command execution.
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649 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
650 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
651 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
652 trace messages into this file descriptor.
653 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
654 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
655 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
656 into it.
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658Discussion[[Discussion]]
659------------------------
941c9449 660include::README[]
6c84e2e0 661
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662Authors
663-------
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664* git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
665* The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>.
666* The git potty was written by Andres Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
667* General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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668
669Documentation
670--------------
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671The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
672<david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
673contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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674
675GIT
676---
a7154e91 677Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
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