t3010: modernize style
[git/git.git] / t / README
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1Core GIT Tests
2==============
3
4This directory holds many test scripts for core GIT tools. The
5first part of this short document describes how to run the tests
6and read their output.
7
8When fixing the tools or adding enhancements, you are strongly
9encouraged to add tests in this directory to cover what you are
10trying to fix or enhance. The later part of this short document
11describes how your test scripts should be organized.
12
13
14Running Tests
15-------------
16
17The easiest way to run tests is to say "make". This runs all
18the tests.
19
20 *** t0000-basic.sh ***
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21 ok 1 - .git/objects should be empty after git init in an empty repo.
22 ok 2 - .git/objects should have 3 subdirectories.
23 ok 3 - success is reported like this
986aa7f1 24 ...
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25 ok 43 - very long name in the index handled sanely
26 # fixed 1 known breakage(s)
27 # still have 1 known breakage(s)
28 # passed all remaining 42 test(s)
29 1..43
30 *** t0001-init.sh ***
31 ok 1 - plain
32 ok 2 - plain with GIT_WORK_TREE
33 ok 3 - plain bare
34
35Since the tests all output TAP (see http://testanything.org) they can
85b0b34e 36be run with any TAP harness. Here's an example of parallel testing
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37powered by a recent version of prove(1):
38
39 $ prove --timer --jobs 15 ./t[0-9]*.sh
40 [19:17:33] ./t0005-signals.sh ................................... ok 36 ms
41 [19:17:33] ./t0022-crlf-rename.sh ............................... ok 69 ms
42 [19:17:33] ./t0024-crlf-archive.sh .............................. ok 154 ms
43 [19:17:33] ./t0004-unwritable.sh ................................ ok 289 ms
44 [19:17:33] ./t0002-gitfile.sh ................................... ok 480 ms
45 ===( 102;0 25/? 6/? 5/? 16/? 1/? 4/? 2/? 1/? 3/? 1... )===
46
47prove and other harnesses come with a lot of useful options. The
48--state option in particular is very useful:
49
50 # Repeat until no more failures
51 $ prove -j 15 --state=failed,save ./t[0-9]*.sh
986aa7f1 52
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53You can give DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove on the make command (or define it
54in config.mak) to cause "make test" to run tests under prove.
55GIT_PROVE_OPTS can be used to pass additional options, e.g.
56
57 $ make DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove GIT_PROVE_OPTS='--timer --jobs 16' test
58
5099b99d 59You can also run each test individually from command line, like this:
986aa7f1 60
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61 $ sh ./t3010-ls-files-killed-modified.sh
62 ok 1 - git update-index --add to add various paths.
63 ok 2 - git ls-files -k to show killed files.
64 ok 3 - validate git ls-files -k output.
65 ok 4 - git ls-files -m to show modified files.
66 ok 5 - validate git ls-files -m output.
67 # passed all 5 test(s)
68 1..5
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69
70You can pass --verbose (or -v), --debug (or -d), and --immediate
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71(or -i) command line argument to the test, or by setting GIT_TEST_OPTS
72appropriately before running "make".
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73
74--verbose::
75 This makes the test more verbose. Specifically, the
76 command being run and their output if any are also
77 output.
78
79--debug::
80 This may help the person who is developing a new test.
81 It causes the command defined with test_debug to run.
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82 The "trash" directory (used to store all temporary data
83 during testing) is not deleted even if there are no
84 failed tests so that you can inspect its contents after
85 the test finished.
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86
87--immediate::
88 This causes the test to immediately exit upon the first
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89 failed test. Cleanup commands requested with
90 test_when_finished are not executed if the test failed,
91 in order to keep the state for inspection by the tester
92 to diagnose the bug.
986aa7f1 93
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94--long-tests::
95 This causes additional long-running tests to be run (where
96 available), for more exhaustive testing.
97
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98--valgrind=<tool>::
99 Execute all Git binaries under valgrind tool <tool> and exit
100 with status 126 on errors (just like regular tests, this will
101 only stop the test script when running under -i).
986aa7f1 102
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103 Since it makes no sense to run the tests with --valgrind and
104 not see any output, this option implies --verbose. For
105 convenience, it also implies --tee.
106
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107 <tool> defaults to 'memcheck', just like valgrind itself.
108 Other particularly useful choices include 'helgrind' and
109 'drd', but you may use any tool recognized by your valgrind
110 installation.
111
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112 As a special case, <tool> can be 'memcheck-fast', which uses
113 memcheck but disables --track-origins. Use this if you are
114 running tests in bulk, to see if there are _any_ memory
115 issues.
116
952af351 117 Note that memcheck is run with the option --leak-check=no,
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118 as the git process is short-lived and some errors are not
119 interesting. In order to run a single command under the same
120 conditions manually, you should set GIT_VALGRIND to point to
121 the 't/valgrind/' directory and use the commands under
122 't/valgrind/bin/'.
123
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124--tee::
125 In addition to printing the test output to the terminal,
126 write it to files named 't/test-results/$TEST_NAME.out'.
127 As the names depend on the tests' file names, it is safe to
128 run the tests with this option in parallel.
129
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130--with-dashes::
131 By default tests are run without dashed forms of
132 commands (like git-commit) in the PATH (it only uses
133 wrappers from ../bin-wrappers). Use this option to include
134 the build directory (..) in the PATH, which contains all
135 the dashed forms of commands. This option is currently
136 implied by other options like --valgrind and
137 GIT_TEST_INSTALLED.
138
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139--root=<directory>::
140 Create "trash" directories used to store all temporary data during
141 testing under <directory>, instead of the t/ directory.
142 Using this option with a RAM-based filesystem (such as tmpfs)
143 can massively speed up the test suite.
144
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145You can also set the GIT_TEST_INSTALLED environment variable to
146the bindir of an existing git installation to test that installation.
147You still need to have built this git sandbox, from which various
148test-* support programs, templates, and perl libraries are used.
149If your installed git is incomplete, it will silently test parts of
150your built version instead.
151
152When using GIT_TEST_INSTALLED, you can also set GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH to
153override the location of the dashed-form subcommands (what
154GIT_EXEC_PATH would be used for during normal operation).
155GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH defaults to `$GIT_TEST_INSTALLED/git --exec-path`.
156
157
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158Skipping Tests
159--------------
160
161In some environments, certain tests have no way of succeeding
162due to platform limitation, such as lack of 'unzip' program, or
163filesystem that do not allow arbitrary sequence of non-NUL bytes
164as pathnames.
165
166You should be able to say something like
167
168 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS=t9200.8 sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh
169
170and even:
171
172 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS='t[0-4]??? t91?? t9200.8' make
173
174to omit such tests. The value of the environment variable is a
175SP separated list of patterns that tells which tests to skip,
176and either can match the "t[0-9]{4}" part to skip the whole
177test, or t[0-9]{4} followed by ".$number" to say which
178particular test to skip.
179
180Note that some tests in the existing test suite rely on previous
181test item, so you cannot arbitrarily disable one and expect the
182remainder of test to check what the test originally was intended
183to check.
184
185
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186Naming Tests
187------------
188
189The test files are named as:
190
191 tNNNN-commandname-details.sh
192
193where N is a decimal digit.
194
195First digit tells the family:
196
197 0 - the absolute basics and global stuff
198 1 - the basic commands concerning database
199 2 - the basic commands concerning the working tree
200 3 - the other basic commands (e.g. ls-files)
201 4 - the diff commands
202 5 - the pull and exporting commands
203 6 - the revision tree commands (even e.g. merge-base)
8f4a9b62 204 7 - the porcelainish commands concerning the working tree
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205 8 - the porcelainish commands concerning forensics
206 9 - the git tools
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207
208Second digit tells the particular command we are testing.
209
210Third digit (optionally) tells the particular switch or group of switches
211we are testing.
212
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213If you create files under t/ directory (i.e. here) that is not
214the top-level test script, never name the file to match the above
215pattern. The Makefile here considers all such files as the
63d32945 216top-level test script and tries to run all of them. Care is
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217especially needed if you are creating a common test library
218file, similar to test-lib.sh, because such a library file may
219not be suitable for standalone execution.
220
f50c9f76 221
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222Writing Tests
223-------------
224
225The test script is written as a shell script. It should start
226with the standard "#!/bin/sh" with copyright notices, and an
227assignment to variable 'test_description', like this:
228
229 #!/bin/sh
230 #
231 # Copyright (c) 2005 Junio C Hamano
232 #
233
14cd1ff3 234 test_description='xxx test (option --frotz)
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235
236 This test registers the following structure in the cache
237 and tries to run git-ls-files with option --frotz.'
238
f50c9f76 239
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240Source 'test-lib.sh'
241--------------------
242
243After assigning test_description, the test script should source
244test-lib.sh like this:
245
246 . ./test-lib.sh
247
248This test harness library does the following things:
249
250 - If the script is invoked with command line argument --help
251 (or -h), it shows the test_description and exits.
252
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253 - Creates an empty test directory with an empty .git/objects database
254 and chdir(2) into it. This directory is 't/trash
255 directory.$test_name_without_dotsh', with t/ subject to change by
256 the --root option documented above.
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257
258 - Defines standard test helper functions for your scripts to
259 use. These functions are designed to make all scripts behave
260 consistently when command line arguments --verbose (or -v),
261 --debug (or -d), and --immediate (or -i) is given.
262
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263Do's, don'ts & things to keep in mind
264-------------------------------------
265
6fd45295 266Here are a few examples of things you probably should and shouldn't do
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267when writing tests.
268
269Do:
270
6fd45295 271 - Put all code inside test_expect_success and other assertions.
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272
273 Even code that isn't a test per se, but merely some setup code
6fd45295 274 should be inside a test assertion.
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275
276 - Chain your test assertions
277
278 Write test code like this:
279
280 git merge foo &&
281 git push bar &&
282 test ...
283
284 Instead of:
285
286 git merge hla
287 git push gh
288 test ...
289
290 That way all of the commands in your tests will succeed or fail. If
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291 you must ignore the return value of something, consider using a
292 helper function (e.g. use sane_unset instead of unset, in order
293 to avoid unportable return value for unsetting a variable that was
294 already unset), or prepending the command with test_might_fail or
295 test_must_fail.
20873f45 296
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297 - Check the test coverage for your tests. See the "Test coverage"
298 below.
299
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300 Don't blindly follow test coverage metrics; if a new function you added
301 doesn't have any coverage, then you're probably doing something wrong,
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302 but having 100% coverage doesn't necessarily mean that you tested
303 everything.
304
305 Tests that are likely to smoke out future regressions are better
306 than tests that just inflate the coverage metrics.
307
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308 - When a test checks for an absolute path that a git command generated,
309 construct the expected value using $(pwd) rather than $PWD,
310 $TEST_DIRECTORY, or $TRASH_DIRECTORY. It makes a difference on
311 Windows, where the shell (MSYS bash) mangles absolute path names.
312 For details, see the commit message of 4114156ae9.
313
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314Don't:
315
316 - exit() within a <script> part.
317
318 The harness will catch this as a programming error of the test.
319 Use test_done instead if you need to stop the tests early (see
320 "Skipping tests" below).
321
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322 - use '! git cmd' when you want to make sure the git command exits
323 with failure in a controlled way by calling "die()". Instead,
324 use 'test_must_fail git cmd'. This will signal a failure if git
325 dies in an unexpected way (e.g. segfault).
326
327 - use perl without spelling it as "$PERL_PATH". This is to help our
328 friends on Windows where the platform Perl often adds CR before
329 the end of line, and they bundle Git with a version of Perl that
330 does not do so, whose path is specified with $PERL_PATH.
331
332 - use sh without spelling it as "$SHELL_PATH", when the script can
333 be misinterpreted by broken platform shell (e.g. Solaris).
334
335 - chdir around in tests. It is not sufficient to chdir to
336 somewhere and then chdir back to the original location later in
337 the test, as any intermediate step can fail and abort the test,
338 causing the next test to start in an unexpected directory. Do so
339 inside a subshell if necessary.
340
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341 - Break the TAP output
342
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343 The raw output from your test may be interpreted by a TAP harness. TAP
344 harnesses will ignore everything they don't know about, but don't step
345 on their toes in these areas:
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346
347 - Don't print lines like "$x..$y" where $x and $y are integers.
348
349 - Don't print lines that begin with "ok" or "not ok".
350
6fd45295 351 TAP harnesses expect a line that begins with either "ok" and "not
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352 ok" to signal a test passed or failed (and our harness already
353 produces such lines), so your script shouldn't emit such lines to
354 their output.
355
356 You can glean some further possible issues from the TAP grammar
357 (see http://search.cpan.org/perldoc?TAP::Parser::Grammar#TAP_Grammar)
358 but the best indication is to just run the tests with prove(1),
359 it'll complain if anything is amiss.
360
361Keep in mind:
362
6fd45295 363 - Inside <script> part, the standard output and standard error
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364 streams are discarded, and the test harness only reports "ok" or
365 "not ok" to the end user running the tests. Under --verbose, they
366 are shown to help debugging the tests.
367
368
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369Skipping tests
370--------------
371
681186ae 372If you need to skip tests you should do so by using the three-arg form
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373of the test_* functions (see the "Test harness library" section
374below), e.g.:
375
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376 test_expect_success PERL 'I need Perl' '
377 "$PERL_PATH" -e "hlagh() if unf_unf()"
378 '
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379
380The advantage of skipping tests like this is that platforms that don't
381have the PERL and other optional dependencies get an indication of how
382many tests they're missing.
383
384If the test code is too hairy for that (i.e. does a lot of setup work
385outside test assertions) you can also skip all remaining tests by
386setting skip_all and immediately call test_done:
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387
388 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
389 then
390 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
391 test_done
392 fi
14cd1ff3 393
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394The string you give to skip_all will be used as an explanation for why
395the test was skipped.
396
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397End with test_done
398------------------
399
400Your script will be a sequence of tests, using helper functions
401from the test harness library. At the end of the script, call
402'test_done'.
403
404
405Test harness library
406--------------------
407
408There are a handful helper functions defined in the test harness
409library for your script to use.
410
9a897893 411 - test_expect_success [<prereq>] <message> <script>
986aa7f1 412
72942a61 413 Usually takes two strings as parameters, and evaluates the
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414 <script>. If it yields success, test is considered
415 successful. <message> should state what it is testing.
416
417 Example:
418
419 test_expect_success \
420 'git-write-tree should be able to write an empty tree.' \
421 'tree=$(git-write-tree)'
422
9a897893 423 If you supply three parameters the first will be taken to be a
72942a61 424 prerequisite; see the test_set_prereq and test_have_prereq
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425 documentation below:
426
427 test_expect_success TTY 'git --paginate rev-list uses a pager' \
428 ' ... '
429
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430 You can also supply a comma-separated list of prerequisites, in the
431 rare case where your test depends on more than one:
432
433 test_expect_success PERL,PYTHON 'yo dawg' \
434 ' test $(perl -E 'print eval "1 +" . qx[python -c "print 2"]') == "4" '
435
9a897893 436 - test_expect_failure [<prereq>] <message> <script>
986aa7f1 437
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438 This is NOT the opposite of test_expect_success, but is used
439 to mark a test that demonstrates a known breakage. Unlike
440 the usual test_expect_success tests, which say "ok" on
441 success and "FAIL" on failure, this will say "FIXED" on
442 success and "still broken" on failure. Failures from these
443 tests won't cause -i (immediate) to stop.
986aa7f1 444
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445 Like test_expect_success this function can optionally use a three
446 argument invocation with a prerequisite as the first argument.
447
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448 - test_debug <script>
449
450 This takes a single argument, <script>, and evaluates it only
451 when the test script is started with --debug command line
452 argument. This is primarily meant for use during the
453 development of a new test script.
454
455 - test_done
456
457 Your test script must have test_done at the end. Its purpose
458 is to summarize successes and failures in the test script and
459 exit with an appropriate error code.
460
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461 - test_tick
462
463 Make commit and tag names consistent by setting the author and
63d32945 464 committer times to defined state. Subsequent calls will
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465 advance the times by a fixed amount.
466
467 - test_commit <message> [<filename> [<contents>]]
468
469 Creates a commit with the given message, committing the given
470 file with the given contents (default for both is to reuse the
471 message string), and adds a tag (again reusing the message
472 string as name). Calls test_tick to make the SHA-1s
473 reproducible.
474
475 - test_merge <message> <commit-or-tag>
476
477 Merges the given rev using the given message. Like test_commit,
478 creates a tag and calls test_tick before committing.
986aa7f1 479
72942a61 480 - test_set_prereq <prereq>
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481
482 Set a test prerequisite to be used later with test_have_prereq. The
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483 test-lib will set some prerequisites for you, see the
484 "Prerequisites" section below for a full list of these.
485
486 Others you can set yourself and use later with either
487 test_have_prereq directly, or the three argument invocation of
488 test_expect_success and test_expect_failure.
9a897893 489
72942a61 490 - test_have_prereq <prereq>
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491
492 Check if we have a prerequisite previously set with
493 test_set_prereq. The most common use of this directly is to skip
494 all the tests if we don't have some essential prerequisite:
495
496 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
497 then
498 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
499 test_done
500 fi
501
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502 - test_external [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
503
504 Execute a <script> with an <external> interpreter (like perl). This
505 was added for tests like t9700-perl-git.sh which do most of their
506 work in an external test script.
507
508 test_external \
509 'GitwebCache::*FileCache*' \
510 "$PERL_PATH" "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9503/test_cache_interface.pl
511
512 If the test is outputting its own TAP you should set the
513 test_external_has_tap variable somewhere before calling the first
514 test_external* function. See t9700-perl-git.sh for an example.
515
516 # The external test will outputs its own plan
517 test_external_has_tap=1
518
519 - test_external_without_stderr [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
520
521 Like test_external but fail if there's any output on stderr,
522 instead of checking the exit code.
523
524 test_external_without_stderr \
525 'Perl API' \
526 "$PERL_PATH" "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9700/test.pl
527
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528 - test_expect_code <exit-code> <command>
529
530 Run a command and ensure that it exits with the given exit code.
531 For example:
532
533 test_expect_success 'Merge with d/f conflicts' '
534 test_expect_code 1 git merge "merge msg" B master
535 '
536
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537 - test_must_fail <git-command>
538
539 Run a git command and ensure it fails in a controlled way. Use
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540 this instead of "! <git-command>". When git-command dies due to a
541 segfault, test_must_fail diagnoses it as an error; "! <git-command>"
542 treats it as just another expected failure, which would let such a
543 bug go unnoticed.
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544
545 - test_might_fail <git-command>
546
547 Similar to test_must_fail, but tolerate success, too. Use this
548 instead of "<git-command> || :" to catch failures due to segv.
549
550 - test_cmp <expected> <actual>
551
552 Check whether the content of the <actual> file matches the
553 <expected> file. This behaves like "cmp" but produces more
554 helpful output when the test is run with "-v" option.
555
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556 - test_line_count (= | -lt | -ge | ...) <length> <file>
557
558 Check whether a file has the length it is expected to.
559
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560 - test_path_is_file <path> [<diagnosis>]
561 test_path_is_dir <path> [<diagnosis>]
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562 test_path_is_missing <path> [<diagnosis>]
563
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564 Check if the named path is a file, if the named path is a
565 directory, or if the named path does not exist, respectively,
566 and fail otherwise, showing the <diagnosis> text.
2caf20c5 567
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568 - test_when_finished <script>
569
570 Prepend <script> to a list of commands to run to clean up
571 at the end of the current test. If some clean-up command
572 fails, the test will not pass.
573
574 Example:
575
576 test_expect_success 'branch pointing to non-commit' '
577 git rev-parse HEAD^{tree} >.git/refs/heads/invalid &&
578 test_when_finished "git update-ref -d refs/heads/invalid" &&
579 ...
580 '
581
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582 - test_pause
583
584 This command is useful for writing and debugging tests and must be
585 removed before submitting. It halts the execution of the test and
586 spawns a shell in the trash directory. Exit the shell to continue
587 the test. Example:
588
589 test_expect_success 'test' '
590 git do-something >actual &&
591 test_pause &&
592 test_cmp expected actual
593 '
594
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595Prerequisites
596-------------
597
598These are the prerequisites that the test library predefines with
599test_have_prereq.
600
601See the prereq argument to the test_* functions in the "Test harness
602library" section above and the "test_have_prereq" function for how to
603use these, and "test_set_prereq" for how to define your own.
604
605 - PERL & PYTHON
606
607 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PERL=YesPlease or
608 NO_PYTHON=YesPlease. Wrap any tests that need Perl or Python in
609 these.
610
611 - POSIXPERM
612
613 The filesystem supports POSIX style permission bits.
614
615 - BSLASHPSPEC
616
617 Backslashes in pathspec are not directory separators. This is not
618 set on Windows. See 6fd1106a for details.
619
620 - EXECKEEPSPID
621
622 The process retains the same pid across exec(2). See fb9a2bea for
623 details.
624
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625 - PIPE
626
627 The filesystem we're on supports creation of FIFOs (named pipes)
628 via mkfifo(1).
629
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630 - SYMLINKS
631
632 The filesystem we're on supports symbolic links. E.g. a FAT
633 filesystem doesn't support these. See 704a3143 for details.
2fac6a4b 634
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635 - SANITY
636
637 Test is not run by root user, and an attempt to write to an
638 unwritable file is expected to fail correctly.
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640 - LIBPCRE
641
642 Git was compiled with USE_LIBPCRE=YesPlease. Wrap any tests
643 that use git-grep --perl-regexp or git-grep -P in these.
644
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645 - CASE_INSENSITIVE_FS
646
647 Test is run on a case insensitive file system.
648
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649 - UTF8_NFD_TO_NFC
650
651 Test is run on a filesystem which converts decomposed utf-8 (nfd)
652 to precomposed utf-8 (nfc).
653
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654Tips for Writing Tests
655----------------------
656
657As with any programming projects, existing programs are the best
658source of the information. However, do _not_ emulate
659t0000-basic.sh when writing your tests. The test is special in
660that it tries to validate the very core of GIT. For example, it
661knows that there will be 256 subdirectories under .git/objects/,
662and it knows that the object ID of an empty tree is a certain
66340-byte string. This is deliberately done so in t0000-basic.sh
664because the things the very basic core test tries to achieve is
665to serve as a basis for people who are changing the GIT internal
666drastically. For these people, after making certain changes,
667not seeing failures from the basic test _is_ a failure. And
668such drastic changes to the core GIT that even changes these
669otherwise supposedly stable object IDs should be accompanied by
670an update to t0000-basic.sh.
671
672However, other tests that simply rely on basic parts of the core
673GIT working properly should not have that level of intimate
674knowledge of the core GIT internals. If all the test scripts
675hardcoded the object IDs like t0000-basic.sh does, that defeats
676the purpose of t0000-basic.sh, which is to isolate that level of
677validation in one place. Your test also ends up needing
678updating when such a change to the internal happens, so do _not_
679do it and leave the low level of validation to t0000-basic.sh.
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681Test coverage
682-------------
683
684You can use the coverage tests to find code paths that are not being
685used or properly exercised yet.
686
687To do that, run the coverage target at the top-level (not in the t/
688directory):
689
690 make coverage
691
692That'll compile Git with GCC's coverage arguments, and generate a test
693report with gcov after the tests finish. Running the coverage tests
694can take a while, since running the tests in parallel is incompatible
695with GCC's coverage mode.
696
697After the tests have run you can generate a list of untested
698functions:
699
700 make coverage-untested-functions
701
702You can also generate a detailed per-file HTML report using the
703Devel::Cover module. To install it do:
704
705 # On Debian or Ubuntu:
706 sudo aptitude install libdevel-cover-perl
707
708 # From the CPAN with cpanminus
709 curl -L http://cpanmin.us | perl - --sudo --self-upgrade
710 cpanm --sudo Devel::Cover
711
712Then, at the top-level:
713
714 make cover_db_html
715
716That'll generate a detailed cover report in the "cover_db_html"
717directory, which you can then copy to a webserver, or inspect locally
718in a browser.