push: use remote.$name.push as a refmap
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
c2aba155 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
6ddba5e2 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
28f5d176 14 [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
90d32d1f 15 [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
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16
17DESCRIPTION
18-----------
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19
20Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
21necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 22
cc55aaec 23You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 24every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 25documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 26
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27When the command line does not specify where to push with the
28`<repository>` argument, `branch.*.remote` configuration for the
29current branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the
30configuration is missing, it defaults to 'origin'.
31
32When the command line does not specify what to push with `<refspec>...`
33arguments or `--all`, `--mirror`, `--tags` options, the command finds
34the default `<refspec>` by consulting `remote.*.push` configuration,
35and if it is not found, honors `push.default` configuration to decide
36what to push (See gitlink:git-config[1] for the meaning of `push.default`).
37
7fc9d69f 38
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39OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
40------------------
3598a308 41<repository>::
85a97d4e 42 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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43 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
44 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
45 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 46
2c9693bd 47<refspec>...::
cfe1348d 48 Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
7a0d911f 49 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
cfe1348d 50 `+`, followed by the source object <src>, followed
7a0d911f 51 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
3598a308 52+
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53The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
54it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
9d83e382 55`HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
3598a308 56+
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57The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
58push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
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59be named.
60If `git push [<repository>]` without any `<refspec>` argument is set to
61update some ref at the destination with `<src>` with
62`remote.<repository>.push` configuration variable, `:<dst>` part can
63be omitted---such a push will update a ref that `<src>` normally updates
64without any `<refspec>` on the command line. Otherwise, missing
65`:<dst>` means to update the same ref as the `<src>`.
3598a308 66+
149f6ddf 67The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
dbfeddb1 68on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
40eff179 69a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward
2de9b711 70<dst>. By having the optional leading `+`, you can tell Git to update
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71the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by default (e.g., it is not a
72fast-forward.) This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
149f6ddf 73EXAMPLES below for details.
3598a308 74+
80391846 75`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
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76+
77Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
78the remote repository.
a83619d6 79+
6cf378f0 80The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
2de9b711 81directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
89edd5a9 82the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
cfe1348d 83already exists on the remote side.
7fc9d69f 84
3240240f 85--all::
cc55aaec 86 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 87 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 88
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89--prune::
90 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
91 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
92 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
6cf378f0 93 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/*` would
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94 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
95 doesn't exist.
96
3240240f 97--mirror::
ff206748 98 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 99 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
73f03627 100 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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101 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
102 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
103 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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104 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
105 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
106 set.
ff206748 107
9f67fee2 108-n::
3240240f 109--dry-run::
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110 Do everything except actually send the updates.
111
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112--porcelain::
113 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
114 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
115 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
116
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117--delete::
118 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
119 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
120
3240240f 121--tags::
cc1b8d8b 122 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
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123 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
124 line.
125
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126--follow-tags::
127 Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option,
128 and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
a8a5406a 129 from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are
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130 reachable from the refs being pushed.
131
3240240f 132--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 133--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 134 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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135 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
136 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
137 a directory on the default $PATH.
138
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139--[no-]force-with-lease::
140--force-with-lease=<refname>::
141--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>::
142 Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is
143 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
144+
145This option bypasses the check, but instead requires that the
146current value of the ref to be the expected value. "git push"
147fails otherwise.
148+
149Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
150You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
151replace the history you originally published with the rebased history.
152If somebody else built on top of your original history while you are
153rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may advance with her
154commit, and blindly pushing with `--force` will lose her work.
155+
156This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
157updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
158still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
159other people did anything to the ref (it is like taking a "lease" on
160the ref without explicitly locking it, and you update the ref while
161making sure that your earlier "lease" is still valid).
162+
163`--force-with-lease` alone, without specifying the details, will protect
164all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring their
165current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we have
166for them, unless specified with a `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
167option that explicitly states what the expected value is.
168+
169`--force-with-lease=<refname>`, without specifying the expected value, will
170protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be updated, by
171requiring its current value to be the same as the remote-tracking
172branch we have for it.
173+
174`--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>` will protect the named ref (alone),
175if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be
176the same as the specified value <expect> (which is allowed to be
177different from the remote-tracking branch we have for the refname,
178or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch when
179this form is used).
180+
181Note that all forms other than `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
182that specifies the expected current value of the ref explicitly are
183still experimental and their semantics may change as we gain experience
184with this feature.
185+
186"--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the
187command line.
188
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189-f::
190--force::
f0fff36e 191 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 192 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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193 Also, when `--force-with-lease` option is used, the command refuses
194 to update a remote ref whose current value does not match
195 what is expected.
196+
197This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote repository
198to lose commits; use it with care.
199+
200Note that `--force` applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
201using it with `push.default` set to `matching` or with multiple push
202destinations configured with `remote.*.push` may overwrite refs
203other than the current branch (including local refs that are
204strictly behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only
205one branch, use a `+` in front of the refspec to push (e.g `git push
206origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
207`<refspec>...` section above for details.
7fc9d69f 208
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209--repo=<repository>::
210 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
0b444cdb 211 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
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212 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
213 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
214 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
215 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
216 the difference between these two commands
217+
218--------------------------
219git push public #1
220git push --repo=public #2
221--------------------------
222+
223is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
224only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
0b444cdb 225useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
dc36f265 226
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227-u::
228--set-upstream::
229 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
230 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
231 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
232 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
233
0460ed2c 234--[no-]thin::
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235 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
236 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
237 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
238 \--thin.
dc36f265 239
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240-q::
241--quiet::
242 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
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243 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
244 error stream.
989119d9 245
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246-v::
247--verbose::
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248 Run verbosely.
249
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250--progress::
251 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
252 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
253 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
254 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
989119d9 255
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256--recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
257 Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
a6d3bde5 258 pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch. If 'check' is
2de9b711 259 used Git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
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260 the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
261 of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
262 aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
263 all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will
264 be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
265 revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
d2b17b32 266
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267--[no-]verify::
268 Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]). The
269 default is \--verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the
270 push. With \--no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
271
d2b17b32 272
37ba0561 273include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 274
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275OUTPUT
276------
277
278The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
2de9b711 279section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
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280locally or via ssh).
281
282The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
283representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
284
285-------------------------------
286 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
287-------------------------------
288
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289If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
290
291-------------------------------
292 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
293-------------------------------
294
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295The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
296option is used.
297
066a5268 298flag::
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299 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
300(space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
6cf378f0 301`+`;; for a successful forced update;
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302`-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
303`*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
304`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
305`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
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306
307summary::
308 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
309 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
310 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
6cf378f0 311 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
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312+
313For a failed update, more details are given:
314+
315--
316rejected::
317 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
318 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
319
320remote rejected::
321 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
322 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
323 of the following safety options in effect:
324 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
325 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
326 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
327 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
328
329remote failure::
330 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
331 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
332 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
333--
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334
335from::
336 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
337 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
338 name of the local ref is omitted.
339
340to::
341 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
342 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
343
344reason::
345 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
346 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
347 failure is described.
bb9fca80 348
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349Note about fast-forwards
350------------------------
351
352When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
353point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
354fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
355
356In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
357commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
358builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
359
360In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
361suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
362a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
363leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
364
365----------------
366
367 B
368 /
369 ---X---A
370
371----------------
372
373Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
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374back to the original repository from which you two obtained the original
375commit X.
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376
377The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
378commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
379
380But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
381now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
382so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
383will now start building on top of B.
384
385The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
386to prevent such loss of history.
387
388If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
389the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
390history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
391by both parties, and push the result back.
392
393You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
394the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
395and B.
396
397----------------
398
399 B---C
400 / /
401 ---X---A
402
403----------------
404
405Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
406push will be accepted.
407
408Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
409with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
410create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
411A.
412
413----------------
414
415 B D
416 / /
417 ---X---A
418
419----------------
420
421Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
422accepted.
423
424There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
425rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
426pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
427A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
428commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
429forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
430you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
431(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
432overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
433a case where you do mean to lose history.
434
435
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436Examples
437--------
438
5d2fc913 439`git push`::
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440 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
441 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
442 configured for the current branch).
443
5d2fc913 444`git push origin`::
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445 Without additional configuration, works like
446 `git push origin :`.
447+
448The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
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449configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
450configuration variable.
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451+
452For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
453use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
454the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
455`git push origin`.
456
5d2fc913 457`git push origin :`::
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458 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
459 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
460 description of "matching" branches.
461
5d2fc913 462`git push origin master`::
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463 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
464 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
465 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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466 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
467 created.
bb9fca80 468
5d2fc913 469`git push origin HEAD`::
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470 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
471 remote.
bb9fca80 472
b48990e7 473`git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
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474 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
475 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
b48990e7 476 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `mothership` repository;
2c9693bd 477 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
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478+
479This is to emulate `git fetch` run on the `mothership` using `git
480push` that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate
481the work done on `satellite`, and is often necessary when you can
482only make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
483mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite
484because the latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).
485+
486After running this `git push` on the `satellite` machine, you would
487ssh into the `mothership` and run `git merge` there to complete the
488emulation of `git pull` that were run on `mothership` to pull changes
489made on `satellite`.
bb9fca80 490
5d2fc913 491`git push origin HEAD:master`::
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492 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
493 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
494 branch without thinking about its local name.
495
5d2fc913 496`git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
4e560158 497 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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498 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
499 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
500 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
501 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 502
5d2fc913 503`git push origin :experimental`::
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504 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
505 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
506
6cf378f0 507`git push origin +dev:master`::
149f6ddf 508 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
a75d7b54 509 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
149f6ddf 510 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
a75d7b54 511 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
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512+
513----
514 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
515 \
516 X---Y---Z dev
517----
518+
519The above command would change the origin repository to
520+
521----
522 A---B (unnamed branch)
523 /
524 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
525----
526+
527Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
528and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
529a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
530
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531GIT
532---
9e1f0a85 533Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite