config: add new index.threads config setting
[git/git.git] / t / README
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1Core GIT Tests
2==============
3
4This directory holds many test scripts for core GIT tools. The
5first part of this short document describes how to run the tests
6and read their output.
7
8When fixing the tools or adding enhancements, you are strongly
9encouraged to add tests in this directory to cover what you are
10trying to fix or enhance. The later part of this short document
11describes how your test scripts should be organized.
12
13
14Running Tests
15-------------
16
17The easiest way to run tests is to say "make". This runs all
18the tests.
19
20 *** t0000-basic.sh ***
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21 ok 1 - .git/objects should be empty after git init in an empty repo.
22 ok 2 - .git/objects should have 3 subdirectories.
23 ok 3 - success is reported like this
986aa7f1 24 ...
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25 ok 43 - very long name in the index handled sanely
26 # fixed 1 known breakage(s)
27 # still have 1 known breakage(s)
28 # passed all remaining 42 test(s)
29 1..43
30 *** t0001-init.sh ***
31 ok 1 - plain
32 ok 2 - plain with GIT_WORK_TREE
33 ok 3 - plain bare
34
35Since the tests all output TAP (see http://testanything.org) they can
85b0b34e 36be run with any TAP harness. Here's an example of parallel testing
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37powered by a recent version of prove(1):
38
39 $ prove --timer --jobs 15 ./t[0-9]*.sh
40 [19:17:33] ./t0005-signals.sh ................................... ok 36 ms
41 [19:17:33] ./t0022-crlf-rename.sh ............................... ok 69 ms
42 [19:17:33] ./t0024-crlf-archive.sh .............................. ok 154 ms
43 [19:17:33] ./t0004-unwritable.sh ................................ ok 289 ms
44 [19:17:33] ./t0002-gitfile.sh ................................... ok 480 ms
45 ===( 102;0 25/? 6/? 5/? 16/? 1/? 4/? 2/? 1/? 3/? 1... )===
46
47prove and other harnesses come with a lot of useful options. The
48--state option in particular is very useful:
49
50 # Repeat until no more failures
51 $ prove -j 15 --state=failed,save ./t[0-9]*.sh
986aa7f1 52
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53You can give DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove on the make command (or define it
54in config.mak) to cause "make test" to run tests under prove.
55GIT_PROVE_OPTS can be used to pass additional options, e.g.
56
57 $ make DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove GIT_PROVE_OPTS='--timer --jobs 16' test
58
5099b99d 59You can also run each test individually from command line, like this:
986aa7f1 60
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61 $ sh ./t3010-ls-files-killed-modified.sh
62 ok 1 - git update-index --add to add various paths.
63 ok 2 - git ls-files -k to show killed files.
64 ok 3 - validate git ls-files -k output.
65 ok 4 - git ls-files -m to show modified files.
66 ok 5 - validate git ls-files -m output.
67 # passed all 5 test(s)
68 1..5
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69
70You can pass --verbose (or -v), --debug (or -d), and --immediate
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71(or -i) command line argument to the test, or by setting GIT_TEST_OPTS
72appropriately before running "make".
986aa7f1 73
5e3b4fce 74-v::
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75--verbose::
76 This makes the test more verbose. Specifically, the
77 command being run and their output if any are also
78 output.
79
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80--verbose-only=<pattern>::
81 Like --verbose, but the effect is limited to tests with
82 numbers matching <pattern>. The number matched against is
83 simply the running count of the test within the file.
84
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85-x::
86 Turn on shell tracing (i.e., `set -x`) during the tests
94201a2b 87 themselves. Implies `--verbose`.
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88 Ignored in test scripts that set the variable 'test_untraceable'
89 to a non-empty value, unless it's run with a Bash version
90 supporting BASH_XTRACEFD, i.e. v4.1 or later.
a136f6d8 91
5e3b4fce 92-d::
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93--debug::
94 This may help the person who is developing a new test.
95 It causes the command defined with test_debug to run.
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96 The "trash" directory (used to store all temporary data
97 during testing) is not deleted even if there are no
98 failed tests so that you can inspect its contents after
99 the test finished.
986aa7f1 100
5e3b4fce 101-i::
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102--immediate::
103 This causes the test to immediately exit upon the first
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104 failed test. Cleanup commands requested with
105 test_when_finished are not executed if the test failed,
106 in order to keep the state for inspection by the tester
107 to diagnose the bug.
986aa7f1 108
5e3b4fce 109-l::
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110--long-tests::
111 This causes additional long-running tests to be run (where
112 available), for more exhaustive testing.
113
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114-r::
115--run=<test-selector>::
116 Run only the subset of tests indicated by
117 <test-selector>. See section "Skipping Tests" below for
118 <test-selector> syntax.
119
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120--valgrind=<tool>::
121 Execute all Git binaries under valgrind tool <tool> and exit
122 with status 126 on errors (just like regular tests, this will
123 only stop the test script when running under -i).
986aa7f1 124
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125 Since it makes no sense to run the tests with --valgrind and
126 not see any output, this option implies --verbose. For
127 convenience, it also implies --tee.
128
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129 <tool> defaults to 'memcheck', just like valgrind itself.
130 Other particularly useful choices include 'helgrind' and
131 'drd', but you may use any tool recognized by your valgrind
132 installation.
133
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134 As a special case, <tool> can be 'memcheck-fast', which uses
135 memcheck but disables --track-origins. Use this if you are
136 running tests in bulk, to see if there are _any_ memory
137 issues.
138
952af351 139 Note that memcheck is run with the option --leak-check=no,
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140 as the git process is short-lived and some errors are not
141 interesting. In order to run a single command under the same
142 conditions manually, you should set GIT_VALGRIND to point to
143 the 't/valgrind/' directory and use the commands under
144 't/valgrind/bin/'.
145
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146--valgrind-only=<pattern>::
147 Like --valgrind, but the effect is limited to tests with
148 numbers matching <pattern>. The number matched against is
149 simply the running count of the test within the file.
150
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151--tee::
152 In addition to printing the test output to the terminal,
153 write it to files named 't/test-results/$TEST_NAME.out'.
154 As the names depend on the tests' file names, it is safe to
155 run the tests with this option in parallel.
156
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157--verbose-log::
158 Write verbose output to the same logfile as `--tee`, but do
159 _not_ write it to stdout. Unlike `--tee --verbose`, this option
160 is safe to use when stdout is being consumed by a TAP parser
161 like `prove`. Implies `--tee` and `--verbose`.
162
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163--with-dashes::
164 By default tests are run without dashed forms of
165 commands (like git-commit) in the PATH (it only uses
166 wrappers from ../bin-wrappers). Use this option to include
167 the build directory (..) in the PATH, which contains all
168 the dashed forms of commands. This option is currently
169 implied by other options like --valgrind and
170 GIT_TEST_INSTALLED.
171
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172--root=<directory>::
173 Create "trash" directories used to store all temporary data during
174 testing under <directory>, instead of the t/ directory.
175 Using this option with a RAM-based filesystem (such as tmpfs)
176 can massively speed up the test suite.
177
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178--chain-lint::
179--no-chain-lint::
180 If --chain-lint is enabled, the test harness will check each
181 test to make sure that it properly "&&-chains" all commands (so
182 that a failure in the middle does not go unnoticed by the final
183 exit code of the test). This check is performed in addition to
184 running the tests themselves. You may also enable or disable
185 this feature by setting the GIT_TEST_CHAIN_LINT environment
186 variable to "1" or "0", respectively.
187
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188You can also set the GIT_TEST_INSTALLED environment variable to
189the bindir of an existing git installation to test that installation.
190You still need to have built this git sandbox, from which various
191test-* support programs, templates, and perl libraries are used.
192If your installed git is incomplete, it will silently test parts of
193your built version instead.
194
195When using GIT_TEST_INSTALLED, you can also set GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH to
196override the location of the dashed-form subcommands (what
197GIT_EXEC_PATH would be used for during normal operation).
198GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH defaults to `$GIT_TEST_INSTALLED/git --exec-path`.
199
200
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201Skipping Tests
202--------------
203
204In some environments, certain tests have no way of succeeding
205due to platform limitation, such as lack of 'unzip' program, or
206filesystem that do not allow arbitrary sequence of non-NUL bytes
207as pathnames.
208
209You should be able to say something like
210
211 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS=t9200.8 sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh
212
213and even:
214
215 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS='t[0-4]??? t91?? t9200.8' make
216
217to omit such tests. The value of the environment variable is a
218SP separated list of patterns that tells which tests to skip,
219and either can match the "t[0-9]{4}" part to skip the whole
220test, or t[0-9]{4} followed by ".$number" to say which
221particular test to skip.
222
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223For an individual test suite --run could be used to specify that
224only some tests should be run or that some tests should be
225excluded from a run.
226
227The argument for --run is a list of individual test numbers or
228ranges with an optional negation prefix that define what tests in
229a test suite to include in the run. A range is two numbers
230separated with a dash and matches a range of tests with both ends
231been included. You may omit the first or the second number to
232mean "from the first test" or "up to the very last test"
233respectively.
234
235Optional prefix of '!' means that the test or a range of tests
236should be excluded from the run.
237
238If --run starts with an unprefixed number or range the initial
239set of tests to run is empty. If the first item starts with '!'
240all the tests are added to the initial set. After initial set is
241determined every test number or range is added or excluded from
242the set one by one, from left to right.
243
244Individual numbers or ranges could be separated either by a space
245or a comma.
246
247For example, to run only tests up to a specific test (21), one
248could do this:
249
250 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1-21'
251
252or this:
253
254 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='-21'
255
256Common case is to run several setup tests (1, 2, 3) and then a
257specific test (21) that relies on that setup:
258
259 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1 2 3 21'
260
261or:
262
263 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run=1,2,3,21
264
265or:
266
267 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='-3 21'
268
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269As noted above, the test set is built by going through the items
270from left to right, so this:
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271
272 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1-4 !3'
273
01e4be6c 274will run tests 1, 2, and 4. Items that come later have higher
2e3a16b2 275precedence. It means that this:
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276
277 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='!3 1-4'
278
279would just run tests from 1 to 4, including 3.
280
281You may use negation with ranges. The following will run all
282test in the test suite except from 7 up to 11:
283
284 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='!7-11'
285
286Some tests in a test suite rely on the previous tests performing
287certain actions, specifically some tests are designated as
288"setup" test, so you cannot _arbitrarily_ disable one test and
289expect the rest to function correctly.
290
291--run is mostly useful when you want to focus on a specific test
292and know what setup is needed for it. Or when you want to run
293everything up to a certain test.
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294
295
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296Running tests with special setups
297---------------------------------
298
299The whole test suite could be run to test some special features
300that cannot be easily covered by a few specific test cases. These
301could be enabled by running the test suite with correct GIT_TEST_
302environment set.
303
304GIT_TEST_SPLIT_INDEX=<boolean> forces split-index mode on the whole
305test suite. Accept any boolean values that are accepted by git-config.
306
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307GIT_TEST_FULL_IN_PACK_ARRAY=<boolean> exercises the uncommon
308pack-objects code path where there are more than 1024 packs even if
309the actual number of packs in repository is below this limit. Accept
310any boolean values that are accepted by git-config.
311
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312GIT_TEST_OE_SIZE=<n> exercises the uncommon pack-objects code path
313where we do not cache object size in memory and read it from existing
314packs on demand. This normally only happens when the object size is
315over 2GB. This variable forces the code path on any object larger than
316<n> bytes.
317
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318GIT_TEST_OE_DELTA_SIZE=<n> exercises the uncomon pack-objects code
319path where deltas larger than this limit require extra memory
320allocation for bookkeeping.
321
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322GIT_TEST_VALIDATE_INDEX_CACHE_ENTRIES=<boolean> checks that cache-tree
323records are valid when the index is written out or after a merge. This
324is mostly to catch missing invalidation. Default is true.
325
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326GIT_TEST_COMMIT_GRAPH=<boolean>, when true, forces the commit-graph to
327be written after every 'git commit' command, and overrides the
328'core.commitGraph' setting to true.
329
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330GIT_TEST_INDEX_THREADS=<n> enables exercising the multi-threaded loading
331of the index for the whole test suite by bypassing the default number of
332cache entries and thread minimums. Setting this to 1 will make the
333index loading single threaded.
334
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335Naming Tests
336------------
337
338The test files are named as:
339
340 tNNNN-commandname-details.sh
341
342where N is a decimal digit.
343
344First digit tells the family:
345
346 0 - the absolute basics and global stuff
347 1 - the basic commands concerning database
348 2 - the basic commands concerning the working tree
349 3 - the other basic commands (e.g. ls-files)
350 4 - the diff commands
351 5 - the pull and exporting commands
352 6 - the revision tree commands (even e.g. merge-base)
8f4a9b62 353 7 - the porcelainish commands concerning the working tree
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354 8 - the porcelainish commands concerning forensics
355 9 - the git tools
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356
357Second digit tells the particular command we are testing.
358
359Third digit (optionally) tells the particular switch or group of switches
360we are testing.
361
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362If you create files under t/ directory (i.e. here) that is not
363the top-level test script, never name the file to match the above
364pattern. The Makefile here considers all such files as the
63d32945 365top-level test script and tries to run all of them. Care is
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366especially needed if you are creating a common test library
367file, similar to test-lib.sh, because such a library file may
368not be suitable for standalone execution.
369
f50c9f76 370
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371Writing Tests
372-------------
373
374The test script is written as a shell script. It should start
51b7a525 375with the standard "#!/bin/sh", and an
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376assignment to variable 'test_description', like this:
377
378 #!/bin/sh
986aa7f1 379
14cd1ff3 380 test_description='xxx test (option --frotz)
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381
382 This test registers the following structure in the cache
383 and tries to run git-ls-files with option --frotz.'
384
f50c9f76 385
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386Source 'test-lib.sh'
387--------------------
388
389After assigning test_description, the test script should source
390test-lib.sh like this:
391
392 . ./test-lib.sh
393
394This test harness library does the following things:
395
396 - If the script is invoked with command line argument --help
397 (or -h), it shows the test_description and exits.
398
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399 - Creates an empty test directory with an empty .git/objects database
400 and chdir(2) into it. This directory is 't/trash
401 directory.$test_name_without_dotsh', with t/ subject to change by
402 the --root option documented above.
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403
404 - Defines standard test helper functions for your scripts to
405 use. These functions are designed to make all scripts behave
406 consistently when command line arguments --verbose (or -v),
407 --debug (or -d), and --immediate (or -i) is given.
408
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409Do's, don'ts & things to keep in mind
410-------------------------------------
411
6fd45295 412Here are a few examples of things you probably should and shouldn't do
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413when writing tests.
414
415Do:
416
6fd45295 417 - Put all code inside test_expect_success and other assertions.
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418
419 Even code that isn't a test per se, but merely some setup code
6fd45295 420 should be inside a test assertion.
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421
422 - Chain your test assertions
423
424 Write test code like this:
425
426 git merge foo &&
427 git push bar &&
428 test ...
429
430 Instead of:
431
432 git merge hla
433 git push gh
434 test ...
435
436 That way all of the commands in your tests will succeed or fail. If
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437 you must ignore the return value of something, consider using a
438 helper function (e.g. use sane_unset instead of unset, in order
439 to avoid unportable return value for unsetting a variable that was
440 already unset), or prepending the command with test_might_fail or
441 test_must_fail.
20873f45 442
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443 - Check the test coverage for your tests. See the "Test coverage"
444 below.
445
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446 Don't blindly follow test coverage metrics; if a new function you added
447 doesn't have any coverage, then you're probably doing something wrong,
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448 but having 100% coverage doesn't necessarily mean that you tested
449 everything.
450
451 Tests that are likely to smoke out future regressions are better
452 than tests that just inflate the coverage metrics.
453
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454 - When a test checks for an absolute path that a git command generated,
455 construct the expected value using $(pwd) rather than $PWD,
456 $TEST_DIRECTORY, or $TRASH_DIRECTORY. It makes a difference on
457 Windows, where the shell (MSYS bash) mangles absolute path names.
458 For details, see the commit message of 4114156ae9.
459
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460Don't:
461
462 - exit() within a <script> part.
463
464 The harness will catch this as a programming error of the test.
465 Use test_done instead if you need to stop the tests early (see
466 "Skipping tests" below).
467
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468 - use '! git cmd' when you want to make sure the git command exits
469 with failure in a controlled way by calling "die()". Instead,
470 use 'test_must_fail git cmd'. This will signal a failure if git
471 dies in an unexpected way (e.g. segfault).
472
f445500e 473 On the other hand, don't use test_must_fail for running regular
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474 platform commands; just use '! cmd'. We are not in the business
475 of verifying that the world given to us sanely works.
f445500e 476
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477 - use perl without spelling it as "$PERL_PATH". This is to help our
478 friends on Windows where the platform Perl often adds CR before
479 the end of line, and they bundle Git with a version of Perl that
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480 does not do so, whose path is specified with $PERL_PATH. Note that we
481 provide a "perl" function which uses $PERL_PATH under the hood, so
482 you do not need to worry when simply running perl in the test scripts
483 (but you do, for example, on a shebang line or in a sub script
484 created via "write_script").
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485
486 - use sh without spelling it as "$SHELL_PATH", when the script can
487 be misinterpreted by broken platform shell (e.g. Solaris).
488
489 - chdir around in tests. It is not sufficient to chdir to
490 somewhere and then chdir back to the original location later in
491 the test, as any intermediate step can fail and abort the test,
492 causing the next test to start in an unexpected directory. Do so
493 inside a subshell if necessary.
494
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495 - save and verify the standard error of compound commands, i.e. group
496 commands, subshells, and shell functions (except test helper
497 functions like 'test_must_fail') like this:
498
499 ( cd dir && git cmd ) 2>error &&
500 test_cmp expect error
501
502 When running the test with '-x' tracing, then the trace of commands
503 executed in the compound command will be included in standard error
504 as well, quite possibly throwing off the subsequent checks examining
505 the output. Instead, save only the relevant git command's standard
506 error:
507
508 ( cd dir && git cmd 2>../error ) &&
509 test_cmp expect error
510
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511 - Break the TAP output
512
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513 The raw output from your test may be interpreted by a TAP harness. TAP
514 harnesses will ignore everything they don't know about, but don't step
515 on their toes in these areas:
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516
517 - Don't print lines like "$x..$y" where $x and $y are integers.
518
519 - Don't print lines that begin with "ok" or "not ok".
520
6fd45295 521 TAP harnesses expect a line that begins with either "ok" and "not
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522 ok" to signal a test passed or failed (and our harness already
523 produces such lines), so your script shouldn't emit such lines to
524 their output.
525
526 You can glean some further possible issues from the TAP grammar
c1d44cee 527 (see https://metacpan.org/pod/TAP::Parser::Grammar#TAP-GRAMMAR)
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528 but the best indication is to just run the tests with prove(1),
529 it'll complain if anything is amiss.
530
531Keep in mind:
532
57f82f4f 533 - Inside the <script> part, the standard output and standard error
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534 streams are discarded, and the test harness only reports "ok" or
535 "not ok" to the end user running the tests. Under --verbose, they
536 are shown to help debugging the tests.
537
538
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539Skipping tests
540--------------
541
681186ae 542If you need to skip tests you should do so by using the three-arg form
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543of the test_* functions (see the "Test harness library" section
544below), e.g.:
545
ad78585e 546 test_expect_success PERL 'I need Perl' '
a0e0ec9f 547 perl -e "hlagh() if unf_unf()"
ad78585e 548 '
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549
550The advantage of skipping tests like this is that platforms that don't
551have the PERL and other optional dependencies get an indication of how
552many tests they're missing.
553
554If the test code is too hairy for that (i.e. does a lot of setup work
555outside test assertions) you can also skip all remaining tests by
556setting skip_all and immediately call test_done:
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557
558 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
559 then
560 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
561 test_done
562 fi
14cd1ff3 563
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564The string you give to skip_all will be used as an explanation for why
565the test was skipped.
566
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567End with test_done
568------------------
569
570Your script will be a sequence of tests, using helper functions
571from the test harness library. At the end of the script, call
572'test_done'.
573
574
575Test harness library
576--------------------
577
578There are a handful helper functions defined in the test harness
579library for your script to use.
580
9a897893 581 - test_expect_success [<prereq>] <message> <script>
986aa7f1 582
72942a61 583 Usually takes two strings as parameters, and evaluates the
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584 <script>. If it yields success, test is considered
585 successful. <message> should state what it is testing.
586
587 Example:
588
589 test_expect_success \
590 'git-write-tree should be able to write an empty tree.' \
591 'tree=$(git-write-tree)'
592
9a897893 593 If you supply three parameters the first will be taken to be a
72942a61 594 prerequisite; see the test_set_prereq and test_have_prereq
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595 documentation below:
596
597 test_expect_success TTY 'git --paginate rev-list uses a pager' \
598 ' ... '
599
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600 You can also supply a comma-separated list of prerequisites, in the
601 rare case where your test depends on more than one:
602
603 test_expect_success PERL,PYTHON 'yo dawg' \
604 ' test $(perl -E 'print eval "1 +" . qx[python -c "print 2"]') == "4" '
605
9a897893 606 - test_expect_failure [<prereq>] <message> <script>
986aa7f1 607
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608 This is NOT the opposite of test_expect_success, but is used
609 to mark a test that demonstrates a known breakage. Unlike
610 the usual test_expect_success tests, which say "ok" on
611 success and "FAIL" on failure, this will say "FIXED" on
612 success and "still broken" on failure. Failures from these
613 tests won't cause -i (immediate) to stop.
986aa7f1 614
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615 Like test_expect_success this function can optionally use a three
616 argument invocation with a prerequisite as the first argument.
617
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618 - test_debug <script>
619
620 This takes a single argument, <script>, and evaluates it only
621 when the test script is started with --debug command line
622 argument. This is primarily meant for use during the
623 development of a new test script.
624
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625 - debug <git-command>
626
627 Run a git command inside a debugger. This is primarily meant for
628 use when debugging a failing test script.
629
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630 - test_done
631
632 Your test script must have test_done at the end. Its purpose
633 is to summarize successes and failures in the test script and
634 exit with an appropriate error code.
635
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636 - test_tick
637
638 Make commit and tag names consistent by setting the author and
63d32945 639 committer times to defined state. Subsequent calls will
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640 advance the times by a fixed amount.
641
642 - test_commit <message> [<filename> [<contents>]]
643
644 Creates a commit with the given message, committing the given
645 file with the given contents (default for both is to reuse the
646 message string), and adds a tag (again reusing the message
647 string as name). Calls test_tick to make the SHA-1s
648 reproducible.
649
650 - test_merge <message> <commit-or-tag>
651
652 Merges the given rev using the given message. Like test_commit,
653 creates a tag and calls test_tick before committing.
986aa7f1 654
72942a61 655 - test_set_prereq <prereq>
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656
657 Set a test prerequisite to be used later with test_have_prereq. The
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658 test-lib will set some prerequisites for you, see the
659 "Prerequisites" section below for a full list of these.
660
661 Others you can set yourself and use later with either
662 test_have_prereq directly, or the three argument invocation of
663 test_expect_success and test_expect_failure.
9a897893 664
72942a61 665 - test_have_prereq <prereq>
9a897893 666
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667 Check if we have a prerequisite previously set with test_set_prereq.
668 The most common way to use this explicitly (as opposed to the
669 implicit use when an argument is passed to test_expect_*) is to skip
670 all the tests at the start of the test script if we don't have some
671 essential prerequisite:
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672
673 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
674 then
675 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
676 test_done
677 fi
678
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679 - test_external [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
680
681 Execute a <script> with an <external> interpreter (like perl). This
682 was added for tests like t9700-perl-git.sh which do most of their
683 work in an external test script.
684
685 test_external \
686 'GitwebCache::*FileCache*' \
a0e0ec9f 687 perl "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9503/test_cache_interface.pl
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688
689 If the test is outputting its own TAP you should set the
690 test_external_has_tap variable somewhere before calling the first
691 test_external* function. See t9700-perl-git.sh for an example.
692
693 # The external test will outputs its own plan
694 test_external_has_tap=1
695
696 - test_external_without_stderr [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
697
698 Like test_external but fail if there's any output on stderr,
699 instead of checking the exit code.
700
701 test_external_without_stderr \
702 'Perl API' \
a0e0ec9f 703 perl "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9700/test.pl
2fac6a4b 704
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705 - test_expect_code <exit-code> <command>
706
707 Run a command and ensure that it exits with the given exit code.
708 For example:
709
710 test_expect_success 'Merge with d/f conflicts' '
711 test_expect_code 1 git merge "merge msg" B master
712 '
713
12e31a6b 714 - test_must_fail [<options>] <git-command>
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715
716 Run a git command and ensure it fails in a controlled way. Use
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717 this instead of "! <git-command>". When git-command dies due to a
718 segfault, test_must_fail diagnoses it as an error; "! <git-command>"
719 treats it as just another expected failure, which would let such a
720 bug go unnoticed.
c9667456 721
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722 Accepts the following options:
723
724 ok=<signal-name>[,<...>]:
725 Don't treat an exit caused by the given signal as error.
726 Multiple signals can be specified as a comma separated list.
727 Currently recognized signal names are: sigpipe, success.
728 (Don't use 'success', use 'test_might_fail' instead.)
729
730 - test_might_fail [<options>] <git-command>
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731
732 Similar to test_must_fail, but tolerate success, too. Use this
733 instead of "<git-command> || :" to catch failures due to segv.
734
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735 Accepts the same options as test_must_fail.
736
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737 - test_cmp <expected> <actual>
738
739 Check whether the content of the <actual> file matches the
740 <expected> file. This behaves like "cmp" but produces more
741 helpful output when the test is run with "-v" option.
742
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743 - test_cmp_rev <expected> <actual>
744
745 Check whether the <expected> rev points to the same commit as the
746 <actual> rev.
747
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748 - test_line_count (= | -lt | -ge | ...) <length> <file>
749
750 Check whether a file has the length it is expected to.
751
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752 - test_path_is_file <path> [<diagnosis>]
753 test_path_is_dir <path> [<diagnosis>]
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754 test_path_is_missing <path> [<diagnosis>]
755
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756 Check if the named path is a file, if the named path is a
757 directory, or if the named path does not exist, respectively,
758 and fail otherwise, showing the <diagnosis> text.
2caf20c5 759
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760 - test_when_finished <script>
761
762 Prepend <script> to a list of commands to run to clean up
763 at the end of the current test. If some clean-up command
764 fails, the test will not pass.
765
766 Example:
767
768 test_expect_success 'branch pointing to non-commit' '
769 git rev-parse HEAD^{tree} >.git/refs/heads/invalid &&
770 test_when_finished "git update-ref -d refs/heads/invalid" &&
771 ...
772 '
773
bb98b01e 774 - test_write_lines <lines>
ac9afcc3 775
bb98b01e 776 Write <lines> on standard output, one line per argument.
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777 Useful to prepare multi-line files in a compact form.
778
779 Example:
780
bb98b01e 781 test_write_lines a b c d e f g >foo
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782
783 Is a more compact equivalent of:
784 cat >foo <<-EOF
785 a
786 b
787 c
788 d
789 e
790 f
791 g
792 EOF
793
794
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795 - test_pause
796
797 This command is useful for writing and debugging tests and must be
798 removed before submitting. It halts the execution of the test and
799 spawns a shell in the trash directory. Exit the shell to continue
800 the test. Example:
801
802 test_expect_success 'test' '
803 git do-something >actual &&
804 test_pause &&
805 test_cmp expected actual
806 '
807
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808 - test_ln_s_add <path1> <path2>
809
810 This function helps systems whose filesystem does not support symbolic
811 links. Use it to add a symbolic link entry to the index when it is not
812 important that the file system entry is a symbolic link, i.e., instead
813 of the sequence
814
815 ln -s foo bar &&
816 git add bar
817
818 Sometimes it is possible to split a test in a part that does not need
819 the symbolic link in the file system and a part that does; then only
820 the latter part need be protected by a SYMLINKS prerequisite (see below).
821
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822Prerequisites
823-------------
824
825These are the prerequisites that the test library predefines with
826test_have_prereq.
827
828See the prereq argument to the test_* functions in the "Test harness
829library" section above and the "test_have_prereq" function for how to
830use these, and "test_set_prereq" for how to define your own.
831
f8fc0ee3 832 - PYTHON
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834 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PYTHON=YesPlease. Wrap any tests that
835 need Python with this.
836
837 - PERL
838
839 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PERL=YesPlease.
840
841 Even without the PERL prerequisite, tests can assume there is a
842 usable perl interpreter at $PERL_PATH, though it need not be
843 particularly modern.
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844
845 - POSIXPERM
846
847 The filesystem supports POSIX style permission bits.
848
849 - BSLASHPSPEC
850
851 Backslashes in pathspec are not directory separators. This is not
852 set on Windows. See 6fd1106a for details.
853
854 - EXECKEEPSPID
855
856 The process retains the same pid across exec(2). See fb9a2bea for
857 details.
858
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859 - PIPE
860
861 The filesystem we're on supports creation of FIFOs (named pipes)
862 via mkfifo(1).
863
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864 - SYMLINKS
865
866 The filesystem we're on supports symbolic links. E.g. a FAT
867 filesystem doesn't support these. See 704a3143 for details.
2fac6a4b 868
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869 - SANITY
870
871 Test is not run by root user, and an attempt to write to an
872 unwritable file is expected to fail correctly.
2fac6a4b 873
3eb585c1 874 - PCRE
8f852ce6 875
3eb585c1 876 Git was compiled with support for PCRE. Wrap any tests
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877 that use git-grep --perl-regexp or git-grep -P in these.
878
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879 - LIBPCRE1
880
881 Git was compiled with PCRE v1 support via
882 USE_LIBPCRE1=YesPlease. Wrap any PCRE using tests that for some
883 reason need v1 of the PCRE library instead of v2 in these.
884
885 - LIBPCRE2
886
887 Git was compiled with PCRE v2 support via
888 USE_LIBPCRE2=YesPlease. Wrap any PCRE using tests that for some
889 reason need v2 of the PCRE library instead of v1 in these.
890
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891 - CASE_INSENSITIVE_FS
892
893 Test is run on a case insensitive file system.
894
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895 - UTF8_NFD_TO_NFC
896
897 Test is run on a filesystem which converts decomposed utf-8 (nfd)
898 to precomposed utf-8 (nfc).
899
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900 - PTHREADS
901
902 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PTHREADS=YesPlease.
903
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904Tips for Writing Tests
905----------------------
906
907As with any programming projects, existing programs are the best
908source of the information. However, do _not_ emulate
909t0000-basic.sh when writing your tests. The test is special in
910that it tries to validate the very core of GIT. For example, it
911knows that there will be 256 subdirectories under .git/objects/,
912and it knows that the object ID of an empty tree is a certain
91340-byte string. This is deliberately done so in t0000-basic.sh
914because the things the very basic core test tries to achieve is
915to serve as a basis for people who are changing the GIT internal
916drastically. For these people, after making certain changes,
917not seeing failures from the basic test _is_ a failure. And
918such drastic changes to the core GIT that even changes these
919otherwise supposedly stable object IDs should be accompanied by
920an update to t0000-basic.sh.
921
922However, other tests that simply rely on basic parts of the core
923GIT working properly should not have that level of intimate
924knowledge of the core GIT internals. If all the test scripts
925hardcoded the object IDs like t0000-basic.sh does, that defeats
926the purpose of t0000-basic.sh, which is to isolate that level of
927validation in one place. Your test also ends up needing
928updating when such a change to the internal happens, so do _not_
929do it and leave the low level of validation to t0000-basic.sh.
d15e9ebc 930
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931Test coverage
932-------------
933
934You can use the coverage tests to find code paths that are not being
935used or properly exercised yet.
936
937To do that, run the coverage target at the top-level (not in the t/
938directory):
939
940 make coverage
941
942That'll compile Git with GCC's coverage arguments, and generate a test
943report with gcov after the tests finish. Running the coverage tests
944can take a while, since running the tests in parallel is incompatible
945with GCC's coverage mode.
946
947After the tests have run you can generate a list of untested
948functions:
949
950 make coverage-untested-functions
951
952You can also generate a detailed per-file HTML report using the
953Devel::Cover module. To install it do:
954
955 # On Debian or Ubuntu:
956 sudo aptitude install libdevel-cover-perl
957
958 # From the CPAN with cpanminus
959 curl -L http://cpanmin.us | perl - --sudo --self-upgrade
960 cpanm --sudo Devel::Cover
961
962Then, at the top-level:
963
964 make cover_db_html
965
966That'll generate a detailed cover report in the "cover_db_html"
967directory, which you can then copy to a webserver, or inspect locally
968in a browser.