Documentation: update URL for formatted pages
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
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12'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
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25link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
26"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
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27also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
28the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
a1dc34fa 29introduction.
cb22bc44 30
62b4698e 31The '<command>' is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
5162e697 32as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
4514ad4f 33
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34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
35documentation can be viewed at
c70c09b6 36`http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 37
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38ifdef::stalenotes[]
39[NOTE]
40============
26cfcfbf 41
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42You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
44branch of the `git.git` repository.
45Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 46
785ee496 47* link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
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48
49* release notes for
785ee496 50 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
121f71f0 51 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
6a6d72b1 52 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
b6555d73 53 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
bf505158 54 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
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55 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
56
d0f1ea60 57* link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
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58
59* release notes for
d0f1ea60 60 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
cb2ed324 61 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
8ced9c90 62 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
a4603481 63 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
69f4e08f 64 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
78f4c9f6 65 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
90020e3b 66 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
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67 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
68
d9f5ef7a 69* link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
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70
71* release notes for
d9f5ef7a 72 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
cb2ed324 73 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
c572f491 74 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
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75 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
76 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
77 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
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78 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
79
82588584 80* link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
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81
82* release notes for
82588584 83 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
c572f491 84 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
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85 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
86 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
87 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
88 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
f7d958df 89 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
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90 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
91
f174a258 92* link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
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93
94* release notes for
f174a258 95 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
15b7898c 96 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
63205264 97 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
740a8fc2 98 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
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99 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
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101 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
102
e5af0de2 103* link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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104
105* release notes for
e5af0de2 106 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
3c3e0b3c 107 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
3d5ae435 108 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
2f312e88 109 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
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110 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
111
6ceb270c 112* link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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113
114* release notes for
6ceb270c 115 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
6be05591 116 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
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117 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
118 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
9971d6d5 119 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
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120 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
121
685e9d91 122* link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
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123
124* release notes for
685e9d91 125 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
15368e18 126 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
ed94cc76 127 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
8a904385 128 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
92c1e717 129 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
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130 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
131
1b974346 132* link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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133
134* release notes for
1b974346 135 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
ed94cc76 136 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
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137 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
138 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
64fdc08d 141
1b974346 142* link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
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143
144* release notes for
1b974346 145 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
ed94cc76 146 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
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147 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
148 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
149 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
d599e048 150
1b974346 151* link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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152
153* release notes for
1b974346 154 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
ed94cc76 155 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
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156 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
157 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
158 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
159 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
160 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
e923eaeb 164
1b974346 165* link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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166
167* release notes for
1b974346 168 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
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169 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
170 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
171 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
902f2353 172
1b974346 173* link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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174
175* release notes for
1b974346 176 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
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177 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
178 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
179 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
180 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
181 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
182 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
183 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
184 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
185 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
78d553b7 186
1b974346 187* link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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188
189* release notes for
1b974346 190 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
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191 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
192 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
193 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
194 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
195 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
0a53e9dd 196
441b40d8 197* link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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198
199* release notes for
761e742d
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200 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
201 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
202 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
203 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
204 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
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205
206* release notes for
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207 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
208 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
211 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
212 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
a95148de 213
621f1b4b 214* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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215
216* release notes for
761e742d
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217 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
218 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
219 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
220 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
8104ebfe 221
efe05b01 222* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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223
224* release notes for
761e742d
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225 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
226 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
227 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
228 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
229 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
230 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
231 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 232
efe05b01 233* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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234
235* release notes for
761e742d
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236 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
237 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
238 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
239 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
240 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
241 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
242 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 243
efe05b01 244* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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245
246* release notes for
761e742d
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247 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
248 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
249 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
250 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
251 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
252 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
253 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 254
efe05b01 255* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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256
257* release notes for
761e742d
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258 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
259 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
260 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
261 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
262 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
263 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
264 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
265 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 266
e708af6e 267* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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268
269* release notes for
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270 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
271 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
272 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
273 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
274 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
275 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
276 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
277 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 279
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280* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
281
aba170cd 282* release notes for
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283 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
284 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
285 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
287 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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289
290* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
291
292* release notes for
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293 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
294 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
295 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
296 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
297 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
298 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
299 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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300
301* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
302
aba170cd 303* release notes for
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304 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
305 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
306 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
307 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
308 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
309 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
310 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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311
312* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
313 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
314 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
315 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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316
317============
318
319endif::stalenotes[]
320
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321OPTIONS
322-------
323--version::
a87cd02c 324 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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325
326--help::
a87cd02c 327 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
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328 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
329 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
330 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
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331+
332Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 333displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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334because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
335help ...`.
cb22bc44 336
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337-c <name>=<value>::
338 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
339 given will override values from configuration files.
340 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
341 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
342
62b4698e 343--exec-path[=<path>]::
a87cd02c 344 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 345 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 346 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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347 the current setting and then exit.
348
89a56bfb 349--html-path::
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350 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
351 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 352
f2dd8c37 353--man-path::
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354 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
355 this version of git and exit.
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356
357--info-path::
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358 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
359 version of git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 360
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361-p::
362--paginate::
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363 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
364 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
365 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
366 below).
6acbcb92 367
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368--no-pager::
369 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
370
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371--git-dir=<path>::
372 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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373 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
374 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 375
892c41b9 376--work-tree=<path>::
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377 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
378 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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379 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
380 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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381 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
382 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 383
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384--namespace=<path>::
385 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
386 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
387 variable.
388
6acbcb92 389--bare::
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390 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
391 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
392 directory.
393
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394--no-replace-objects::
395 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
396 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
397
9755afbd 398
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399FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
400---------------------
9755afbd 401
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402See the references above to get started using git. The following is
403probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 404
40dac517 405The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 406user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
40dac517 407introductions to the underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 408
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409See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
410
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411See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
412examples.
9755afbd 413
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414The internals are documented in the
415link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
530e741c 416
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417GIT COMMANDS
418------------
9755afbd 419
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420We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
421("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 422
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423High-level commands (porcelain)
424-------------------------------
425
426We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
427ancillary user utilities.
428
429Main porcelain commands
430~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 431
377e8139 432include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 433
90933efb 434Ancillary Commands
23091e95 435~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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436Manipulators:
437
377e8139 438include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 439
90933efb 440Interrogators:
204ee6a9 441
377e8139 442include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 443
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444
445Interacting with Others
446~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
447
448These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
449people via patch over e-mail.
450
451include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
452
453
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454Low-level commands (plumbing)
455-----------------------------
456
457Although git includes its
458own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
459development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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460might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
461linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 462
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463The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
464to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
465than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
466primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
467on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
468end user experience.
469
470The following description divides
471the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
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472the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
473compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
474repositories.
475
89bf2077 476
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477Manipulation commands
478~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 479
377e8139 480include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
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481
482
483Interrogation commands
484~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
485
377e8139 486include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
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487
488In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
489the working tree.
490
491
492Synching repositories
493~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
494
377e8139 495include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 496
57f6ec02 497The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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498typically do not use them directly.
499
500include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
501
502
503Internal helper commands
504~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
505
506These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
507users typically do not use them directly.
508
509include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
510
b1f33d62 511
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512Configuration Mechanism
513-----------------------
514
2fa090b6 515Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 516is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 517simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
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518people. Here is an example:
519
520------------
521#
2fa090b6 522# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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523#
524
525; core variables
526[core]
527 ; Don't trust file modes
528 filemode = false
529
530; user identity
531[user]
532 name = "Junio C Hamano"
533 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
534
535------------
536
537Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
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538their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
539list.
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540
541
6c84e2e0 542Identifier Terminology
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543----------------------
544<object>::
2fa090b6 545 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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546
547<blob>::
2fa090b6 548 Indicates a blob object name.
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549
550<tree>::
2fa090b6 551 Indicates a tree object name.
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552
553<commit>::
2fa090b6 554 Indicates a commit object name.
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555
556<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 557 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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558 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
559 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
560 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 561
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562<commit-ish>::
563 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
564 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
565 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
566 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
567
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568<type>::
569 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 570 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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571
572<file>::
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573 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
574 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 575
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576Symbolic Identifiers
577--------------------
90933efb 578Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 579symbolic notation:
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580
581HEAD::
0abcfbff 582 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 583
c1bdacf9 584<tag>::
2fa090b6 585 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 586 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 587
c1bdacf9 588<head>::
2fa090b6 589 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 590 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 591
d47107d8 592For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 593"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 594
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595
596File/Directory Structure
597------------------------
c1bdacf9 598
6998e4db 599Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 600
6998e4db 601Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 602
c1bdacf9 603Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 604`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 605
a1d4aa74 606
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607Terminology
608-----------
6998e4db 609Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
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610
611
612Environment Variables
613---------------------
614Various git commands use the following environment variables:
615
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616The git Repository
617~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
618These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
619is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 620git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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621
622'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
623 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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624 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
625 is used.
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626
627'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
628 If the object storage directory is specified via this
629 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
630 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
631 directory is used.
632
633'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
634 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
635 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
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636 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
637 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
638 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
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639
640'GIT_DIR'::
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641 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
642 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
643 for the base of the repository.
c1bdacf9 644
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645'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
646 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
647 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
648 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
649 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
650 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
651
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652'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
653 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
654 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
655
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656'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
657 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
658 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
659 up into while looking for a repository directory.
660 It will not exclude the current working directory or
661 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
662 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
663
cf87463e 664'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
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665 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
666 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
667 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
668 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
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669 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
670 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
671 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
672 command line.
8030e442 673
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674git Commits
675~~~~~~~~~~~
676'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
677'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
678'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
679'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
680'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 681'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 682'EMAIL'::
5162e697 683 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
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684
685git Diffs
686~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 687'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
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688 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
689 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
690 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
691 value passed on the git diff command line.
692
d81ed1b5 693'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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694 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
695 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
696 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
697 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
698
699 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
700+
701where:
702
703 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
704 contents of <old|new>,
705 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
706 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
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707+
708The file parameters can point at the user's working file
709(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
710when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
711index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
712temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
713+
714For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
715parameter, <path>.
2cf565c5 716
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717other
718~~~~~
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719'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
720 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
721 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 722 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 723
c27d205a 724'GIT_PAGER'::
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725 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
726 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
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727 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
728 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 729
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730'GIT_EDITOR'::
731 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
732 It is used by several git comands when, on interactive mode,
733 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
734 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
735
d5538b41 736'GIT_SSH'::
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737 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
738 and 'git push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 739 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
483bc4f0 740 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
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741 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
742 shell command to execute on that remote system.
743+
744To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
745you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
746then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
747+
748Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
749personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
750for further details.
751
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752'GIT_ASKPASS'::
753 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
754 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
755 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
756 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
757 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
758
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759'GIT_FLUSH'::
760 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
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761 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
762 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
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763 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
764 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
765 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
766 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
767 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
768
575ba9d6 769'GIT_TRACE'::
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770 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
771 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
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772 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
773 execution and external command execution.
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774 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
775 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
776 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
777 trace messages into this file descriptor.
778 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
779 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
780 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
781 into it.
575ba9d6 782
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783Discussion[[Discussion]]
784------------------------
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785
786More detail on the following is available from the
787link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 788user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
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789
790A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
791subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
792things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
793of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
794contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
795as tags and branch heads.
796
797The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
798hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 799directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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800and some number of parent commits.
801
802The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
803"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
804represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
805parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
806
807All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
808written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
809The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
810just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
811purpose.
812
813When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
814efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
815
816Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
817may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
818with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
02ff6250 819recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
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820tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
821`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
822
823The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
824path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
825the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
826attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
827corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
828working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
829be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
830content stored in the index.
831
832The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
833for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
834unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 835
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836Authors
837-------
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838Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
839C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
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840<git@vger.kernel.org>. For a more complete list of contributors, see
841http://git-scm.com/about. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
842output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
843the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 844
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845Reporting Bugs
846--------------
847
848Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
849development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
850subscribed to the list to send a message there.
851
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852SEE ALSO
853--------
854linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
5cbef01a 855link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 856linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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857linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
858linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 859
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860GIT
861---
9e1f0a85 862Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite