worktree: add can be created from any commit-ish
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-worktree.txt
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1git-worktree(1)
2===============
3
4NAME
5----
bc483285 6git-worktree - Manage multiple working trees
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
11[verse]
c4738aed 12'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [--lock] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<commit-ish>]
bb9c03b8 13'git worktree list' [--porcelain]
58142c09 14'git worktree lock' [--reason <string>] <worktree>
7b722d90 15'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
6d308627 16'git worktree unlock' <worktree>
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
20
bc483285 21Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.
df0b6cfb 22
93a36493 23A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to check
4d5a3c58 24out more than one branch at a time. With `git worktree add` a new working
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25tree is associated with the repository. This new working tree is called a
26"linked working tree" as opposed to the "main working tree" prepared by "git
27init" or "git clone". A repository has one main working tree (if it's not a
28bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees.
29
93a36493 30When you are done with a linked working tree you can simply delete it.
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31The working tree's administrative files in the repository (see
32"DETAILS" below) will eventually be removed automatically (see
5f5f553f 33`gc.worktreePruneExpire` in linkgit:git-config[1]), or you can run
93a36493 34`git worktree prune` in the main or any linked working tree to
af189b4c 35clean up any stale administrative files.
93a36493 36
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37If you move a linked working tree, you need to manually update the
38administrative files so that they do not get pruned automatically. See
39section "DETAILS" for more information.
93a36493 40
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41If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share
42which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from
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43being pruned by issuing the `git worktree lock` command, optionally
44specifying `--reason` to explain why the working tree is locked.
93a36493 45
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46COMMANDS
47--------
c4738aed 48add <path> [<commit-ish>]::
fc56361f 49
c4738aed 50Create `<path>` and checkout `<commit-ish>` into it. The new working directory
fc56361f 51is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working
1a450e2f 52directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc. `-` may also be
c4738aed 53specified as `<commit-ish>`; it is synonymous with `@{-1}`.
1eb07d82 54+
c4738aed 55If `<commit-ish>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` used,
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56then, as a convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically,
57as if `-b $(basename <path>)` was specified.
fc56361f 58
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59list::
60
61List details of each worktree. The main worktree is listed first, followed by
62each of the linked worktrees. The output details include if the worktree is
63bare, the revision currently checked out, and the branch currently checked out
64(or 'detached HEAD' if none).
65
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66lock::
67
68If a working tree is on a portable device or network share which
69is not always mounted, lock it to prevent its administrative
70files from being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from
71being moved or deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock
72with `--reason`.
73
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74prune::
75
76Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.
77
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78unlock::
79
80Unlock a working tree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.
81
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82OPTIONS
83-------
84
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85-f::
86--force::
c4738aed 87 By default, `add` refuses to create a new working tree when `<commit-ish>` is a branch name and
bc483285 88 is already checked out by another working tree. This option overrides
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89 that safeguard.
90
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91-b <new-branch>::
92-B <new-branch>::
93 With `add`, create a new branch named `<new-branch>` starting at
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94 `<commit-ish>`, and check out `<new-branch>` into the new working tree.
95 If `<commit-ish>` is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
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96 By default, `-b` refuses to create a new branch if it already
97 exists. `-B` overrides this safeguard, resetting `<new-branch>` to
c4738aed 98 `<commit-ish>`.
cbdf60fa 99
39ecb274 100--detach::
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101 With `add`, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD"
102 in linkgit:git-checkout[1].
39ecb274 103
ef2a0ac9 104--[no-]checkout::
c4738aed 105 By default, `add` checks out `<commit-ish>`, however, `--no-checkout` can
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106 be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations,
107 such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout"
108 in linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
109
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110--lock::
111 Keep the working tree locked after creation. This is the
112 equivalent of `git worktree lock` after `git worktree add`,
113 but without race condition.
114
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115-n::
116--dry-run::
4f09825e 117 With `prune`, do not remove anything; just report what it would
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118 remove.
119
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120--porcelain::
121 With `list`, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts.
122 This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user
123 configuration. See below for details.
124
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125-v::
126--verbose::
4f09825e 127 With `prune`, report all removals.
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128
129--expire <time>::
bc483285 130 With `prune`, only expire unused working trees older than <time>.
df0b6cfb 131
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132--reason <string>::
133 With `lock`, an explanation why the working tree is locked.
134
135<worktree>::
136 Working trees can be identified by path, either relative or
137 absolute.
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138+
139If the last path components in the working tree's path is unique among
140working trees, it can be used to identify worktrees. For example if
2b090822 141you only have two working trees, at "/abc/def/ghi" and "/abc/def/ggg",
080739ba 142then "ghi" or "def/ghi" is enough to point to the former working tree.
58142c09 143
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144DETAILS
145-------
146Each linked working tree has a private sub-directory in the repository's
147$GIT_DIR/worktrees directory. The private sub-directory's name is usually
148the base name of the linked working tree's path, possibly appended with a
149number to make it unique. For example, when `$GIT_DIR=/path/main/.git` the
4d5a3c58 150command `git worktree add /path/other/test-next next` creates the linked
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151working tree in `/path/other/test-next` and also creates a
152`$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next` directory (or `$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next1`
153if `test-next` is already taken).
154
155Within a linked working tree, $GIT_DIR is set to point to this private
156directory (e.g. `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` in the example) and
157$GIT_COMMON_DIR is set to point back to the main working tree's $GIT_DIR
158(e.g. `/path/main/.git`). These settings are made in a `.git` file located at
159the top directory of the linked working tree.
160
161Path resolution via `git rev-parse --git-path` uses either
162$GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR depending on the path. For example, in the
163linked working tree `git rev-parse --git-path HEAD` returns
164`/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/HEAD` (not
165`/path/other/test-next/.git/HEAD` or `/path/main/.git/HEAD`) while `git
166rev-parse --git-path refs/heads/master` uses
167$GIT_COMMON_DIR and returns `/path/main/.git/refs/heads/master`,
168since refs are shared across all working trees.
169
170See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for more information. The rule of
171thumb is do not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to
172$GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something
173inside $GIT_DIR. Use `git rev-parse --git-path` to get the final path.
174
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175If you move a linked working tree, you need to update the 'gitdir' file
176in the entry's directory. For example, if a linked working tree is moved
177to `/newpath/test-next` and its `.git` file points to
178`/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next`, then update
179`/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/gitdir` to reference `/newpath/test-next`
180instead.
181
65f9b75d 182To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which
a8ba5dd7 183can be useful in some situations, such as when the
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184entry's working tree is stored on a portable device), use the
185`git worktree lock` command, which adds a file named
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186'locked' to the entry's directory. The file contains the reason in
187plain text. For example, if a linked working tree's `.git` file points
188to `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` then a file named
189`/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/locked` will prevent the
190`test-next` entry from being pruned. See
191linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for details.
192
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193LIST OUTPUT FORMAT
194------------------
195The worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the
196details on a single line with columns. For example:
197
198------------
199S git worktree list
200/path/to/bare-source (bare)
201/path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master]
202/path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
203------------
204
205Porcelain Format
206~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
207The porcelain format has a line per attribute. Attributes are listed with a
208label and value separated by a single space. Boolean attributes (like 'bare'
209and 'detached') are listed as a label only, and are only present if and only
210if the value is true. An empty line indicates the end of a worktree. For
211example:
212
213------------
214S git worktree list --porcelain
215worktree /path/to/bare-source
216bare
217
218worktree /path/to/linked-worktree
219HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234
220branch refs/heads/master
221
222worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree
223HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a
224detached
225
226------------
227
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228EXAMPLES
229--------
230You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and
231demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use
232linkgit:git-stash[1] to store your changes away temporarily, however, your
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233working tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed
234files, and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don't want to risk
235disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked working tree to
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236make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier
237refactoring session.
238
239------------
cbdf60fa 240$ git worktree add -b emergency-fix ../temp master
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241$ pushd ../temp
242# ... hack hack hack ...
243$ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss'
244$ popd
245$ rm -rf ../temp
246$ git worktree prune
247------------
248
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249BUGS
250----
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251Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support
252for submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple
253checkouts of a superproject.
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254
255git-worktree could provide more automation for tasks currently
fc56361f 256performed manually, such as:
6d3824cf 257
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258- `remove` to remove a linked working tree and its administrative files (and
259 warn if the working tree is dirty)
260- `mv` to move or rename a working tree and update its administrative files
6d3824cf 261
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262GIT
263---
264Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite