git-commit.txt: Add missing long/short options
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-checkout.txt
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1git-checkout(1)
2===============
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3
4NAME
5----
76ce9462 6git-checkout - Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree
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7
8SYNOPSIS
9--------
71bb1033 10[verse]
81178fe4 11'git-checkout' [-q] [-f] [[--track | --no-track] -b <new_branch> [-l]] [-m] [<branch>]
84a978f1 12'git-checkout' [<tree-ish>] <paths>...
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13
14DESCRIPTION
15-----------
4aaa7027 16
71bb1033 17When <paths> are not given, this command switches branches by
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18updating the index and working tree to reflect the specified
19branch, <branch>, and updating HEAD to be <branch> or, if
71bb1033 20specified, <new_branch>. Using -b will cause <new_branch> to
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21be created; in this case you can use the --track or --no-track
22options, which will be passed to `git branch`.
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23
24When <paths> are given, this command does *not* switch
25branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree from
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26the index file (i.e. it runs `git-checkout-index -f -u`), or
27from a named commit. In
28this case, the `-f` and `-b` options are meaningless and giving
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29either of them results in an error. <tree-ish> argument can be
30used to specify a specific tree-ish (i.e. commit, tag or tree)
31to update the index for the given paths before updating the
32working tree.
4aaa7027 33
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34
35OPTIONS
36-------
6124aee5 37-q::
2be7fcb4 38 Quiet, suppress feedback messages.
6124aee5 39
0270f7c5 40-f::
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41 Proceed even if the index or the working tree differs
42 from HEAD. This is used to throw away local changes.
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43
44-b::
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45 Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
46 <branch>. The new branch name must pass all checks defined
5162e697 47 by linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
2b1f4247 48 may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
7fc9d69f 49
498a6e7e 50-t, --track::
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51 When creating a new branch, set up configuration so that git-pull
52 will automatically retrieve data from the start point, which must be
53 a branch. Use this if you always pull from the same upstream branch
54 into the new branch, and if you don't want to use "git pull
55 <repository> <refspec>" explicitly. This behavior is the default
56 when the start point is a remote branch. Set the
57 branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable to `false` if you want
58 git-checkout and git-branch to always behave as if '--no-track' were
59 given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
60 start-point is either a local or remote branch.
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61
62--no-track::
572fc81d 63 Ignore the branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable.
0746d19a 64
969d326d 65-l::
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66 Create the new branch's reflog. This activates recording of
67 all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
967506bb 68 based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
969d326d 69
1be0659e 70-m::
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71 If you have local modifications to one or more files that
72 are different between the current branch and the branch to
73 which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
74 branches in order to preserve your modifications in context.
75 However, with this option, a three-way merge between the current
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76 branch, your working tree contents, and the new branch
77 is done, and you will be on the new branch.
78+
79When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting
80paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts
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81and mark the resolved paths with `git add` (or `git rm` if the merge
82should result in deletion of the path).
1be0659e 83
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84<new_branch>::
85 Name for the new branch.
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87<branch>::
88 Branch to checkout; may be any object ID that resolves to a
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89 commit. Defaults to HEAD.
90+
91When this parameter names a non-branch (but still a valid commit object),
92your HEAD becomes 'detached'.
93
94
95Detached HEAD
96-------------
97
98It is sometimes useful to be able to 'checkout' a commit that is
99not at the tip of one of your branches. The most obvious
100example is to check out the commit at a tagged official release
101point, like this:
102
103------------
104$ git checkout v2.6.18
105------------
106
107Earlier versions of git did not allow this and asked you to
108create a temporary branch using `-b` option, but starting from
109version 1.5.0, the above command 'detaches' your HEAD from the
110current branch and directly point at the commit named by the tag
111(`v2.6.18` in the above example).
112
113You can use usual git commands while in this state. You can use
114`git-reset --hard $othercommit` to further move around, for
115example. You can make changes and create a new commit on top of
116a detached HEAD. You can even create a merge by using `git
117merge $othercommit`.
118
119The state you are in while your HEAD is detached is not recorded
120by any branch (which is natural --- you are not on any branch).
121What this means is that you can discard your temporary commits
122and merges by switching back to an existing branch (e.g. `git
123checkout master`), and a later `git prune` or `git gc` would
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124garbage-collect them. If you did this by mistake, you can ask
125the reflog for HEAD where you were, e.g.
126
127------------
128$ git log -g -2 HEAD
129------------
7fc9d69f 130
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132EXAMPLES
133--------
4aaa7027 134
1be0659e 135. The following sequence checks out the `master` branch, reverts
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136the `Makefile` to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by
137mistake, and gets it back from the index.
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4aaa7027 139------------
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140$ git checkout master <1>
141$ git checkout master~2 Makefile <2>
4aaa7027 142$ rm -f hello.c
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143$ git checkout hello.c <3>
144------------
145+
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146<1> switch branch
147<2> take out a file out of other commit
48aeecdc 148<3> restore hello.c from HEAD of current branch
1be0659e 149+
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150If you have an unfortunate branch that is named `hello.c`, this
151step would be confused as an instruction to switch to that branch.
152You should instead write:
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154------------
155$ git checkout -- hello.c
156------------
157
1be0659e 158. After working in a wrong branch, switching to the correct
71bb1033 159branch would be done using:
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160+
161------------
162$ git checkout mytopic
163------------
164+
165However, your "wrong" branch and correct "mytopic" branch may
166differ in files that you have locally modified, in which case,
167the above checkout would fail like this:
168+
169------------
170$ git checkout mytopic
171fatal: Entry 'frotz' not uptodate. Cannot merge.
172------------
173+
174You can give the `-m` flag to the command, which would try a
175three-way merge:
176+
177------------
178$ git checkout -m mytopic
179Auto-merging frotz
180------------
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182After this three-way merge, the local modifications are _not_
183registered in your index file, so `git diff` would show you what
184changes you made since the tip of the new branch.
185
186. When a merge conflict happens during switching branches with
187the `-m` option, you would see something like this:
188+
189------------
190$ git checkout -m mytopic
191Auto-merging frotz
192merge: warning: conflicts during merge
193ERROR: Merge conflict in frotz
194fatal: merge program failed
195------------
196+
197At this point, `git diff` shows the changes cleanly merged as in
198the previous example, as well as the changes in the conflicted
199files. Edit and resolve the conflict and mark it resolved with
d7f078b8 200`git add` as usual:
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201+
202------------
203$ edit frotz
d7f078b8 204$ git add frotz
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205------------
206
4aaa7027 207
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208Author
209------
210Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
211
212Documentation
213--------------
214Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
215
216GIT
217---
9e1f0a85 218Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite